Sinclair, Dana A.
The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the transition experiences of Canada's high performance athletes within Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) theoretical framework to determine the predisposing factors and effects of the transition process. More specifically, this study investigated the reasons for retirement, the individual coping strategies and support networks used by transitional athletes, as well as other variables that may have impacted on the athlete's adjustment process. This study provided an alternative, comprehensive perspective from which to examine retirement from high performance sport. Retired high performance athletes (N = 199) with international competitive experience completed the Athlete Retirement Questionnaire, a 34-item instrument developed for this study. Multivariate analyses revealed that planned retirement led to smoother adjustment than unplanned retirement. Loglinear analyses indicated that positive adjustment was also related to those transitions which caused the least disruption in the lives of the athletes. Chi-square analyses showed that those athletes who adjusted smoothly tended to retire after they had achieved their sport related goals or because they had achieved their goals in sport. Athletes who were more dissatisfied with their transition tended to feel incompetent outside of sport and tended to feel that keeping busy was not an effective coping strategy. Charner and Schlossberg's transitional framework received support in terms of overall fit, and provided direction for practical intervention suggestions. Finally, this study suggests that adjustment to retirement from high performance sport may not be as distressing or problematic for as many national team athletes as previously thought.
L'environnement thérapeutique tel que percu par l'adolescent comme prédicteur de collaboration au traitement.Lavoie, Gérard. January 1993 (has links)
La resistance au traitement constitue un probleme depuis longtemps reconnu par les intervenants et plusieurs ecrits soulignent la resistance particuliere de l'adolescent. La collaboration etant un facteur essentiel a la demarche therapeutique, la resistance de l'adolescent rend ainsi incertaine l'efficacite du traitement. L'affirmation d'une necessaire collaboration suggere que la mise en place d'un climat favorable a celle-ci constitue un objectif prealable au traitement de l'adolescent. Plusieurs recherches demontrent certes la relation entre la collaboration et la reussite du traitement mais celles-ci ne permettent pas de repondre a la question de ce qui est a meme de susciter cette necessaire collaboration de l'adolescent. Une analyse des ecrits portant sur le probleme de la resistance au traitement a l'adolescence a permis d'identifier un cadre theorique pertinent a l'operationnalisation de la presente recherche. En effet, la resistance de l'adolescent etant consideree comme resultant de la relation entre le contexte de traitement et l'adolescent en maturation, la theorie relationnelle de la motivation etait donc appropriee pour fonder et guider notre demarche. Selon cette theorie, la resistance ou la motivation que l'adolescent manifeste renvoie a ses perceptions presentes et situationnelles relatives au milieu de traitement. Pour etre motivant, ce milieu doit de plus s'accorder a la realite maturationnelle de l'adolescence et repondre aux preferences de l'adolescent en matiere de traitement. Les resultats obtenus soutiennent notre hypothese generale a l'effet que la collaboration de l'adolescent refere aux perceptions de ce dernier relatives au contexte de traitement. Ils permettent de plus d'identifier une configuration de facteurs particulierement favorable a la collaboration de l'adolescent. Afin de maximiser celle-ci, le milieu doit permettre a l'adolescent d'experimenter son autonomie dans le cadre de limites clairement affirmees, et ce dans une atmosphere de support. Au debut de la demarche, l'orientation visant la resolution des problemes d'ordre pratique de l'adolescent peut etre introduite alors que celle visant la resolution de ses problemes personnels profite de l'etablissement prealable d'un contexte relationnel de qualite.
The purpose of this thesis is to assess the service needs of area youth "at risk". The main findings of this research indicate that persistent and serious adolescent offenders were more likely to have more negative composite profiles. In particular, they were more likely to come from families with: a single parent; another member with a criminal history; a lower class background; alcoholism; and poor relationships within the family. Similarly, persistent and serious adolescent offenders were significantly more likely to: be unemployed and not in school; be truant; and have dropped out of school. It was also discovered that area persistent and serious adolescent offenders were more likely to: have negative motivation/response to present intervention; have rejected or expelled from another program/service; be more aggressive; abuse alcohol and drugs; and have negative attitudes toward both their delinquency and the criminal justice system. Area social service agencies must begin to make more creative and effective use of existing resources. The educational system must recognize and capitalize upon its role in identifying youth "at risk". Finally, agents of the criminal justice system, particularly the police, must begin to become more involved in community-based interagency initiatives which focus on the preventative or proactive role of their activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Effet d'un programme de formation en approche créative à la résolution de problèmes (CPS) sur les aptitudes créatives de l'infirmière et sur leur utilisation lors de l'application de son processus d'intervention.Gravelle, Diane. January 1992 (has links)
La présente étude de type quasi-experimental a pour but de démontrer l'effet d'un programme en approche créative à la résolution de problèmes (le "Creative Problem Solving" d'Osborn-Parnes "CPS") sur le développement d'aptitudes créatives chez l'étudiante-infirmière et sur son aptitude à appliquer le processus créatif de résolution de problèmes à des situations de soins infirmiers. La méthodologie employée a permis de mesurer l'effet d'un apprentissage expérientiel en approche créative de résolution de problèmes sur: (1) les aptitudes créatives des étudiantes-infirmières; (2) leur aptitude à reconnaître les problèmes de santé des patients; (3) leur aptitude à circonscrire des solutions adéquates à ces problèmes; (4) leur auto-évaluation en regard des traits de personnalité créative. Par la présente recherche, nous cherchons à faire ressortir la complicité entre l'approche créative à la résolution de problème et la démarche de soins traditionnellement enseignée dans les programmes de soins infirmiers. Habituellement, les étudiantes utilisent une démarche rationnelle à l'aide de données conscientes, logiques, qui ont un impact dans l'immédiat. Ainsi, plutôt que de scruter diverses facettes du problème et, partant, de générer plusieurs possibilités de nouvelles solutions, l'étudiante, au contraire, tente de trouver immédiatement la bonne solution de façon à s'assurer un bon résultat (Getzels, 1964; Lazure, 1980). En constatant les avantages de l'approche créative, nous sommes en mesure d'affirmer que le travail de la pensée divergente permettrait d'élargir les horizons de la cueillette des données en utilisant la totalité des informations sensorielles (comme le suggère Adams, 1989) pour être en mesure de bien analyser le problème du patient et trouver des solutions qui soient adaptées à sa personne. Tout en reconnaissant que d'autres recherches sont nécessaires pour offrir une meilleure généralisation des résultats, nous considérons qu'il est impérieux d'insérer dans tout programme de soins infirmiers des objectifs précis en matière de développement de la pensée créative et des aptitudes inhérentes à celle-ci. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Casey, John Andrew.
No description available.
Topping, John F.
Numerous authors in the fields of International Relations (IR) and International Political Economy (IPE) have pointed out the limits of contemporary theories in explaining the complexities of the globalization phenomenon. Greater attention to the construction of identity and to agency, it is proposed here, could well provide a more complete set of knowledge with which to better assess globalization. This thesis considers the place of Robert Cox's theory in understanding identity and agency in globalization. It examines the high school curriculum of Career and Personal Planning (CAPP), a course introduced in British Columbia, Canada, in September 1995. Through its messages to students, teachers and administrators, CAPP carries claims and assumptions about how individuals and communities in the contemporary world order construct who they are, as well as how they come to take action in matters that affect them.
Taylor, Shaunna L.
The purpose of this study was to implement and assess the effectiveness of Orlick's (1993) mental skills/life skills training program in an alternative elementary school. Four teachers of 85 students in multi-aged classes were instructed to modify the program however they saw fit, in order to have it meet the needs of their students. The alternative school classes were divided into multi-aged groupings of grade 1/2, 2/3, 4/5, and 6. The primary objectives of the study were to investigate (a) how teachers would make adaptations to the intervention program to suit their classroom environments, (b) how the teachers felt they were affected through their participation in the program, and (c) whether the students would increase their ability to relax themselves and improve their ability to identify and control stress. The results of this study showed the teachers made modifications to the intervention program on session and global levels, and reported personal gain from their participation. The students showed significant and positive results in their ability to relax, as indicated in pre- and post-intervention heart rate test scores using the HR monitor DT 1000, and in their ability to identify and control stress as indicated by logbook analysis. The teacher results will be used as a blueprint for further refinement to the Orlick (1993) intervention program curriculum and delivery.
St Denis, Marnie L.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 10 week positive perspective/highlight program developed specifically for elementary school children. Two intact classes of grade four children took part in the study, one experimental and one control. The experimental group participated in various games and activities designed to promote positive perspectives and help the children look for positive highlights in their daily lives. Significant positive effects were found in the experimental group with respect to increased frequencies of highlights, and positive feelings about self following the intervention program. Ten categories emerged from a qualitative analysis of over 2,000 highlights that children recorded in their logbooks: human contact, play/activity, contact with nature, tasting pleasures, accomplishments, discovery, entertainment, receiving/giving, positive anticipation, and relaxation.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of three training methods in empathy in order to establish which of the three was most effective in promoting higher levels of empathy in the helper. Forty-two volunteer student-counselors from the University of Ottawa were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) a control group receiving 9 hours of pre-experimental audiotape empathy training (n = 11); (2) an experimental group 1 receiving 9 hours of pre-experimental training plus an additional 9 hours of identical audiotape training ( n = 10); (3) an experimental group 2 receiving the 9 hours of pre-experimental training plus 9 more hours of roleplaying (n = 11); and finally (4) an experimental group 3 receiving the 9 hours of pre-experimental training plus Microcounseling training (n = 10). The experimental design was a pretest-posttest control group design. Empathy was measured by scoring responses to the Index of Communication and rating excerpts from the recorded standard interviews. Independent judges rated the responses to the Index of Communication and the excerpts from the standard interviews, using the Carkhuff Empathic Understanding in Interpersonal Processes: A Scale for Measurement (Carkhuff empathy scale). A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test for significant differences between the pretest and posttest means of the three groups. Significant differences were found between posttest means on one criterion only, the standard interview. The results indicated that (1) both the roleplaying and the Microcounseling were more effective than the audio only and the no-treatment group in promoting higher levels of empathy in the trainees, and that (2) Microcounseling was as effective as Carkhuff's systematic training approach in training for empathy, but it was not superior to Carkhuff's approach. Several reasons are suggested for these results.
Stein, Steven J.
This study investigated the effects of the two kinds of marital therapy programs on couples volunteering to improve their relationships. Two groups of couples participated in the Minnesota Couples Communication Program. One of these groups was posttested immediately after treatment while the other was posttested six weeks following treatment. A third group of couples played the Family Contract Game which was adapted for couples in the present study. Finally, there was a waiting list Control group who received the same pretest and posttest procedures as the previous groups. All groups self-monitored throughout the 5 weeks during which treatment occurred as well as for 6 weeks following the termination of the treatment phase. A series of self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioural measures of all spouses were taken at the beginning and end of the treatment program. Couples in the Communications Program tested immediately following treatment decreased in the number of positive responses they gave while discussing problem issues, reported being less happy with their relationship, but spent more time together. Communications couples tested 6 weeks after treatment gave fewer negative responses when discussing a problem issue, received fewer pleasing and displeasing behaviours from their spouse, and spent more time together. Contracting couples gave more positive responses when discussing a problem issue, increased their reported happiness with their relationship and decreased in the number of displeasing behaviours received. Control couples decreased in their reported happiness with their relationship during the self-monitoring period, and at the time of posttesting reported spending more time together; they also requested fewer changes of their spouse in problem areas, and requested less change in the number of activities they wanted to do with their spouse. These results suggest that, at best, Communications Skills training has minimal behavioural change consequences for marital relationships, and at most, such training can result in iatrogenic effects. The Contracting procedure was the most effective in producing behavioural and subjective changes in marital relationships and would seem to hold the greatest promise for understanding and treating certain disturbed marital relations.
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