• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 15
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 44
  • 44
  • 15
  • 11
  • 10
  • 8
  • 8
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The development and use of thermal desorption methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in ambient air

Bahrami, Abdulrahman January 1996 (has links)
In occupational and public health there is a need for measurement and speciation of chemicals in ambient air to achieve control of air pollution and minimize health risks. In this work two methods of analysis are developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under ambient air conditions. Both methods involve the use of thermal desorption techniques with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) airborne particulate samples are obtained by collection on small glass fibre filters. The volatile materials from these are thermally desorbed in two stages and transferred to a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer analytical system. Results from studies of particulate samples obtained from sites in the region of Uxbridge, Middlesex are reported for eight selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measurements on samples obtained directly from vehicle emission sources with the engine used under different running conditions are also reported. In the method of analysis of volatile organic compounds in air, samples are absorbed into 4mm Carbotrap 300 tubes and thermally desorbed and passed into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography (GC) using helium as carrier gas. The Carbotrap absorbers used, show complete absorb/desorb reversibility, are thermally stable and do not react chemically with injected hydrocarbon standards. To demonstrate the value of the method analytical results obtained under ambient air conditions on the Brunel University campus (Uxbridge, Middlesex) are reported. Six selected low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons namely benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and m-, p- and o-xylene are investigated in detail. The concentrations of these compounds were measured and results related to traffic flow rates and meteorological conditions to establish the fact that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main sources of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution at the collection sites. A study of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) levels in ambient air in Tehran (Iran) in which 55 hydrocarbons are identified is reported. A detailed study is made of the concentrations of the six hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and m-, p- and o-xylene because high concentrations of these pollutants can produce potential health problems. It is shown that the nature of the geographical location and the day time temperature play an important part in determining the composition of the mixture of pollutants in Tehran. Samples obtained directly from internal combustion engines with and without catalytic converters are also analysed using the method developed and the results show that there is a large depletion in aromatic hydrocarbons when toluene is reduced to a greater extent than benzene. The analytical method is also used to compare vehicle emissions from engines under cold start and hot start conditions.
2

Behaviour and control of evaporative emissions systems for spark ignition engines

Luff, David Christopher January 2002 (has links)
No description available.
3

Sol-gel derived palladium catalysts for the removal of automotive chemical pollutants

Salvesen, Thomas Alexander January 1999 (has links)
Sol-gel production of catalyst supports has been investigated in order to produce homogeneous, high surface area alumina/zirconia materials. A novel microwave method of preparing colloidal Pd has been developed and a range of alumina/zirconia supported Pd catalysts has been produced. These have been tested for activity in terms of temperature programmed three way catalysis (simultaneous removal of NO, CO and C3H8 from a simulated car exhaust stream) and from the array of catalysts produced a suitable catalyst was chosen for further investigation. This catalyst had a 3% zirconia / 97% alumina support and contained ~1% Pd by weight and was examined for activity in the NO + CO + O2 system at temperatures below 500°C. Temperature programmed catalytic experiments revealed the reactions to be chemically controlled below ~400°C but diffusion controlled above this. CO temperature programmed reduction was used to examine the oxidation state of the Pd and revealed a complex Pd/PdO system to be present involving bulk PdO and surface oxide. Further kinetic studies showed that the reactions between NO, CO and O2 to have positive orders in all components. The reaction rates were stable over a wide range of conditions and the NO + CO reaction proved to have a low selectivity towards N2O. In-situ DBIFTS experiments alongside transient pulse work were used to illustrate low CO adsorption which indicated that these reactions proceeded via a redox mechanism in which Pd is oxidised by NO or O2 before being reduced by CO. The support material was examined by XRD following extended heating regimes and then compared to an identically treated sol-gel alumina. The zirconia doped alumina was found to possess a far greater thermal resistance to sintering than the pure alumina material and this was attributed to Zr4+ ions preventing the diffusion of Al3+ to form a-alumina.
4

The regulation of aircraft engine emissions from international civil aviation /

Nyampong, Yaw Otu Mankata January 2005 (has links)
Aircraft engine emissions from civil aviation cause several adverse effects to the atmospheric environment. These emissions are among the known major contributors to changes in atmospheric chemistry and global climate change. One way in which the international community has responded to the problem has been the adoption of several international treaties, generally dealing with subjects such as protection of the ozone layer, long-range transboundary air pollution, and global climate change. / The other way in which the problem has been dealt with is the adoption of an industry-specific international regulatory regime for controlling aircraft engine emissions from civil aviation. In this regard, the international community has, through the law making functions of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), adopted the mechanism of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) to establish a regulatory framework aimed at reducing environmentally harmful engine emissions. These SARPs, though international in nature, are to be implemented at the national level by the member states of ICAO. / This thesis provides a review of current understanding of the effects of aircraft engine emissions on the atmospheric environment and an analysis of the international responses to the problem. In particular, it focuses on the industry-specific regime adopted by ICAO and considers whether it is an effective tool for achieving a balance between the safe and orderly development of civil aviation and the human environment.
5

An investigation of stratified charging of two-stroke engines

Carson, Christopher Edward January 1994 (has links)
No description available.
6

Transition metals promoted alumina catalysts

Mubarak, Ahmed T. A. January 1999 (has links)
No description available.
7

Effects of High Altitude Jet Aircraft on the Stratosphere

Bushnell, Dennis K. 07 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Florida Technological University College of Engineering Thesis / This paper presents a review of the basic thermal, chemical and radiation balances existing in the atmosphere and discusses the mechanisms by which jet engine exhaust products can disturb these balances. Possible effects of stratospheric pollution on plant and animal life are discussed. Methods for reducing harmful emissions through engine design modifications are outlined and current successful research programs are surveyed. The SST type aircraft is shown to be a greater threat to the environment than conventional jets because of differences in cruise altitudes. It is concluded that due to the existence of several potential environmental problems associated with contamination ·or the stratosphere, large scale deployment of the SST should be discouraged, at least until current studies are complete and more data is available. / M.S.; / Masters; / Engineering; / 56 p. / 56 leaves, bound : ill. ; 29 cm.
8

Analytical applications of the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction

Sanders, Matthew Graham January 1999 (has links)
The overall objectives of this thesis were to investigate the potential of the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (POOL) reaction for the quantitative detection of target analytes in non-aqueous matrices and to compare quantitative performance with fluorescence detection. The target analytes investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic amines. These were selected as an important class of compounds in engine exhaust emissions and a detergent additive in diesel fuel respectively. Chapter one outlines the challenges of analysing petroleum products and engine exhaust emissions and discusses the potential of luminescence techniques, particularly chemiluminescence (CL), for the quantification of trace components. The chapter also reviews the technique of flow injection (FT) as a means of sample delivery for CL detection and as a potential technique for field deployment. Liquid chromatography techniques are described as a means of separation of complex matrices, e.g. fuels and engine exhaust particulates, in the laboratory prior to CL detection. The luminescence properties of several PAHs were investigated in Chapter Two. Optimum excitation and emission wavelengths for eleven PAHs in four different solvents were determined using a batch fluorescence technique. A FI approach was used to determine PAH concentrations using fluorescence and POCL detection. Two aryl oxalates; bis(2,4-dinitophenyl)oxalate and bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate were compared for their suitability for PAH determinations and an investigation of the key variables (e.g. concentration of aryl oxalate and hydrogen peroxide, mobile phase composition and pH) affecting POCL was performed. Recommendations for the optimum conditions for the determination of PAHs by POCL detection were determined, A comparison between a photodiode based detection device and a low power (12V) photomultiplier tube was also described. In Chapter Three the procedure of using POCL detection as a post column liquid chromatography (LC) detector for PAHs has been considered. The performance of the POCL detection system was compared with wavelength programmed fluorescence. Both reversed and normal phase LC was investigated and the suitability of POCL detection with each approach was discussed. Additionally the procedure for the LC separation and analysis of SRM 1649 (Urban Dust/Organics) and SRM 1650 (Diesel Particulate Matter) was described. The relative performance of fluorescence and CL detection are discussed. Chapter four describes the principles of multivariate calibration of spectrophotometric data, and three commonly applied techniques (PCR, PLSI and PLS2). Fluorescence data was obtained for synthetic mixtures of PAHs containing two, three, four and five components. A procedure whereby individual spectra were 'glued' together before undergoing data analysis has been developed and the results obtained discussed. POCL emission spectra for five PAHs were acquired using a two-dimensional charge coupled device (CCD). The sensitivity of the CCD system toward POCL detection of PAHs and a multivariate investigation using benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene has been described. The potential of the fluorescence and CL approaches used has been discussed. Chapter five describes the aryl oxalate sulphorhodamine-101 CL reaction and its application to the determination of amines. A FI optimisation of the reaction parameters is presented together with some quantitative data for the detection of a homologous series of amines and dodecylamine (a commonly added detergent compound in diesel fuels). The application of the technique toward the detection of dodecylamine in a diesel fuel matrix and the potential as a field deployable technique was also considered.
9

Computational fluid dynamic modelling of flow and combustion in spark ignition engines

Das, Sudhakar January 1996 (has links)
The present work is based on the need for understanding the in-cylinder flow and its subsequent effects on combustion in a valved-two-stroke spark ignition engine with fuel injection using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental techniques. In this context, the CFD code KIVA-II has been modified to model the two-stroke engine gas exchange and combustion processes. A 3-D Cartesian grid generation program for complex engine geometry has been added to the KIVA code which has been modified to include intake and exhaust flow processes with valves. New and improved sub models for wall jet interaction, mixing controlled combustion and one dimensional wave action have also been incorporated. The modified version of the program has been used to simulate a fuel injected two-stroke spark ignition engine and parametric studies have been undertaken. The simulated flow, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions show the expected trends in behaviour observed in actual engines. In the second phase of this study, the air-assisted-fuel-injection (AAFI) process into a cylinder has been simulated with a high resolution computational grid. The simulation results are presented and compared with experimental data obtained using the Schlieren optical technique. An approximate method based on the conservation of mass, momentum and energy of the spray jet and using a comparatively coarse grid has been suggested for simulating the AAFI process. The simulation study predicts a high degree of atomisation of fuel spray with Sauter mean diameter around 10 μm even with moderate air and fuel pressures. The penetration and width of spray are simulated within 15% of the experimental values. In the last phase of this study, the flow and combustion processes have been studied for a four-stroke spark ignition engine with the AAFI process. The simulation results obtained using this approximate method have been validated with experimental data generated for the same engine configuration.
10

Investigation of barrel swirl in spark ignition engines

Baker, Philip January 1997 (has links)
No description available.

Page generated in 0.118 seconds