25 April 2007
Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which models delay faults caused by the combination of spot defects and parametric process variation. According to the new model, a realistic delay fault coverage metric has been developed. Traditional path delay fault coverage metrics result in unrealistically low fault coverage, and the real test quality is not reflected. The new metric uses a statistical approach and the simulation based fault coverage is consistent with silicon data. Fast simulation algorithms are also included in this dissertation. The new metric suggests that testing the K longest paths per gate (KLPG) has high detection probability for small delay faults under process variation. In this dissertation, a novel automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) methodology to find the K longest testable paths through each gate for both combinational and sequential circuits is presented. Many techniques are used to reduce search space and CPU time significantly. Experimental results show that this methodology is efficient and able to handle circuits with an exponential number of paths, such as ISCAS85 benchmark circuit c6288. The ATPG methodology has been implemented on industrial designs. Speed binning has been done on many devices and silicon data has shown significant benefit of the KLPG test, compared to several traditional delay test approaches.
03 August 2004
With ever shrinking geometries, growing metal density and increasing clock rate on chips, delay testing is becoming a necessity in industry to maintain test quality for speed-related failures. The purpose of delay testing is to verify that the circuit operates correctly at the rated speed. However, functional tests for delay defects are usually unacceptable for large scale designs due to the prohibitive cost of functional test patterns and the difficulty in achieving very high fault coverage. Scan-based delay testing, which could ensure a high delay fault coverage at reasonable development cost, provides a good alternative to the at-speed functional test. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in scan-based delay testing and develops efficient Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) and Design-for-testability (DFT) algorithms for delay testing. In the dissertation, two algorithms are first proposed for computing and applying transition test patterns using stuck-at test vectors, thus avoiding the need for a transition fault test generator. The experimental results show that we can improve both test data volume and test application time by 46.5% over a commercial transition ATPG tool. Secondly, we propose a hybrid scan-based delay testing technique for compact and high fault coverage test set, which combines the advantages of both the skewed-load and broadside test application methods. On an average, about 4.5% improvement in fault coverage is obtained by the hybrid approach over the broad-side approach, with very little hardware overhead. Thirdly, we propose and develop a constrained ATPG algorithm for scan-based delay testing, which addresses the overtesting problem due to the possible detection of functionally untestable faults in scan-based testing. The experimental results show that our method efficiently generates a test set for functionally testable transition faults and reduces the yield loss due to overtesting of functionally untestable transition faults. Finally, a new approach on identifying functionally untestable transition faults in non-scan sequential circuits is presented. We formulate a new dominance relationship for transition faults and use it to help identify more untestable transition faults on top of a fault-independent method based on static implications. The experimental results for ISCAS89 sequential benchmark circuits show that our approach can identify many more functionally untestable transition faults than previously reported. / Ph. D.
24 April 2006
The increasing complexity of VLSI designs, in recent years, poses serious challenges while ensuring the correctness of large designs for functionality and timing. In this dissertation, we target two related problems in Design Verification and Testing: Unbounded Model Checking and Path Delay Fault Testing, that commonly suffer from extremely large memory requirements. We propose efficient representations and intelligent learning techniques that reason on the problem structure and take advantage of the repeated search space, thereby alleviating the memory required and time taken to solve these problems. In this dissertation, we exploit Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) for Unbounded Model Checking (UMC). In order to perform unbounded model checking, we need the core image / preimage computation engines that perform forward / backward reachability analysis. First, we develop an ATPG engine, with search-space aware learning, that computes ``all solutions" for a given target objective and stores it as a decision diagram. We propose efficient decision selection heuristics and derive a suitable cut-set metric to quickly obtain a compact solution set. The solution set that is obtained, with the initial state set as the objective, represents the one-cycle preimage. In order to use the preimage state set as the objective in the subsequent iterations, we propose efficient techniques to convert a decision diagram into clauses/circuit. We propose a node-based conversion scheme that derives the functionality of each node in the decision diagram. The proposed scheme contains the size of the state set and helps to iteratively compute the preimage for many cycles until a fixed point / desired state is reached. Further, we gear the ATPG engine to directly compute the circuit cofactors, rather than individual solutions. The circuit cofactors contain a large number of solutions and hence capture a larger solution space. We also propose efficient learning techniques to prune the cofactor space and accelerate preimage computation. Then, we develop an exclusive image computation procedure that branches on the combinational inputs of the circuit and projects the values on the next state flip-flops as the image. We perform learning on the input solution space and incrementally store the image obtained as a decision diagram. We consistently show, with our experimental results, that our techniques are better than the existing techniques in terms of both performance and capacity. In the case of delay testing, we consider the test generation for path delay fault (PDF) model, which is the most accurate in characterizing the cumulative effect of distributed delays along each path in a circuit. The main bottle-neck in the ATPG for PDFs is the exponential number of paths in a circuit. In this work, we use the circuit information to analyze the common segments shared by different paths in a circuit. Based on the common sensitization constraints, we propose to identify the ``untestable core of segments" that cannot be sensitized together. We use these segments to identify the conflict search space for a huge number of untestable path delay faults apriori and prune them on-the-fly during test generation. Experimental results show that a huge number of untestable path delay faults are identified and it helps to accelerate test generation. / Ph. D.
27 February 2004
Path selection and generating tests for small delay faults is an important issue in the delay fault area. A novel technique for generating effective vectors for delay defects is the first issue that we have presented in the thesis. The test set achieves high path delay fault coverage to capture small-distributed delay defects and high transition fault coverage to capture gross delay defects. Furthermore, non-robust paths for ATPG are filtered (selected) carefully so that there is a minimum overlap with the already tested robust paths. A relationship between path delay fault model and transition fault model has been observed which helps us reduce the number of non-robust paths considered for test generation. To generate tests for robust and non-robust paths, a deterministic ATPG engine is developed. To deal with small delay faults, we have proposed a new transition fault model called As late As Possible Transition Fault (ALAPTF) Model. The model aims at detecting smaller delays, which will be missed by both the traditional transition fault model and the path delay model. The model makes sure that each transition is launched as late as possible at the fault site, accumulating the small delay defects along its way. Because some transition faults may require multiple paths to be launched, simple path-delay model will miss such faults. The algorithm proposed also detects robust and non-robust paths along with the transition faults and the execution time is linear to the circuit size. Results on ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits shows that for all the cases, the new model is capable of detecting smaller gate delays and produces better results in case of process variations. Results also show that the filtered non-robust path set can be reduced to 40% smaller than the conventional path set without losing delay defect coverage. / Master of Science
Tayade, Rajeshwary G.
19 October 2009
Delay variability poses a formidable challenge in both design and test of nanometer circuits. While process parameter variability is increasing with technology scaling, as circuits are becoming more complex, the dynamic or vector dependent variability is also increasing steadily. In this research, we develop solutions to incorporate the effect of delay variability in delay testing. We focus on two different applications of delay testing. In the first case, delay testing is used for testing the timing performance of a circuit using path based fault models. We show that if dynamic delay variability is not accounted for during the path selection phase, then it can result in targeting a wrong set of paths for test. We have developed efficient techniques to model the effect of two different dynamic effects namely multiple-input switching noise and coupling noise. The basic strategy to incorporate the effect of dynamic delay variability is to estimate the maximum vector delay of a path without being too pessimistic. In the second case, the objective was to increase the defect coverage of reliability defects in the presence of process variations. Such defects cause very small delay changes and hence can easily escape regular tests. We develop a circuit that facilitates accurate control over the capture edge and thus enable faster than at-speed testing. We further develop an efficient path selection algorithm that can select a path that detects the smallest detectable defect at any node in the presence of process variations. / text
01 December 2015
It is shown that the path delay fault (PDF) model may not be very effective in guiding post silicon debug. It is also shown that the multiple transition fault (MTF) model allows for significant reduction of the initial suspect set. However the number of faults is much higher than the number of PDFs. A Monte Carlo approach is presented that uses multiple transition faults with appropriately assigned weights to identify defective embedded segments. It is experimentally verified that the approach guides diagnosis more efficiently than the path delay fault model. Fault-implicit algorithms are presented to cope with fault-related scalability challenges. Our results in ISCAS '89, ISCAS'85, ITC '99 benchmarks show a huge reduction in the suspect set using the proposed fault model and algorithms. It is shown that the proposed method guides effectively fault diagnosis.
02 June 2015
No description available.
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