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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Development of a heterogeneous microwave network, fade simulation tool applicable to networks that span Europe

Basarudin, Hafiz January 2012 (has links)
Radio communication systems operating at microwave frequencies are strongly attenuated by hydrometeors such as rain and wet snow (sleet). Hydrometeor attenuation dominates the dynamic fading of most types of radio links operating above 10 GHz, especially high capacity, fixed, terrestrial and Earth-Space links. The International Telecommunication Unions – Radio Section (ITU-R) provides a set of internationally recognized models to predict annual fade distributions for a wide variety of individual radio link. However, these models are not sufficient for the design and optimisation of networks, even as simple as two links. There are considerable potential gains to be achieved from the optimized design of real-time or predictive Dynamic Resource Management systems. The development of these systems requires a joint channel simulation tool applicable to arbitrary, heterogeneous networks. This thesis describes the development of a network fade simulation tool, known as GINSIM, which can simulate joint dynamic fade time-series on heterogeneous networks of arbitrary geometry, spanning Europe. GINSIM uses as input meteorological and topological data from a variety of sources and numerically calculates the joint effects on fading on all links in a specified network. ITU-R models are used to transform rain rate into specific attenuation and to estimate the specific attenuation amplification due to non-liquid hydrometeors. The resulting simulation tool has been verified against ITU-R models of average annual fade distributions, fade slope and fade duration distributions, in the southern UK. Validation has also been performed against measured terrestrial and Earth-space link data, acquired in the Southern UK and Scotland.

Numerical modelling of the deformation of elastic material by the TLM method

Langley, Philip January 1997 (has links)
The transmission line matrix (TLM) method is a numerical tool for the solution of wave and diffusion type equations. The application of TLM to physical phenomena such as heat flow and electromagnetic wave propagation is well established. A previous attempt to apply TLM models to the area of elastic wave propagation and elastic deformation had limited success. The work of this thesis extends the application base of TLM to the area of elastic deformation modelling and validates the model for several two-dimensional situations. In doing this it has been necessary to develop new nodal structures which facilitate the scaling of differential coefficients and incorporation of cross derivatives. Nodal structures which allow the modelling of two and three-dimensional, and anisotropic, elastic deformation are described. The technique is demonstrated by applying the elastic deformation model to several elastic problems. These include two-dimensional isotropic models and models of anisotropic elastic deformation. Provision is also made for the application of various boundary conditions which include displacement, force and frictional boundaries.

Quality of service for voice over next generation networks.

Perumal, Eugene Govindhren. January 2004 (has links)
The Global communications transformation is currently in progress. Packet switched technology has moved from data - only applications into the heart of the network to take up the functions of traditional circuit - switched equipment. Voice over A TM(VoATM) and voice over IP(VoIP) are the two main alternatives for carrying voice packets over NGN' s. A TM offers the advantage of its built in quality of service mechanisms. IP on the other hand could not provide QoS guarantees in its traditional form. IP QoS mechanisms evolved only in recent years. There are currently no QoS differences between Next Generation Networks based on VoATM or VoIP. However non QoS agreements are more in favour of VoIP instead of VoA TM. This gives VoIP the leading edge bet the Voice over packet technologies. In this thesis the E - Model was optimized and used to study the effects of delay, utilization and coder design on voice quality. The optimization was used to choose a coder and utilization levels given certain conditions. An optimization algorithm formed through the E - Model was used to assist with the selection of parameters important to VoIP networks. These parameters include the link utilization, voice coder and allowable packet loss. This research also shows us that different utilization, voice coder and packet loss levels are optimal in different situations. A remote and core VoIP Network simulation model was developed and used to study the complex queuing issues surrounding VoIP networks. The models look at some of the variables that need to be controlled in order to minimize delay. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2004.

On-line estimation approaches to fault-tolerant control of uncertain systems

Klinkhieo, Supat January 2009 (has links)
This thesis is concerned with fault estimation in Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) and as such involves the joint problem of on-line estimation within an adaptive control system. The faults that are considered are significant uncertainties affecting the control variables of the process and their estimates are used in an adaptive control compensation mechanism. The approach taken involves the active FTC, as the faults can be considered as uncertainties affecting the control system. The engineering (application domain) challenges that are addressed are: (1) On-line model-based fault estimation and compensation as an FTC problem, for systems with large but bounded fault magnitudes and for which the faults can be considered as a special form of dynamic uncertainty. (2) Fault-tolerance in the distributed control of uncertain inter-connected systems The thesis also describes how challenge (1) can be used in the distributed control problem of challenge (2). The basic principle adopted throughout the work is that the controller has two components, one involving the nominal control action and the second acting as an adaptive compensation for significant uncertainties and fault effects. The fault effects are a form of uncertainty which is considered too large for the application of passive FTC methods. The thesis considers several approaches to robust control and estimation: augmented state observer (ASO); sliding mode control (SMC); sliding mode fault estimation via Sliding Mode Observer (SMO); linear parameter-varying (LPV) control; two-level distributed control with learning coordination.

Placement and routing for reconfigurable systems

Stepien, Piotr January 2009 (has links)
Applications using reconfigurable logic have been widely demonstrated to offer better performance over software-based solutions. However, good performance rating is often destroyed by poor reconfiguration latency - time required to reconfigure hardware to perform the new task. Recent research focus on design automation techniques to address reconfiguration latency bottleneck. The contribution to novelty of this thesis is in new placement and routing techniques resulting in minimising reconfiguration latency of reconfigurable systems. This presents a part of design process concerned with positioning and connecting design blocks in a logic gate array. The aim of the research is to optimise the placement and interconnect strategy such that dynamic changes in system functionality can be achieved with minimum delay. A review of previous work in the field is given and the relevant theoretical framework developed. The dynamic reconfiguration problem is analysed for various reconfigurable technologies. Several algorithms are developed and evaluated using a representative set of problem domains to assess their effectiveness. Results obtained with novel placement and routing techniques demonstrate configuration data size reduction leading to significant reconfiguration latency improvements.

Fibre Bragg gratings for microwave photonics and sensing

Yu, Guoyu January 2002 (has links)
This thesis presents details on the fabrication of microwave transversal filters using fibre Bragg grating arrays and the building of fibre Bragg grating based magnetic-field sensors. Some theoretical background about fibre Bragg gratings, photosensitivity, fibre Bragg grating sensors and filters are presented. Fibre Bragg grating sensors in other industrial applications are highlighted. Some sensing principles are also introduced. Experimental work is carried out to demonstrate a magnetic-field sensor using an established fibre Bragg grating strain sensor. System performance and trade-off are discussed. The most important part of this thesis is on the fabrication of photonic transversal filter using fibre Bragg grating arrays. In order to improve the filter performance, a novel tap multiplexing structure is presented. Further improving approaches such as apodisation are also investigated. The basis of nonrecirculating filter, some structure and performance are introduced.

Numerical modelling of dispersion managed soliton transmission

Govan, Donald S. January 1999 (has links)
This thesis presents the results of numerical modelling of the propagation of dispersion managed solitons. The theory of optical pulse propagation in single mode optical fibre is introduced specifically looking at the use of optical solitons for fibre communications. The numerical technique used to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is also introduced. The recent developments in the use of dispersion managed solitons are reviewed before the numerical results are presented. The work in this thesis covers two main areas; (i) the use of a saturable absorber to control the propagation of dispersion managed solutions and (ii) the upgrade of the installed standard fibre network to higher data rates through the use of solitons and dispersion management. Saturable absorbe can be used to suppress the build up of noise and dispersive radiation in soliton transmission lines. The use of saturable absorbers in conjunction with dispersion management has been investigated both as a single pulse and for the transmission of a 10Gbit/s data pattern. It is found that this system supports a new regime of stable soliton pulses with significantly increased powers. The upgrade of the installed standard fibre network to higher data rates through the use of fibre amplifiers and dispersion management is of increasing interest. In this thesis the propagation of data at both 10Gbit/s and 40Gbit/s is studied. Propagation over transoceanic distances is shown to be possible for 10Gbit/s transmission and for more than 2000km at 40Gbit/s. The contribution of dispersion managed solitons in the future of optical communications is discussed in the thesis conclusions.

A methodology for analysis and control of discrete event dynamic systems

Azzopardi, Daniel January 1996 (has links)
The rapid developments in computer technology have resulted in a widespread use of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDSs). This type of system is complex because it exhibits properties such as concurrency, conflict and non-determinism. It is therefore important to model and analyse such systems before implementation to ensure safe, deadlock free and optimal operation. This thesis investigates current modelling techniques and describes Petri net theory in more detail. It reviews top down, bottom up and hybrid Petri net synthesis techniques that are used to model large systems and introduces on object oriented methodology to enable modelling of larger and more complex systems. Designs obtained by this methodology are modular, easy to understand and allow re-use of designs. Control is the next logical step in the design process. This thesis reviews recent developments in control DEDSs and investigates the use of Petri nets in the design of supervisory controllers. The scheduling of exclusive use of resources is investigated and an efficient Petri net based scheduling algorithm is designed and a re-configurable controller is proposed. To enable the analysis and control of large and complex DEDSs, an object oriented C++ software tool kit was developed and used to implement a Petri net analysis tool, Petri net scheduling and control algorithms. Finally, the methodology was applied to two industrial DEDSs: a prototype can sorting machine developed by Eurotherm Controls Ltd., and a semiconductor testing plant belonging to SGS Thomson Microelectronics Ltd.

Oxidational wear of low alloy steel in gases other than air

Dawud, Sattar J. January 1992 (has links)
A pin on disc wear machine has been used to study the oxidational wear of low alloy steel in a series of experiments which were carried out under dry wear sliding conditions at range of loads from 11.28 to 49.05 N and three sliding speeds of 2 m/s, 3.5 m/s and 5 m/s, in atmosphere of air, Ar, CO2, 100% O2, 20% O2-80% Ar and 2% O2-98% Ar. Also, the experiments were conducted to study frictional force, surface and contact temperatures and surface parameters of the wearing pins. The wear debris was examined using x-ray diffraction technique for the identification of compounds produced by the wear process. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the topographical features of worn pins and to measure the thickness of the oxide films. Microhardness tests were carried out to investigate the influence of the sub-surface microhardness in tribological conditions. Under all loads, speeds and atmospheres parabolic oxidation growth was observed on worn surface, although such growth is dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the atmospheres employed. These atmospheres are shown to influence wear rate and coefficient of friction with change in applied load. The nature of the atmosphere also has influence on surface and contact temperatures as determined from heat flow analysis. Unlubricated wear debris was found to be a mixture of Fe_2O_3, Fe_3O_4 and FeO oxide. A model has been proposed for tribo-oxide growth demonstrating the importance of diffusion rate and oxygen partial pressure, in the oxidation processes and thus in determination of wear rates.

Design and development of a time of flight fast scattering spectrometer : a quantitative surface analysis technique and a new approach towards the experimental investigation of the surface particle interactions

Giles, Roger January 1995 (has links)
A new surface analysis technique has been developed which has a number of benefits compared to conventional Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry (LEISS). A major potential advantage arising from the absence of charge exchange complications is the possibility of quantification. The instrumentation that has been developed also offers the possibility of unique studies concerning the interaction between low energy ions and atoms and solid surfaces. From these studies it may also be possible, in principle, to generate sensitivity factors to quantify LEISS data. The instrumentation, which is referred to as a Time-of-Flight Fast Atom Scattering Spectrometer has been developed to investigate these conjecture in practice. The development, involved a number of modifications to an existing instrument, and allowed samples to be bombarded with a monoenergetic pulsed beam of either atoms or ions, and provided the capability to analyse the spectra of scattered atoms and ions separately. Further to this a system was designed and constructed to allow incident, exit and azimuthal angles of the particle beam to be varied independently. The key development was that of a pulsed, and mass filtered atom source; which was developed by a cyclic process of design, modelling and experimentation. Although it was possible to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the instrument, problems relating to surface contamination prevented the measurement of the neutralisation probabilities. However, these problems appear to be technical rather than scientific in nature, and could be readily resolved given the appropriate resources. Experimental spectra obtained from a number of samples demonstrate some fundamental differences between the scattered ion and neutral spectra. For practical non-ordered surfaces the ToF spectra are more complex than their LEISS counterparts. This is particularly true for helium scattering where it appears, in the absence of detailed computer simulation, that quantitative analysis is limited to ordered surfaces. Despite this limitation the ToFFASS instrument opens the way for quantitative analysis of the 'true' surface region to a wider range of surface materials.

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