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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Design of medium pressure nozzles for cooling towers

Thacker, John Edward 05 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 1997. / One copy microfiche. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This project concerns the investigation of parameters controlling the behaviour of full-cone spray nozzles of the type used in cooling towers. In the present study large medium pressure hollow and full cone nozzles were investigated. A literature survey provided insight into the relationships between the nozzle dimensions and their spray characteristics, while equations found in the literature were used to correlate the experimental data. It was found that the spray cone angle of hollow cone nozzles could be manipulated by using rounded orifice outlets and this finding lead to the development of a uniquely profiled outlet that actually produces a square spray pattern. More experimental work was done to determine the relationship between the central jet of a full-cone nozzle and the other major nozzle dimensions. These results were then correlated and formulated into a set of guidelines for designing full-cone nozzles. / Digitized at 300 dpi Colour PDF format (OCR), using ,KODAK i 1220 PLUS scanner. Digitised, Ricardo Davids on request from Corinna 01 October 2014 / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie projek behels 'n studie van belangrike parameters in volkegel sproeimondstukke soos gebruik in koeltorings. In die huidige studie word groot mediumdruk holkegel en volkegel sproeimondstukke ondersoek. 'n Literatuurstudie het die nodige insig verskaf omtrent die verwantskap tussen mondstuk dimensies en hul spuitkarakteristieke, terwyl vergelykings uit die literatuur gebruik is om die eksperimentele data te korreleer. Dit was gevind dat die sproeir kegelhoek van die holkegelmondstuk verander kon word deur gebruik te maak van geronde uitlate. Afleidings wat gemaak is het gely tot die ontwikkeling van 'n unieke geprofielde uitlaat wat 'n vierkantige sproeipatroon gelewer het. Bykomstige eksperimentele werk is gedoen om die verwantskap tussen die sentralestraal van 'n volkegelmondstuk en die ander hoof mondstukdimensies te bepaal. Die reultate is verwerk om riglyne vir die ontwerp van vierkantige patroon volkegel mondstukke daar te stel.
22

The influence of geometry on dragline bucket filling performance

Esterhuyse, Schalk Willem Petrus January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (MEng.) -- Stellenbosch University, 1997. / One copy microfiche. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis desc1ibes the procedure followed in order to establish geometry changes to the current lig!1tweight dragline bucket lmilt by Wright Equipment Compan:Y to improve its performance. The bucket performs very well as is and big changes v , e not expected. This project was done as part of the Mechanical Engineering Masterr- Jegree requirements at the University of Stellenbosch, while being employed by Wriglh Equipment A scale model dragline was designed and built to be used in collecting the data. The most significant variables when considering dragline bucket filling were established and ranked according to their relative influence. The tests were done, using four different scale model dragline buckets and changing a 11umber of variables on each of them at different drag angles and in different digging conditions. Eventually it was found that a shorter, wider bucket with a lower hitch, resulted in improved performance as far as filling distance and filling energy requirements were concerned. The maximum required drag force was not increased, meaning stalling of the bucket would not be a problem. The changes do have some structural implications though aud should be investigated before any changes are made. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die tesis be£kryf die prosedure wat gevolg is om geometrie veranderinge aan die liggewig sleepgraatbak, wat deur die maatskappy Wright Equipment vervaardig word, te ondersoek. Die uiteindelike doel was om di~ produktiwiteit van die bak (gedefinieer as die hoeveel bogrond wat in 'n gegewe tyd geskuif word} te verbeter Die projek het deel gevorm van die vereistes vir 'n Meestersgraad in Meganiese lngenieurswese by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 'n Skaalmodel sleepgraaf is ontwerp en gebou vir gebruik in die versameling van die nodige data. Die belangrikste faktore betrokke by die vulling van sleepgraatbakke is vasgestel en in rangorde van belangrikheid gegroepeer. Vier skaalmodel sleepgraatbakke, waarop verskillende geometriese veranderinge gedoen kon word, is gebruik in toetse teen verskillendt sleephoeke en grondkondisies. Daar is gevind dat 'n korter, wyer bak met 'n laer sleeppUt"'t '1. v~rbetering in werkverrigting gee in terme van afstand om te vul en energie ve1·t.· :•.• Die maksimum sleepkrag benodig is ook nie verhoog nie, met die gevolg dat str:, l,' nie 'n probleeill sal wees me. Die voorgestelde veranderinge het egter struk.i.t..•' ic imt"i'---dsies wat eers ondersoek sal moet word voor enige veranderinge gedoen word.
23

Edge scanning and swept surface approximation in reverse engineering

Schreve, Kristiaan 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Broadly speaking Reverse Engineering is the process of digitising a physical object and creating a computer model of the object. If sharp edges formed by two surfaces can be extracted from a point cloud (which is the set of measured points) it can speed up the segmentation of the point cloud and the edges may also be used to construct swept surfaces (or various other types of surface that best captures the design intent). A strategy is presented to "scan" edges. The strategy simulates a CMM (Coordinate Measurement Machine) as it would scan a sequence of short lines straddling the edge. Rather than measuring on a physical object, the algorithm developed in this dissertation "scans" on the points in the point cloud. Each line is divided in two parts, or line sections, belonging to the surfaces fanning the edge. The points of the line sections are then approximated with polynomials. Each edge point is the intersection of two such polynomials. In many engineering components sharp edges are replaced with fillet radii or the edges become worn or damaged. This algorithm is capable of reconstructing the original sharp edge without prior segmentation. A simple analytical model was developed to determine the theoretically achievable accuracy. This Analytical accuracy was compared with the accuracy of edges extracted from point clouds. A series of experiments were done on point clouds. The input parameters of the experiments were chosen using the technique of Design of Experiments. Using the experimental results the parameters that most significantly influences the accuracy of the algorithm was determined. From the Analytical and experimental analysis guidelines were developed which will help a designer to specify sensible input parameters for the algorithm. With these guidelines it is possible to find an edge with an accuracy comparably with an edge found with the traditional method of finding the edges with NURBS surface intersections. Finally the algorithm was combined with a swept surface fitting algorithm. The scanned edges are used as rails and profile curves for the swept surfaces. The algorithms were demonstrated by reverse engineering part of another core box for an inlet manifold. If the edge detection parameters are specified according to the guidelines developed here, this algorithm can successfully detect edges. The maximum gap size in the point cloud is an important limiting factor, but its effect has also been quantified. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Truwaartse Ingenieurswese word 'n fisiese voorwerp opgemeet en 'n rekenaar model word daarvan geskep. Die segmentering van die puntewolk (dit is die versameling gemete punte) sal aansienlik vergemaklik word indien dit moontlik is om skerp rante in die puntewolk te identifiseer. Die rante sal dan gebruik kan word om veegvlakke (swept surfaces), of enige ander tipe oppervalk wat die ontwerp die beste beskryf, te konstrueer. Hierdie proefskrif beskryf 'n strategie wat die rante kan opmeet. Dit simuleer die manier waarvolgens 'n Koërdinaatmeetmasjien 'n reeks lyne, wat oor die rant lê, sou meet. In plaas van op 'n fisiese voorwerp op te meet, "meet" die algoritme op 'n puntwolk. Elke lyn word dan in twee dele verdeel (elke deel word 'n meetlynseksie genoem). Elke meetlynseksie behoort aan een van die twee oppervlaktes wat die rant vorm. Die rant punte word bereken as die interseksie van twee polinome wat deur die punte van die meetlynseksie gepas is. Dit is dikwels die geval met meganiese onderdele dat skerp rante vervang word met 'n vulstraal of dit kan ook gebeur dat die rant verweer het of beskadig is. Die algoritme, wat hier beskryf word, kan selfs die oorspronklike skerp rant in sulke gevalle herkonstrueer. 'n Eenvoudige analitiese model is ontwikkelom die teoretiese akkuraatheid van die algoritme te bepaal. Die teoretiese akkuraatheid is vergelyk met die akkuraatheid van rante wat uit puntewolke bepaal is. 'n Reeks eksperimente is op puntwolke gedoen. Die parameters vir die eksperimente is gekies deur van Eksperimentele Ontwerp gebruik te maak. Met behulp van hierdie tegniek kon bepaal word watter meetparameters die grootste invloed op die akkuraatheid van die gemete punte het. Die teoretiese en eksperimentele resultate is gebruik om riglyne daar te stel waarmee die intreeparameters van die algoritme gekies kan word. Met hierdie riglyne is dit moontlik om 'n rant te vind met 'n akkuraatheid vergelykbaar met die tradisionele metode om die rante te vind met behulp van NURBS oppervlakte interseksies. Laastens is die algoritme gekombineer met 'n algoritme wat veegvlakke deur punte kan pas. Die gemete rante word gebruik as spore en profiele vir die veegvlakke. Die tegnieke is gebruik om 'n CAD model van 'n sandkernvorm (vir die giet van 'n inlaatspruitstuk) te maak. Deur die riglyne te gebruik om die intreeparameters vir die algoritme te spesifiseer, kan rante suksesvol uit puntewolke bepaal word. Die maksimum afstand tussen naburige punte in die puntewolk beperk die gebruik van die algoritme, maar die effek hiervan is ook vasgevat in die riglyne wat ontwikkel is vir die algoritme.
24

A liquefied gas thruster for a micro satellite

Joubert, Adriaan Jacobus 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2007. / The focus of this project was to investigate the working of a liquefied gas micro satellite thruster. An introduction is given in which the significance of the project in relation to the literature is stated. The objectives of the project are also stated. In the literature survey the historical development and design specifications of some relevant thruster systems is discussed. An experimental model was designed and built to test the working of a thruster system. Attention is also given to the measurement and calibration techniques used to obtain experimental data. A computer program was written to simulate the thruster system. The experimental set-up was designed so that an accumulator could be charged with liquid butane from a storage tank. The accumulator was charged with 13 ml of liquid butane, which was heated and then exhausted through a nozzle. Copper mesh was placed in the accumulator to improve the heat transfer to the butane vapour before it was exhausted through the nozzle. A cantilever beam was used to measure the thrust of the system. The system was tested under atmospheric conditions of 100 000 Pa as well as under vacuum conditions of 20 Pa. Two nozzles were also tested: nozzle-1 with a throat diameter of 1 mm and an exit diameter of 5 mm and nozzle-2 with a throat diameter of 1 mm and an exit diameter of 1.6 mm. A computer program was written to simulate the flow of the butane vapour through the nozzle, as well as the complex two-phase behaviour of the butane in the accumulator. Traditional gas dynamic theory was used to model the flow through the nozzle. The transient behaviour of the system was modelled to predict the rate of liquid to vapour mass transfer in the accumulator. Additionally, the computer program was developed to simulate the system with copper mesh placed in the accumulator. From the experimental results it was shown that the addition of copper mesh in the accumulator improved the total thrust achieved with a 13 ml charge of liquid butane by more than 50 %. Under atmospheric conditions shockwaves were present in both of the two nozzles tested. Nozzle-2 showed an increase of 91 % in the total thrust achieved over a 5 second burst compared to the total thrust achieved using nozzle-1. With no copper mesh in the accumulator and using nozzle-1 a peak thrust of 39 mN was achieved under atmospheric conditions while under vacuum conditions a peak thrust of 495 mN was achieved. This resulted in a total thrust of 0.365 Ns under atmospheric conditions and 4.88 Ns under vacuum conditions with a 13 ml charge of liquid butane. Using the total thrust achieved the specific impulse of the system was calculated as 5 seconds under atmospheric conditions and 67.5 seconds under vacuum conditions with no mesh in the accumulator and using nozzle-1. The theoretical model compared well with the experimental results except when nozzle-1 was modelled under atmospheric conditions. Under vacuum conditions the results obtained from the theoretical model compared well with the experimental results using both of the nozzles. In the modelling of the mesh in the accumulator an overall heat transfer factor was incorporated into the model to take into account the uncertainty of the heat transfer area as well as the overall heat transfer coefficient. The theoretical model and experimental test results are discussed and thereafter conclusions are also drawn. There are also recommendations made for future work that could be done in the further development of a liquefied gas micro satellite thruster system. It is recommended that a “resistojet” type thruster should be tested at the University of Stellenbosch and that further testing be done with mesh in the accumulator to find the optimum amount of mesh that should be placed in the accumulator.
25

The design of a single rotor axial flow fan for a cooling tower application

Bruneau, Phillippe Roger Paul, Von Backstrom, T. W. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MEng (Mechanical Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 1994. / 213 leaves printed on single pages, preliminary pages i-xix and numbered pages 1-116. Includes bibliography, list of tables, list of figures and nomenclature. / Digitized at 600 dpi grayscale to pdf format (OCR), using a Bizhub 250 Konica Minolta Scanner. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A design methodology for low pressure rise, rotor only, ducted axial flow fans is formulated, implemented and validated using the operating point specifications of a 1/6th scale model fan as a reference. Two experimental fans are designed by means of the design procedure and tested in accordance with British Standards 848, Type A. The design procedure makes use of the simple radial equilibrium equations, embodied in a suite of computer programs. The experimental fans have the same hub-tip ratio and vortex distribution, but differ in the profile section used. The first design utilises the well known Clark-Y aerofoil profile whilst the second takes advantage of the high lift characteristics of the more modern NASA LS series. The characteristics of the two designs are measured over the entire operating envelope and compared to the reference fan from which the utility and accuracy of the design procedure is assessed. The performance of the experimental fans compares well with both the reference fan as well as the design intent. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Ontwerpmetode vir lae drukstyging, enkel rotor aksiaal waaiers is geformuleer, toegepas en bevestig deur gebruik te maak van die ontwerppunt spesifikasies van 'n 1/6 skaal verwysingswaaier. Twee eksperimentele waaiers is ontwerp deur middel van die ontwerpmetode en getoets volgens die BS 848, Type A kode. Die ontwerpmetode maak gebruik van die eenvoudig radiale ewewigsvergelykings en 'n stel rekenaarprogramme. Die twee eksperimentele waaiers het dieselfde naaf-huls verhouding en werwel verdeling, maar verskil daarin dat verskillende vleuelprofiele gebruik is vir elkeen van die twee waaiers. Die eerste ontwerp maak gebruik van die bekende Clark-Y profiel terwyl die tweede die moderne NASA LS profiel gebruik. Die karakteristieke van die twee eksperimentele waaiers is gemeet oor die hele werkbereik en vergelyk met die verwysings waaier waardeur die geldigheid en akkuraatheid van die ontwerpmetode bepaal is. Die werkverigting van die eksperimentele waaiers vergelyk goed met die verwysingswaaier en bevredig die ontwerpsdoelwitte.
26

Performance trends of an air-cooled steam condenser under windy conditions

Van Rooyen, J. A. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2007. / Air-cooled steam condensers (ACSC’s) are increasingly employed to reject heat in modern power plants. Unfortunately these cooling systems become less effective under windy conditions and when ambient temperatures are high. A better understanding of the fundamental airflow patterns about and through such air-cooled condensers is essential if their performance is to be improved under these conditions. For known flow patterns, improved fan designs are possible and flow distortions can be reduced by means of extended surfaces or skirts, windwalls and screens. Spray cooling of the inlet air or the addition of an evaporative cooling system can also be considered for improving performance under extreme conditions. The present numerical study models the air flow field about and through an air-cooled steam condenser under windy conditions. The performance of the fans is modeled with the aid of a novel numerical approach known as the “actuator disc model”. Distorted airflow patterns that significantly reduce fan performance in certain areas and recirculatory flows that entrain hot plume air are found to be the reasons for poor ACSC performance. It is found that the reduction in fan performance is the main reason for the poor ACSC performance while recirculation of hot plume air only reduces performance by a small amount. Significant improvements in ACSC performance are possible under these conditions if a cost effective skirt is added to the periphery of the ACSC while the installation of a screen under the ACSC has very little effect.
27

The simulation of the flow of polymer melt in lomolding

Dymond, Jacques Andrew Dryden 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Lomolding is a new process similar to injection moulding. In this thesis a numerical model of the polymer flow into the cavity is presented. The model is used to compare the two processes with each other. Lomolding and injection moulding were modelled numerically with the finite element method. The model was an axisymmetric model and takes phenomena such as generalised Newtonian flow, free surfaces, moving boundaries and solidification into account. The processes’ characteristics that were compared are the cavity pressure, shear rate and shear stress. Improvements in these characteristics will result in lomolding having smaller machines, less fibre breakage and a better potential for in-mould-decoration. The thesis shows that lomolding has substantially lower shear rates and shear stresses than injection moulding. The model was also used to investigate certain machine design aspects, and to gain a better understanding of the polymer flow in lomolding. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lomoldering is ’n nuwe proses soortgelyk aan inspuitgiet. Hierdie tesis beskou ’n numeriese model van die polimeervloei soos dit in die gietholte invloei. Die model word gebruik om die twee prosesse met mekaar te vergelyk. Lomoldering en inspuitgiet is numeries gemodeleer met die eindige-elementmetode. Die model is aksiaal-simmetries en neem verskynsels soos Newtoniese vloei, vrye oppervlakke, bewegende grense en stolling in ag. Die proses-karakteristieke wat vergelyk is, sluit die gietholtedruk, vervormingstempo en skuifspanning in. Verbeterings in hierdie karakteristieke sal meebring dat lomoldering kleiner masjiene nodig sal hê, minder veselskade sal veroorsaak en meer versoenbaar met in-gietholte-versierings sal wees, vergeleke met inspuitgiet. Die tesis toon dat lomoldering laer vervormingstempo’s en skuifspanning het, in vergelyking met inspuitgiet. Die model is ook gebruik om sekere masjienontwerpaspekte te ondersoek, en om die polimeervloei in lomoldering beter te verstaan.
28

A numerical analysis of the flow field surrounding a solar chimney power plant

Harris, Rhydar Lee 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigated the flow field above a proposed solar chimney power plant, without a cross wind, using a commercial numerical solver in the form of CFX 4-4 by AEA Technology plc. The governing equations solved are for an incompressible steady state solution. Variation in density due to buoyant effects is modelled with the Boussinesq approximation, and turbulence is approximated by the k-ε model with modifications due to buoyancy. The effect of different turbulence conditions at atmospheric inflows is also investigated. Modifications to the k-ε turbulence model in the context of atmospheric turbulence are investigated and applied to the standard k-ε model. These modifications include the addition of source terms in the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence dissipation rate equations to allow for the production/destruction of turbulence due to buoyancy. Other modifications include an additional source term in the turbulence dissipation rate equation accounting for atmospheric stability and the specification of model constants relevant to atmospheric flows. Initial results for the flow field using the Boussinesq approximation show reasonable correlation between the current study and the study by Thiart (2002) whereby the flow field exhibits characteristics of the axially symmetric turbulent jet. One of the primary and most noticeable differences between the current study and that of Thiart (2002) is the difference in height at which air is drawn into the collector. In order to account for variation in density with height, a modification on the Boussinesq approximation, the Deep Boussinesq model, Montavon (1998), is applied to a simplified 100 m by 100 m rectangular geometry. The results obtained are compared to a similar model using the Boussinesq approximation and it is seen that the average velocities reached in the deep Boussinesq model are significantly larger than those obtained in the Boussinesq approximation. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die vloeiveld bo 'n aangewese son-skoorsteen kragstasie, deur die gebruik van 'n kommersiële numeriese oplosser in die vorm van CFX 4-4; van AEA Technology plc. Die heersende vergelykings wat opgelos moet word, is vir 'n niesaampersbare, tyd-onafhanklike oplossing. Die wisseling in digtheid as gevolg van saamdrukbaarheids effekte, word gemodelleer met die Boussinesq benadering en turbulensie-skatting deur die k-ε model met aanpassings as gevolg van dryfkrag. Die effek van die verskillende turbulensie-toestande teen atmosferiese invloeing word ook ondersoek. Aanpassings op die k-ε turbulensie-model in die konteks van atmosferies turbulensie word ondersoek en toegepas op die standaard k-ε model. Hierdie veranderinge sluit die byvoeging van bron terme in die turbulente kinetiese energie en die turbulensieverspillings vergelykings om ruimte te laat vir die produksie/afbreking van turbulensie as gevolg van dryfkrag in. Ander aanpassings sluit in 'n bykomende bron term in die turbulensie-verspillings vergelyking wat rekenskap gee vir atmosferiese stabiliteit en die spesifikasie van model onveranderlikes met betrekking tot atmosferiese vloei. Aanvanklike resultate vir die vloeiveld met die gebruik van die Boussinesq benadering dui op geredelike ooreenstemming tussen de huidige studie en die studie van Thiart (2002), waar die vloeiveld eienskappe toon van 'n simmetriese turbulente spilpunt. Een van die mees primêre en duidelikste verskille tussen die huidige studie en diè van Thiart (2002) is die verskil in die hoogte waarteen die lug in die samesteller ingesuig word. Om rekenskep te kan gee vir die verskil in digtheid met betrekking tot hoogte is 'n aanpassing van die Boussinesq benadering, die Diep Bussinesq model, Montavon (1998), aangebring. Hierdie aanpassing word toegepas op ‘n vereenvoudigde 100 m by 100 m reghoek. Die resultate wat verkry word, word vergelyk met 'n soortgelyke model waar die algemene snelheid wat met die diep Boussinesq model bereik word merkbaar groter is as die in die Boussinesq benadering.
29

Development of a range of air-to-air heat pipe heat recovery heat exchangers

Meyer, Meyer 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: As the demand for less expensive energy is increasing world-wide, energy conservation is becoming a more-and-more important economic consideration. In light of this, means to recover energy from waste fluid streams is also becoming more-and-more important. An efficient and cost effective means of conserving energy is to recover heat from a low temperature waste fluid stream and use this heat to preheat another process stream. Heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHEs) are devices capable of cost effectively salvaging wasted energy in this way. HPHEs are liquid-coupled indirect transfer type heat exchangers except that the HPHE employs heat pipes or thermosyphons as the major heat transfer mechanism from the high temperature to the low-temperature fluid. The primary advantage of using a HPHE is that it does not require an external pump to circulate the coupling fluid. The hot and cold streams can also be completely isolated preventing cross-contamination of the fluids. In addition, the HPHE has no moving parts. In this thesis, the development of a range of air-to-air HPHEs is investigated. Such an investigation involved the theoretical modelling of HPHEs such that a demonstration unit could be designed, installed in a practical industrial application and then evaluated by considering various financial aspects such as initial costs, running costs and energy savings. To develop the HPHE theoretical model, inside heat transfer coefficients for the evaporator and condenser sections of thermosyphons were investigated with R134a and Butane as two separate working fluids. The experiments on the thermosyphons were undertaken at vertical and at an inclination angle of 45° to the horizontal. Different diameters were considered and evaporator to condenser length ratios kept constant. The results showed that R134a provided for larger heat transfer rates than the Butane operated thermosyphons for similar temperature differences despite the fact that the latent heat of vaporization for Butane is higher than that of R134a. As an example, a R134a charged thermosyphon yielded heat transfer rates in the region of 1160 W whilst the same thermosyphon charged with Butane yielded heat transfer rates in the region of 730 W at 23 °C . Results also showed that higher heat transfer rates were possible when the thermosyphons operated at 45°. Typically, for a thermosyphon with a diameter of 31.9 mm and an evaporator to condenser length ratio of 0.24, an increase in the heat transfer rate of 24 % could be achieved. Theoretical inside heat transfer coefficients were also formulated which were found to correlate reasonably well with most proposed correlations. However, an understanding of the detailed two-phase flow and heat transfer behaviour of the working fluid inside thermosyphons is difficult to model. Correlations proposing this behaviour were formulated and include the use of R134a and Butane as the working fluids. The correlations were formulated from thermosyphons of diameters of 14.99 mm, 17.272 mm, 22.225 mm and 31.9 mm. The evaporator to condenser length ratio for the 31.9 mm diameter thermosyphon was 0.24 whilst the other thermosyphons had ratios of 1. The heat fluxes ranged from 1800-43500 W/m2. The following theoretical inside heat transfer coefficients were proposed for vertical and inclined operations (READ CORRECT FORMULA IN FULL TEXT ABSTRACT) φ = 90° ei h = 3.4516x105Ja−0.855Ku1.344 φ = 45° ei h = 1.4796x105Ja−0.993Ku1.3 φ = 90° l l l ci l l v h x k g 1/ 3 2.05 2 4.61561 109Re 0.364 ν ρ ρ ρ − ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎤ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎦ φ = 45° l l l ci l l v h x k g 1/ 3 1.916 2 3.7233 10 5Re 0.136 ν ρ ρ ρ − ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎤ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎦ The theoretically modelled demonstration HPHE was installed into an existing air drier system. Heat recoveries of approximately 8.8 kW could be recovered for the hot waste stream with a hot air mass flow rate of 0.55 kg/s at an inlet temperature of 51.64 °C and outlet temperature of 35.9 °C in an environment of 20 °C. Based on this recovery, energy savings of 32.18 % could be achieved and a payback period for the HPHE was calculated in the region of 3.3 years. It is recommended that not withstanding the accuracies of roughly 25 % achieved by the theoretically predicted correlations to that of the experimental work, performance parameters such as the liquid fill charge ratios, the evaporator to condenser length ratios and the orientation angles should be further investigated. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: As gevolg van die groeiende aanvraag na goedkoper energie, word die behoud van energie ‘n al hoe belangriker ekonomiese oorweging. Dus word die maniere om energie te herwin van afval-vloeierstrome al hoe meer intensief ondersoek. Een effektiewe manier om energie te herwin, is om die lae-temperatuur-afval-vloeierstroom (wat sou verlore gaan) se hitte te gebruik om ‘n ander vloeierstroom mee te verhit. Hier dien dit dan as voorverhitting van die ander, kouer, vloeierstroom. Hittepyp hitteruilers (HPHR’s) is laekoste toestelle wat gebruik kan word vir hierdie doel. ‘n HPHR is ‘n vloeistof-gekoppelde indirekte-oordrag hitteruiler, behalwe vir die feit dat dié hitteruiler gebruik maak van hittepype (of hittebuise) wat die grootste deel van sy hitteoordragsmeganisme uitmaak. Die primêre voordele van ‘n HPHR is dat dit geen bewegende dele het nie, die koue- en warmstrome totaal geïsoleer bly van mekaar en geen eksterne pomp benodig word om die werkvloeier mee te sirkuleer nie. In hierdie tesis word ‘n ondersoek gedoen oor die ontwikkeling van ‘n bestek van lug-totlug HPHR’s. Hierdie ondersoek het die teoretiese modellering van so ‘n HPHR geverg, sodat ‘n demonstrasie eenheid ontwerp kon word. Hierdie demonstrasie eenheid is geïnstalleer in ‘n praktiese industriële toepassing waar dit geïvalueer is deur na aspekte soos finansiële voordele en energie-besparings te kyk. Om die teoretiese HPHR model te kon ontwikkel, moes daar gekyk word na die binnehitteoordragskoëffisiënte van die verdamper- en kondensordeursneë, asook R134a en Butaan as onderskeie werksvloeiers. Die eksperimente met die hittebuise is gedoen in die vertikale en 45° (gemeet vanaf die horisontaal) posisies. Verskillende diameters is ook ondersoek, maar met die verdamper- en kondensor-lengteverhouding wat konstant gehou is. Die resultate wys dat R134a as werksvloeier in die hittebuise voorsiening maak vir groter hitteoordragstempo’s in vergelyking met Butaan as werksvloeier by min of meer dieselfde temperatuur verskil – dít ten spyte van die feit dat Butaan ‘n hoër latente-hittetydens- verdampings eienskap het. As voorbeeld gee ‘n R134a-gelaaide hittebuis ‘n hitteoordragstempo van omtrent 1160 W terwyl dieselfde hittebuis wat met Butaan gelaai is, slegs ongeveer 730 W lewer by 23 °C. Die resultate wys ook duidelik dat hoër hitteoordragstempo’s verkry word indien die hittebuis bedryf word teen ‘n hoek van 45°. ‘n Tipiese toename in hitteoordragstempo is ongeveer 24 % vir ‘n hittebuis met ‘n diameter van 31.9 mm en ‘n verdamper- tot kondensor-lengteverhouding van 0.24. Teoretiese binne-hitteoordragskoëffisiënte is ook geformuleer. Dié waardes stem redelik goed ooreen met die meeste voorgestelde korrelasies. Nieteenstaande die feit dat gedetailleerde twee-fase-vloei en die hitteoordragsgedrag van die werksvloeier binne hittebuise nog nie goed deur die wetenskaplike wêreld verstaan word nie. Korrelasies wat hierdie gedrag voorstel is geformuleer en sluit weereens die gebruik van R134a en Butaan as werksvloeiers in. Die korrelasies is geformuleer vanaf hittebuise met diameters van onderskeidelik 14.99 mm, 17.272 mm, 22.225 mm en 31.9 mm. Die verdamper- tot kondensor-lengteverhoudings vir die 31.9 mm deursnit hittebuis was 0.24 terwyl die ander hittebuise ‘n verhouding van 1 gehad het. Die hitte-vloede het gewissel van 1800-45300 W/m2. Die volgende teoretiese geformuleerde binne-hitteoordragskoëffisiënte word voorgestel vir beide vertikale sowel as nie-vertikale toepassing (LEES KORREKTE FORMULE IN VOLTEKS OPSOMMING) φ = 90° ei h = 3.4516x105Ja−0.855Ku1.344 φ = 45° ei h = 1.4796x105Ja−0.993Ku1.3 φ = 90° l l l ci l l v h x k g 1/ 3 2.05 2 4.61561 109Re 0.364 ν ρ ρ ρ − ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎤ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎦ φ = 45° l l l ci l l v h x k g 1/ 3 1.916 2 3.7233 10 5Re 0.136 ν ρ ρ ρ − ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎤ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎦ Die wiskundig-gemodelleerde demostrasie HPHR is geïnstalleer binne ‘n bestaande lugdroër-sisteem. Drywing van om en by 8.8 kW kon herwin word vanaf die warm-afvalvloeierstroom met ‘n massa vloei van 0.55 kg/s teen ‘n inlaattemperatuur van 51.64 °C en ‘n uitlaattemperatuur van 35.9 °C binne ‘n omgewing van 20 °C. Na aanleiding van hierdie herwinning, kan energiebesparings van tot 32.18 % verkry word. Die HPHR se installasiekoste kan binne ‘n berekende tydperk van ongeveer 3.3 jaar gedelg word deur hierdie besparing. Verdamper- tot kondensator-lengteverhouding, vloeistofvulverhouding en die oriëntasiehoek vereis verdere ondersoek, aangesien daar slegs ‘n akkuraatheid van 25 % verkry is tussen teoretiese voorspellings en praktiese metings.
30

Solar Tower Power Plant Performance Characteristics

Pretorius, Johannes Petrus 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates energy generation by large-scale solar tower power plants. The performance characteristics of a so-called reference plant with a 4000 m diameter glass collector roof and a 1500 m high, 160 m diameter tower are determined for a site located in South Africa. The relevant draught and conservation equations are derived, discretized and implemented in a numerical model which solves the equations using speci ed meteorological input data and determines the power delivered by the plant. The power output of a solar tower power plant over a twenty-four hour period is presented. Corresponding temperature distributions in the ground under the collector are shown. Variations in seasonal generation are evaluated and the total annual electrical output is determined. The dependency of the power output on collector diameter and tower height is illustrated, while showing that greater power production can be facilitated by optimizing the roof shape and height. The minor in uence of the tower shadow falling across the collector is evaluated, while the e ect of prevailing winds on the power generated is found to be signi cant. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek elektrisiteitsopwekking deur grootskaalse sontoringkragstasies. Die uitsetkarakteristieke van 'n sogenaamde verwysings-kragstasie met 'n 4000 m deursnee glas kollektor en 'n 1500 m hoë, 160 m deursnee toring word ondersoek vir 'n spesi eke ligging in Suid-Afrika. Die toepaslike trek- en behoudsvergelykings word afgelei, gediskretiseer en geimplementeer in 'n numeriese rekenaarmodel. Die rekenaarmodel los die betrokke vergelykings op deur gebruik te maak van gespesi seerde meteorologiese invoerdata en bepaal dan die uitset gelewer deur die kragstasie. Die uitset van 'n sontoring-kragstasie oor 'n periode van vier-en-twintig uur word getoon. Ooreenstemmende temperatuurverdelings in die grond onder die kollektor word geïllustreer. Die variasie in seisoenale elektrisiteitsopwekking word ondersoek en die totale jaarlikse elektriese uitset bepaal. Die invloed wat die kragstasie dimensies (kollektor deursnee en toring hoogte) op die uitset het, word bestudeer en resultate getoon. Daar is ook bevind dat verhoogde uitset meegebring kan word deur die vorm en hoogte van die kollektordak te optimeer. Die geringe e ek van die toringskadu op die kollektor word bespreek, terwyl bevind is dat heersende winde 'n beduidende e ek op die kragstasie uitset het.

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