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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

The verification of seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) value as a reliable metric to evaluate dynamic seat comfort

Van der Westhuizen, Anriette 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A rough road vibration stimulus was reconstructed on a shaker platform to assess the dynamic comfort of seven seats by six human subjects. The virtual seat method was combined with a paired comparison procedure to assess subjective dynamic seat comfort. The psychometric method of constants, 1-up-1-down Levitt procedure and a 2-up-1-down Levitt procedure were compared experimentally to find the most accurate and efficient paired comparison scheme. A two-track interleaved, 2-up-1-down Levitt procedure was used for the subjective dynamic seat comfort assessment. SEAT value is an objective metric and has been widely used to determine seat vibration isolation efficiency. There was an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the subjective ratings and estimated SEAT values on the seat top when the values are averaged over the six subjects. This study suggests that the SEAT values, estimated from averaged seat top transmissibility of six carefully selected subjects, could be used to select the best seat for a specific road vibration input. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ses persone het deelgeneem aan ‘n eksperiment, om die dinamiese ritgemak van sewe stoele te karakteriseer. ‘n Rowwe padvibrasie is vir die doel op ‘n skudplatform geherkonstrueer. Subjektiewe ritgemak is bepaal deur die virtuelestoel metode met ‘n gepaarde, vergelykingstoets te kombineer. Die psigometriese metode van konstantes, die 1-op-1-af Levitt procedure en die 2-op- 1-af Levitt procedure is vergelyk om die mees effektiewe en akkurate vergelykingstoets te vind. ‘n Tweebaan, vervlegde , 2-op-1-af Levitt prosedure het die beste resultate gelewer en is gekies vir die subjektiewe evaluasie van dinamiese ritgemak. SEAT-waarde is ‘n objektiewe maatstaf, wat gebruik word om te bepaal hoe effektief ‘n stoel die insittende van voertuigvibrasie isoleer. Daar was ‘n uitstekende korrelasie (R2 = 0.97) tussen subjektiewe dinamiese ritgemakevaluesies en SEAT-waardes in die vertikale rigting op die stoelkussing as die gemiddelde oor die ses persone bereken word. Uit die resultate van hierdie studie blyk dit dat SEAT-waardes, wat bereken is vanaf die gemiddelde sitplektransmissie van die ses persone, wat verteenwoordigend van die teikenbevolking is, gebruik kan word om die beste stoel vir ‘n spesifieke vibrasieinset te kies.
32

Performance investigation of a turbocharger compressor

De Wet, Andrew Louis 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Stellenbosch University participated in a project to re-design the compressor section of a diesel locomotive turbocharger. Tests conducted on the prototype compressor showed possible rotating stall in the diffuser section before the designed higher pressure ratio could be achieved. When approaching the higher pressure ratio, the compressor inlet trunk started to rhythmically collapse (due to suction), the engine shook and bellows of black smoke were exhausted by the engine. It was decided to simulate the prototype compressor's operation by using the 1-D theory of Aungier (2000) and to perform a 3-D CFD analysis of the compressor using FINE/Turbo of NUMECA International. A veri cation process was followed to show the accuracy of the 1-D and 3-D modelling methods using two well-known centrifugal compressor test cases found in the literature, namely the O-Rotor by Eckardt (1975, 1976, 1980) and the "Radiver" open CFD test case by Ziegler et al. (2003c). Results from the models were compared to available experimental results and the accuracy was found to be su cient to investigate the prototype compressor's impeller and diffuser. Both prediction methods con rmed separation in the vaned di user across the entire operating ow range of the prototype compressor at the design impeller speed. The 3-D method identi ed supersonic ow at the vaned diffuser inlet at the operating point and also predicted a smaller operating range than originally anticipated. Both the 1-D and 3-D methods also predicted impeller blade stall over the entire operating ow range at the design impeller speed. A recommendation was made to redesign the impeller and diffuser of the prototype compressor. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Universiteit van Stellenbosch het deel geneem aan 'n projek om die kompressor gedeelte van 'n diesel lokomotief se turbo-aanjaer te herontwerp. Toetse uitgevoer op die prototipe kompressor het moontlike roterende wegbreking in die diffuser seksie uitgewys voordat die ontwerpte hoër drukverhouding bereik kon word. Toe die hoër drukverhouding genader is, het die kompressor inlaatpyp begin ritmies inmekaar vou (as gevolg van die suig aksie), die enjin het geskud en wolke swart rook is deur die enjin uitgeblaas. Die besluit is geneem om die prototipe kompressor se werking te simuleer met behulp van die 1-D teorie van Aungier (2000) en om ook 'n 3-D berekenings vloeimeganika (BVM) analise op die kompressor uit te voer met behulp van FINE/Turbo van NUMECA Internasionaal. 'n Veri kasieproses is gevolg om die akkuraatheid van die 1-D en 3-D modelle te illustreer met behulp van twee welbekende sentrifugaal kompressor toetsgevalle beskikbaar in die literatuur, naamlik die O-Rotor deur Eckardt (1975, 1976, 1980) en die "Radiver" oop BVM toetsgeval deur Ziegler et al. (2003c). Resultate van die modelle is vergelyk met beskikbare eksperimentele resultate en die bevinding is gemaak dat die akkuraatheid genoegsaam is om die prototipe kompressor se rotor en diffuser te ondersoek. Beide voorspellingsmetodes het wegbreking bevestig in die gelemde diffuser oor die hele werksbestek van die prototipe kompressor teen die ontwerp rotorspoed. Die 3-D metode het supersoniese vloei by die gelemde diffuser se inlaat by die bedryfspunt geïdenti seer en het ook 'n kleiner werksbestek voorspel as wat vroeër verwag is. Beide die 1-D en 3-D metodes het ook wegbreking in die rotor oor die hele werksbestek teen die ontwerp rotorspoed voorspel. 'n Voorstel is gemaak om die rotor en diffuser van die prototipe kompressor te herontwerp.
33

Energy storage in composite flywheel rotors

Janse van Rensburg, Petrus J. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: As the push continues for increased use of renewables on the electricity grid, the problem of energy storage is becoming more urgent than ever. Flywheels with wound, composite rotors represent an efficient and environmentally friendly option for energy storage. They have already been applied successfully for voltage control on electrical rail networks and for bridging power in backup UPS systems, but lately they have also proven useful for grid-scale frequency regulation. For flywheels to be deployed on a wider scale, the high cost associated with the technology will have to be addressed. An important driver of cost is the density at which energy can be stored. Currently, flywheel designs do not consistently achieve high energy density, and this study investigates the reasons for this. A critical analysis is made of the design methodologies that have been proposed in the available literature, and some improvements are suggested. Most notably it is shown that significant improvements in energy density may be possible if the design optimization problem is formulated carefully. In addition, the problem of material selection is discussed, because material properties have a significant influence on energy density. Some guidance is given for flywheel designers on how to choose an optimal set of materials without invoking undue computational effort. It is hoped that these suggestions may be carried forward as a topic of further research. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Namate die aanvraag vir hernubare energie op die elektrisiteit netwerk vergroot, word die probleem van energie berging van kardinale belang. Vliegwiele met silindriese rotors van samegestelde materiale bied ’n effektiewe en omgewingsvriendelike opsie vir energieberging. Hierdie tipe vliegwiele is reeds suksesvol aangewend vir spanningsbeheer op elektriese spoornetwerke en om oorbruggingskrag te voorsien aan rugsteun sisteme. Meer onlangs is hulle ook nuttig bewys vir die regulasie van frekwensie op die elektrisiteit netwerk. Grootskaalse aanwending van vliegwiele kan egter slegs oorweeg word indien die hoë koste van die tegnologie aangespreek word. Een van die onderliggende redes vir die hoë koste van vliegwiele is die relatiewe lae digtheid waarby energie geberg kan word, en hierdie studie ondersoek die redes hiervoor. Die ontwerpmetodiek wat in die beskikbare literatuur voorgestel is, word krities geanaliseer en ’n paar verbeteringe word aanbeveel. Mees noemenswaardig is die opmerklike verbeteringe in energie-digtheid wat soms moontlik is indien die optimerings-probleem deurdag geformuleer word. Omdat materiaaleienskappe ’n bepalende invloed op energie digtheid uitoefen word die probleem van materiaalseleksie ook verder bespreek. ’n Paar riglyne vir die seleksie van ’n optimale stel materiale sonder om oordrewe berekenings-inspanning te veroorsaak, word aan vliegwielontwerpers gegee. Hierdie voorstelle kan hopelik in die toekoms verder deurgetrap word as onderwerp vir verdere studies.
34

Thermal charcteristics of a greenhouse for aquaculture

Branfield, G. R. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Successful housing and breeding of exotic animals or plants often requires an environment that is quite different to the ambient conditions present. The current study approached the problem of sub-optimal water temperatures experienced by Central African Bream (Tilapia) housed within a South African greenhouse during winter months. A theoretical and experimental study of fundamental heat and mass transfer processes relevant to an aquacultural greenhouse was conducted. Experimental results were generally in agreement with those of previous researchers; while evaporation tests were found to concur particularly well with an analytical equation developed. The experimental results were used to develop a simple glass greenhouse model to evaluate the expected thermal behaviour during the coldest time of the year. Manipulation of the model revealed that water has the ability to absorb large quantities of solar radiation and regulate temperature fluctuations within such a system, and that the appropriate use of thermal insulation during both the night and day can maintain acceptable water temperatures for extended periods of time. With the conclusions drawn from the experimentation and modelling done, an optimised conceptual greenhouse design was presented, along with associated guidelines and principles for attaining the required water temperatures, and consequently providing the exotic fish specie with a healthy environment.
35

Vibration excitation of axial compressor rotor blades

Raubenheimer, Gert 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Turbomachines are exposed to several environmental factors which may cause failure of components. One of these factors, high cycle fatigue, is often caused by blade utter. This thesis forms part of a project of the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), called project Future. Project Future is doing theoretical and experimental investigation into the occurrence of utter in turbomachinery. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas injection system as a means of exciting vibrations on the rst stage rotor blades of a compressor. Unsteady simulations of the excitation velocity perturbations were performed in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, Numeca FINE/Turbo. Experimental testing on the in-house Rofanco compressor test bench, using one prototype of the 15 injector system, provided data that was used to implement boundary conditions and to verify certain aspects of the unsteady simulation results. The simulation results revealed the following: the injector bypass frequency was so dominant that the excitation frequency was hardly detectable in the majority of cases. Furthermore, several secondary frequencies were consistently present. The injector bypass frequency, as well as the secondary frequencies, occurred as a result of the convolution of Fast Fourier Transforms. While the injector bypass frequencies can theoretically be eliminated, it will not be possible to eliminate the secondary frequencies from the blade response. In conclusion, according to the CFD results, it will not be possible to excite a single excitation frequency by making use of a nite number of gas injector vibration exciters. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Turbomasjiene word onderwerp aan verskeie omgewingsfaktore wat falings van komponente kan veroorsaak. Een van hierdie faktore, naamlik hoëfrekwensie vermoeidheid, word onder andere veroorsaak deur lem adder. Hierdie tesis is deel van 'n projek in die Sewende Europese Raamwerk Program (European Seventh Framework Programme - FP7), projek Future. Projek Future doen teoretiese en eksperimentele ondersoek na die voorkoms van lemfl adder in turbomasjienerie. Die doelwit van hierdie tesis was om die effektiwiteit van 'n gasinspuiter vibrasie-opwekkingstelsel te evalueer, deur gebruik te maak van onbestendige simulasie in die berekenings vloei-meganika sagtewarepakket, Numeca FINE/Turbo. Eksperimentele toetswerk op die plaaslike Rofanco kompressortoetsbank, met 'n prototipe van die 15 inspuiter stelsel, het inligting verskaf wat gebruik is om die inlaattoestande te spesi seer en simulasieresultate te korreleer. Die simulasieresultate het getoon dat die frekwensie waarteen 'n lem by die inspuiters verbybeweeg, so prominent is, dat dit in die meerderheid van gevalle baie meer prominent is as die opwekkingsfrekwensie. Verder was daar ook deurgaans 'n aantal sekondêre frekwensies teenwoordig. Die teenwoordigheid van die inspuiter verbybeweeg frekwensie en die sekondêre frekwensies is die resultaat van die konvolusie van Vinnige Fourier Transforme. Alhoewel dit in teorie moontlik sal wees om die inspuiter verbybeweeg frekwensie te elimineer, is dit onmoontlik om die sekondêre frekwensies uit die lem vibrasie te elimineer. Ter opsomming, volgens die berekenings vloei-meganika resultate, is dit nie moontlik om met 'n stelsel van 'n eindige aantal inspuiters, 'n enkele vibrasie frekwensie op te wek nie.
36

High accuracy numerical model of the SALT mirror support truss

De Lange, Billy 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although a numerical model of the mirror support truss of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has already been developed during the design thereof, this thesis focuses on the development of the methods and techniques that would result in a more accurate numerical model of the actual structure that could be used as a basis for a numerical control system. This control system will compensate for de ections in the structure by adjusting the positioning of the individual mirror segments of the primary mirror. The two main components from which the support truss is constructed are the steel nodes, and the struts that connect to them. For this project a smaller, simpler laboratory model was designed and built to have geometrical properties similar to that of the support truss. The methods and techniques that were investigated were carried out on this model. By using numerical design optimisation techniques, improved numerical models of the different strut types were obtained. This was done by performing tests on the struts so that the actual responses of the struts could be obtained. Numerical models of the struts were then created and set up so that they could be optimised using structural optimisation software. Once accurate strut models had been obtained, these strut models were used to construct a numerical model of the assembled structure. No additional optimisation was performed on the assembled structure and tests were done on the physical structure to obtain its responses. These served as validation criteria for the numerical models of the struts. Because of unforeseen deformations of the structure, not all of the measured structural responses could be used. The remaining results showed, however, that the predictive accuracy of the top node displacement of the assembled structure improved to below 1.5%, from over 60%. From these results it was concluded that the accuracy of the entire structure's numerical model could be signi ficantly improved by optimising the individual strut types. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alhoewel daar reeds 'n numeriese model van die spieëlondersteuningsraamwerk van SALT ontwikkel is gedurende die ontwerp daarvan, fokus hierdie tesis op die ontwikkeling van metodes en tegnieke om 'n numeriese model van steeds hoër gehalte van hierdie spesi eke struktuur te verkry wat kan gebruik word as 'n basis vir 'n numeriese beheerstelsel. Hierdie beheerstelsel sal kan kompenseer vir die ondersteuningsraamwerk se vervormings deur om die individuele spieëlsegmente van die primêre spieël se posisionering te verstel. Hierdie stuktuur bestaan uit hoofsaaklik twee komponente, naamlik staalnodusse en die stutte wat aan hulle koppel. Vir hierdie projek is 'n kleiner, eenvoudiger laboratorium-model ontwerp en gebou om geometriese eienskappe soortgelyk aan die van die ondersteuningstruktuur te hê. Die metodes en tegnieke wat ondersoek is, is op hierdie model uitgevoer. Verbeterde numeriese modelle van die verskillende stut-tipes is ontwikkel deur middel van numerieseoptimeringstegnieke. Dit is gedoen deur toetse op die stutte uit te voer sodat hul werklike gedrag bepaal kon word. Numeriese modelle van die stutte is toe geskep en opgestel sodat hulle geoptimeer kon word om dieselfde gedrag as wat gemeet is, te toon. Hierdie geoptimeerde modelle is toe gebruik om numeriese modelle van die toets-struktuur te skep. Geen verdere optimering is op die numeriese model uitgevoer nie en toetse is op die struktuur gedoen om sy werklike gedrag te meet. Data wat deur die toetse verkry is het as validasie kriteria gedien om die akkuraatheid van die numeriese modelle van die stut-tipes te bepaal. Weens die struktuur se onvoorsiene vervorming kon alle gemete struktuurdata nie gebruik word nie. Die oorblywende data het egter getoon dat die akkuraatheid van die finale numeriese modelle van die struktuur verbeter het en dat dit die translasie van die top-node met 'n speling van 1.5% akkuraatheid kon voorspel, teenoor die oorsponlike speling van meer as 60%. Daar is bevind dat die akkuraatheid van die numeriese model van die hele struktuur noemenswaardig verbeter kan word deur die numeriese modelle van die stut-tipes te optimeer.
37

Performance of a parabolic trough solar collector

Brooks, Michael John 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005. / Parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs) constitute a proven source of thermal energy for industrial process heat and power generation, although their implementation has been strongly influenced by economics. In recent years, environmental concerns and other geopolitical factors have focused attention on renewable energy resources, improving the prospects for PTSC deployment. Further work is needed to improve system efficiencies and active areas of research include development of advanced heat collecting elements and working fluids, optimisation of collector structures, thermal storage and direct steam generation (DSG). A parabolic trough collector, similar in size to smaller-scale commercial modules, has been developed locally for use in an ongoing PTSC research programme. The aim of this study was to test and fully characterise the performance of the collector. Specialised logging software was developed to record test data and monitor PTSC performance in real-time. Two heat collecting elements were tested with the collector, one unshielded and the other with an evacuated glass cover. Testing was carried out according to the ASHRAE 93-1986 (RA 91) standard, yielding results for the thermal efficiency, collector acceptance angle, incidence angle modifier and collector time constant. Peak thermal efficiency was 55.2 % with the unshielded receiver and 53.8 % with the glass-shielded unit. The evacuated glass shield offered superior performance overall, reducing the receiver heat loss coefficient by 50.2 % at maximum test temperature. The collector time constant was less than 30 s for both receivers, indicating low thermal inertia. Thermal loss tests were conducted and performance of the trough’s tracking system was evaluated. The measured acceptance angles of 0.43° (unshielded) and 0.52° (shielded) both exceeded the tracking accuracy of the PTSC, ensuring that the collector operated within 2 % of its optimal efficiency at all times. Additionally, experimental results were compared with a finite-volume thermal model, which showed potential for predicting trough performance under forced convection conditions.
38

Design, development and testing of a 2-DOF articulated dump truck suspension seat

Barnard, Charl 03 1900 (has links)
MScEng / This project entails the design and development of a new 2-DOF articulated dump truck (ADT) suspension seat. A study of the ADT vibration environment was conducted using data measured with accelerometers inside the cabin. With the system’s required operational capabilities determined, the concept design phase resulted in a feasible concept. The first prototype was manufactured based on the initial set of specifications. A variety of numerical modelling techniques were used to analyse and evaluate the seat’s dynamic response. Vertical and lateral laboratory tests of the suspension seat with human occupants were completed. The vertical lumped parameter model of the suspension seat with a human occupant gave good correlation with the laboratory measured frequency response. A broad band input signal, and not the ISO 7096 (2000) EM1 signal, was used to obtain the frequency response used to verify the lumped parameter model. The SEAT values for the ISO 7096 (2000) EM1 signal and various ADT road conditions were calculated using the lumped parameter models for a small, medium and large subject, the same three subjects used in the laboratory tests. SEAT values using the ISO 7096 (2000) EM1 signal of 0.94, 0.93 and 0.88 were obtained for the small, medium and large subjects. The lowest SEAT values obtained using the road data were 0.63, 0.56 and 0.48 for the small, medium and large subjects. The transmissibility curves determined from the lateral laboratory tests were used to calculate the SEAT values for the lateral ADT cabin vibrations. The lowest SEAT values obtained were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.82 obtained for the small, medium and large subjects. After all the results from the testing and modelling were evaluated the design was assessed. All the data and information collected was used as input for the design of a second prototype, which was not manufactured. Not all the set specifications were achieved for the first prototype, but the new suspension seat gave comparable vertical vibration isolation performance to that of expensive commercially available ADT suspension seats. The lateral suspension demonstrated good lateral vibration isolation and is a feature not currently available in current ADT suspension seats.
39

Blade row and blockage modelling in an axial compressor throughflow code

Thomas, Keegan D. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005. / The objective of the thesis is to improve the performance prediction of axial compressors, using a streamline throughflow method (STFM) code by modelling the hub and casing wall boundary layers, and additional flow mechanisms that occur within a blade row passage. Blade row total pressure loss and deviation correlations are reviewed. The effect of Mach number and the blade tip clearance gap are also reviewed as additional loss sources. An entrainment integral method is introduced to model the hub and casing wall boundary layers. Various 1-dimensional test cases are performed before implementing the integral boundary layer method into the STFM. The boundary layers represent an area blockage throughout the compressor, similar to a displacement thickness, but affects two velocity components. This effectively reduces the compressor flow area by altering the hub and casing radial positions at all stations. The results from the final STFM code with the integral boundary layer model, Mach number model and tip clearance model is compared against high pressure ratio compressor test cases. The blockage results, individual blade row and overall performance results are compared with published data. The deviation angle curve fits developed by Roos and Aungier are compared. There is good agreement for all parameters, except for the slope of deviation angle with incidence angle for low solidity. For the three compressors modelled, there is good agreement between the blockage prediction obtained and the blockage prediction of Aungier. The NACA 5-stage transonic compressor overall performance shows good agreement at all speeds, except for 90% of design speed. The NACA 10-stage subsonic compressor shows good agreement for low and medium speeds, but needs improvement at 90% and 100% of design speeds. The NACA 8-stage transonic compressor results compared well only at low speeds.
40

The design of a hydrofoil system for sailing catamarans

Loveday, Howard 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / The main objective of this thesis was to design a hydrofoil system without a trim and ride height control system and investigate the change in resistance of a representative hull across a typical speed range as a result of the addition of the hydrofoil system, while retaining adequate stability. The secondary objectives were as follows: Find a representative hull of sailing catamarans produced in South Africa, and to establish an appropriate speed range for that hull across which it is to be tested. Test and explain the drag characteristics of this hull. Find a suitable configuration of lifting foils for this hull that would not require any form of trim or ride height control to maintain stability throughout the speed range. Test and compare the resistance characteristics with and without the assistance of lifting foils. Test and explain the effects of leeway and heel on the total hydrodynamic resistance both with and without lifting foils. A representative hull (RH1), based on a statistical analysis of sailing catamarans produced in South Africa and an existing hull design of suitable size, was designed. A speed range was then established (0 – 25 knots) based on the statistics of the original (existing) design. A scaled model (of RH1) of practical and suitable dimensions was designed and manufactured, and its characteristics determined through towing tank testing. A hydrofoil system was then designed and during testing, was adjusted until a stable configuration was found. This resulted in a canard type configuration, with the front foil at the bow and the main foil between the daggerboards. Although a stable configuration was achieved, it was noted that any significant perturbation in the trim of the boat would result in instability and some form of trim control is recommended. The main objective was achieved. The experimental results concluded that a canard configuration was found to be stable for the RH1 (foil positioning already mentioned) and the addition of the hydrofoils provided a significant improvement only above a displacement Froude number of 2, which for our full scale prototype, is equivalent to approximately 14.2 knots. This is in agreement with the results of several other research projects that investigated hydrofoil supported catamarans with semi‐displacement type demi‐hulls. Below displacement Froude number of 2, a significant increase in total hydrodynamic resistance was observed. Since the speed of sailing craft is dependent on wind speed, there will often be conditions of relatively low boat speed (below displacement Froude number of 2). So it was recommended that a prototype design would have a retractable hydrofoil system which could be engaged in suitable conditions (sufficient boat speed). The effects of leeway and heel on the total hydrodynamic resistance were determined experimentally, but it was found that these trends were affected by the resulting changes in wave interference resistance. Since wave interference depended strongly on the hull shape, it was therefore concluded that no universal trends can be determined regarding the effects of heel and leeway on the total hydrodynamic resistance. These effects were determined for RH1 and it was shown that these effects are drastically altered by the addition of the lifting foils.

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