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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Revealing the Physics of Multiphase Galactic Winds Through Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Simulations

Schneider, Evan Elizabeth, Schneider, Evan Elizabeth January 2017 (has links)
This thesis documents the hydrodynamics code Cholla and a numerical study of multiphase galactic winds. Cholla is a massively-parallel, GPU-based code designed for astrophysical simulations that is freely available to the astrophysics community. A static-mesh Eulerian code, Cholla is ideally suited to carrying out massive simulations (> 2048 ³ cells) that require very high resolution. The code incorporates state-of-the-art hydrodynamics algorithms including third-order spatial reconstruction, exact and linearized Riemann solvers, and unsplit integration algorithms that account for transverse fluxes on multidimensional grids. Operator-split radiative cooling and a dual-energy formalism for high mach number flows are also included. An extensive test suite demonstrates Cholla's superior ability to model shocks and discontinuities, while the GPU-native design makes the code extremely computationally efficient - speeds of 5-10 million cell updates per GPU-second are typical on current hardware for 3D simulations with all of the aforementioned physics. The latter half of this work comprises a comprehensive study of the mixing between a hot, supernova-driven wind and cooler clouds representative of those observed in multiphase galactic winds. Both adiabatic and radiatively-cooling clouds are investigated. The analytic theory of cloud-crushing is applied to the problem, and adiabatic turbulent clouds are found to be mixed with the hot wind on similar timescales as the classic spherical case (4-5 t_cc) with an appropriate rescaling of the cloud-crushing time. Radiatively cooling clouds survive considerably longer, and the differences in evolution between turbulent and spherical clouds cannot be reconciled with a simple rescaling. The rapid incorporation of low-density material into the hot wind implies efficient mass-loading of hot phases of galactic winds. At the same time, the extreme compression of high-density cloud material leads to long-lived but slow-moving clumps that are unlikely to escape the galaxy.
2

A Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

Malcolm, Duane Tearaitoa Kingwell January 2006 (has links)
The aim of this project is to develop a computational model of the structure and function of the ocular lens, specifically the solute and fluid transport in the lens. The modelling framework was based on finite volume methods. The intracellular and extracellular solute fluxes were modelled using the Nernst-Plank equation with an extra term to capture solute fluxes due to advection. The modelling framework included equations describing the flux through the Na+ /K+ pumps and K+ channels in the surface membrane, and Na+ and Cl- channels in the fibre cell membrane. The intracellular fluid flow between adjacent fibre cells was modelled by a homogenised transmembrane fluid flow equation and the intracellular fluid flow along the fibre cell was modelled as Poiseuille flow. The extracellular fluid flow was modelled as Couette flow with an extra term to capture electro-osmotic flow. The fluid flow through the fibre cell membrane and surface membrane was modelled as transmembrane fluid flow. The governing equations account for the structural properties of the lens, such as the tortuosity of the extracellular cleft, the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions, and the membrane density. A one-dimensional model of the Na+ , K+ , Cl- and fluid transport in the frog lens was developed. This model was based on the analytic model developed by Mathias (1985b). The results were consistent with the results from the analytic model and experimental data. Two versions of the two-dimensional model were developed. In the first model, the parameters were spatially constant except for the distribution of the Na+ /K+ pump currents at the lens surface and the fibre cell angles. The second model was the same, except the extracellular cleft width and fibre cell height was spatially varied to represent the sutures and the diffusion barrier. These models were solved and compared with each other and with experimental data. Compared to the first, the second model predicted a significantly larger circulation of solutes and fluid between the pole and equator. It predicted a 12-20% increase in the penetration of Na+ , K+ and fluid into the lens. The second model also predicted a 300-400% increase in Cl- penetration and, unlike the first model, a Cl- circulation between the poles and equator. This is significant since Cl- is not an actively transported solute. These results highlight the strong structure-function relationship in the lens and the importance of an accurate spatial representation of model parameters. The direction of the current, solute fluxes and fluid flow that were predicted by the model were consistent with experimental data but the magnitude of the surface current was a tenth to a third of the values measure by the vibrating probe. To demonstrate the application of the lens model, the two-dimensional model was used to simulate age-related changes in lens physiology. This was done by increasing the radius of the lens to simulate growth with age. The model predicted an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration, Cl- concentration and potential, and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration with age. These trends were consistent with those observed by Duncan et al. (1989), except for the intracellular K+ concentration, where they reported no change with age. The two-dimensional model forms a foundation for future developments and applications.
3

A Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

Malcolm, Duane Tearaitoa Kingwell January 2006 (has links)
The aim of this project is to develop a computational model of the structure and function of the ocular lens, specifically the solute and fluid transport in the lens. The modelling framework was based on finite volume methods. The intracellular and extracellular solute fluxes were modelled using the Nernst-Plank equation with an extra term to capture solute fluxes due to advection. The modelling framework included equations describing the flux through the Na+ /K+ pumps and K+ channels in the surface membrane, and Na+ and Cl- channels in the fibre cell membrane. The intracellular fluid flow between adjacent fibre cells was modelled by a homogenised transmembrane fluid flow equation and the intracellular fluid flow along the fibre cell was modelled as Poiseuille flow. The extracellular fluid flow was modelled as Couette flow with an extra term to capture electro-osmotic flow. The fluid flow through the fibre cell membrane and surface membrane was modelled as transmembrane fluid flow. The governing equations account for the structural properties of the lens, such as the tortuosity of the extracellular cleft, the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions, and the membrane density. A one-dimensional model of the Na+ , K+ , Cl- and fluid transport in the frog lens was developed. This model was based on the analytic model developed by Mathias (1985b). The results were consistent with the results from the analytic model and experimental data. Two versions of the two-dimensional model were developed. In the first model, the parameters were spatially constant except for the distribution of the Na+ /K+ pump currents at the lens surface and the fibre cell angles. The second model was the same, except the extracellular cleft width and fibre cell height was spatially varied to represent the sutures and the diffusion barrier. These models were solved and compared with each other and with experimental data. Compared to the first, the second model predicted a significantly larger circulation of solutes and fluid between the pole and equator. It predicted a 12-20% increase in the penetration of Na+ , K+ and fluid into the lens. The second model also predicted a 300-400% increase in Cl- penetration and, unlike the first model, a Cl- circulation between the poles and equator. This is significant since Cl- is not an actively transported solute. These results highlight the strong structure-function relationship in the lens and the importance of an accurate spatial representation of model parameters. The direction of the current, solute fluxes and fluid flow that were predicted by the model were consistent with experimental data but the magnitude of the surface current was a tenth to a third of the values measure by the vibrating probe. To demonstrate the application of the lens model, the two-dimensional model was used to simulate age-related changes in lens physiology. This was done by increasing the radius of the lens to simulate growth with age. The model predicted an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration, Cl- concentration and potential, and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration with age. These trends were consistent with those observed by Duncan et al. (1989), except for the intracellular K+ concentration, where they reported no change with age. The two-dimensional model forms a foundation for future developments and applications.
4

A Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

Malcolm, Duane Tearaitoa Kingwell January 2006 (has links)
The aim of this project is to develop a computational model of the structure and function of the ocular lens, specifically the solute and fluid transport in the lens. The modelling framework was based on finite volume methods. The intracellular and extracellular solute fluxes were modelled using the Nernst-Plank equation with an extra term to capture solute fluxes due to advection. The modelling framework included equations describing the flux through the Na+ /K+ pumps and K+ channels in the surface membrane, and Na+ and Cl- channels in the fibre cell membrane. The intracellular fluid flow between adjacent fibre cells was modelled by a homogenised transmembrane fluid flow equation and the intracellular fluid flow along the fibre cell was modelled as Poiseuille flow. The extracellular fluid flow was modelled as Couette flow with an extra term to capture electro-osmotic flow. The fluid flow through the fibre cell membrane and surface membrane was modelled as transmembrane fluid flow. The governing equations account for the structural properties of the lens, such as the tortuosity of the extracellular cleft, the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions, and the membrane density. A one-dimensional model of the Na+ , K+ , Cl- and fluid transport in the frog lens was developed. This model was based on the analytic model developed by Mathias (1985b). The results were consistent with the results from the analytic model and experimental data. Two versions of the two-dimensional model were developed. In the first model, the parameters were spatially constant except for the distribution of the Na+ /K+ pump currents at the lens surface and the fibre cell angles. The second model was the same, except the extracellular cleft width and fibre cell height was spatially varied to represent the sutures and the diffusion barrier. These models were solved and compared with each other and with experimental data. Compared to the first, the second model predicted a significantly larger circulation of solutes and fluid between the pole and equator. It predicted a 12-20% increase in the penetration of Na+ , K+ and fluid into the lens. The second model also predicted a 300-400% increase in Cl- penetration and, unlike the first model, a Cl- circulation between the poles and equator. This is significant since Cl- is not an actively transported solute. These results highlight the strong structure-function relationship in the lens and the importance of an accurate spatial representation of model parameters. The direction of the current, solute fluxes and fluid flow that were predicted by the model were consistent with experimental data but the magnitude of the surface current was a tenth to a third of the values measure by the vibrating probe. To demonstrate the application of the lens model, the two-dimensional model was used to simulate age-related changes in lens physiology. This was done by increasing the radius of the lens to simulate growth with age. The model predicted an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration, Cl- concentration and potential, and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration with age. These trends were consistent with those observed by Duncan et al. (1989), except for the intracellular K+ concentration, where they reported no change with age. The two-dimensional model forms a foundation for future developments and applications.
5

A Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

Malcolm, Duane Tearaitoa Kingwell January 2006 (has links)
The aim of this project is to develop a computational model of the structure and function of the ocular lens, specifically the solute and fluid transport in the lens. The modelling framework was based on finite volume methods. The intracellular and extracellular solute fluxes were modelled using the Nernst-Plank equation with an extra term to capture solute fluxes due to advection. The modelling framework included equations describing the flux through the Na+ /K+ pumps and K+ channels in the surface membrane, and Na+ and Cl- channels in the fibre cell membrane. The intracellular fluid flow between adjacent fibre cells was modelled by a homogenised transmembrane fluid flow equation and the intracellular fluid flow along the fibre cell was modelled as Poiseuille flow. The extracellular fluid flow was modelled as Couette flow with an extra term to capture electro-osmotic flow. The fluid flow through the fibre cell membrane and surface membrane was modelled as transmembrane fluid flow. The governing equations account for the structural properties of the lens, such as the tortuosity of the extracellular cleft, the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions, and the membrane density. A one-dimensional model of the Na+ , K+ , Cl- and fluid transport in the frog lens was developed. This model was based on the analytic model developed by Mathias (1985b). The results were consistent with the results from the analytic model and experimental data. Two versions of the two-dimensional model were developed. In the first model, the parameters were spatially constant except for the distribution of the Na+ /K+ pump currents at the lens surface and the fibre cell angles. The second model was the same, except the extracellular cleft width and fibre cell height was spatially varied to represent the sutures and the diffusion barrier. These models were solved and compared with each other and with experimental data. Compared to the first, the second model predicted a significantly larger circulation of solutes and fluid between the pole and equator. It predicted a 12-20% increase in the penetration of Na+ , K+ and fluid into the lens. The second model also predicted a 300-400% increase in Cl- penetration and, unlike the first model, a Cl- circulation between the poles and equator. This is significant since Cl- is not an actively transported solute. These results highlight the strong structure-function relationship in the lens and the importance of an accurate spatial representation of model parameters. The direction of the current, solute fluxes and fluid flow that were predicted by the model were consistent with experimental data but the magnitude of the surface current was a tenth to a third of the values measure by the vibrating probe. To demonstrate the application of the lens model, the two-dimensional model was used to simulate age-related changes in lens physiology. This was done by increasing the radius of the lens to simulate growth with age. The model predicted an increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration, Cl- concentration and potential, and a decrease in the intracellular K+ concentration with age. These trends were consistent with those observed by Duncan et al. (1989), except for the intracellular K+ concentration, where they reported no change with age. The two-dimensional model forms a foundation for future developments and applications.
6

Magneto-hydrodynamics simulation study of high density thermal plasmas in plasma acceleration devices

Sitaraman, Hariswaran 17 October 2013 (has links)
The development of a Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) numerical tool to study high density thermal plasmas in plasma acceleration devices is presented. The MHD governing equations represent eight conservation equations for the evolution of density, momentum, energy and induced magnetic fields in a plasma. A matrix-free implicit method is developed to solve these conservation equations within the framework of an unstructured grid finite volume formulation. The analytic form of the convective flux Jacobian is derived for general unstructured grids. A Lower Upper Symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS) technique is developed as part of the implicit scheme. A coloring based algorithm for parallelization of this technique is also presented and its computational efficiency is compared with a global matrix solve technique that uses the GMRES (Generalized Minimum Residual) algorithm available in the PETSc (Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific computation) libraries. The verification cases used for this study are the MHD shock tube problem in one, two and three dimensions, the oblique shock and the Hartmann flow problem. It is seen that the matrix free method is comparatively faster and shows excellent scaling on multiple cores compared to the global matrix solve technique. The numerical model was thus verified against the above mentioned standard test cases and two application problems were studied. These include the simulation of plasma deflagration phenomenon in a coaxial plasma accelerator and a novel high speed flow control device called the Rail Plasma Actuator (RailPAc). Experimental studies on coaxial plasma accelerators have revealed two different modes of operation based on the delay between gas loading and discharge ignition. Longer delays lead to the detonation or the snowplow mode while shorter delays lead to the relatively efficient stationary or deflagration mode. One of the theories that explain the two different modes is based on plasma resistivity. A numerical modeling study is presented here in the context of a coaxial plasma accelerator and the effect of plasma resistivity is dealt with in detail. The simulated results pertaining to axial distribution of radial currents are compared with experimental measurements which show good agreement with each other. The simulations show that magnetic field diffusion is dominant at lower conductivities which tend to form a stationary region of high current density close to the inlet end of the device. Higher conductivities led to the formation of propagating current sheet like features due to greater convection of magnetic field. This study also validates the theory behind the two modes of operation based on plasma resistivity. The RailPAc (Rail Plasma Actuator) is a novel flow control device that uses the magnetic Lorentz forces for fluid flow actuation at atmospheric pressures. Experimental studies reveal actuation ~ 10-100 m/s can be achieved with this device which is much larger than conventional electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) force based plasma actuators. A magneto-hydrodynamics simulation study of this device is presented. The model is further developed to incorporate applied electric and magnetic fields seen in this device. The snowplow model which is typically used for studying pulsed plasma thrusters is used to predict the arc velocities which agrees well with experimental measurements. Two dimensional simulations were performed to study the effect of Lorentz forcing and heating effects on fluid flow actuation. Actuation on the order of 100 m/s is attained at the head of the current sheet due to the effect of Lorentz forcing alone. The inclusion of heating effects led to isotropic blast wave like actuation which is detrimental to the performance of RailPAc. This study also revealed the deficiencies of a single fluid model and a more accurate multi-fluid approach is proposed for future work. / text
7

Simulations of Surfactant Spreading

Wong, Jeffrey 01 May 2011 (has links)
Thin liquid films driven by surface tension gradients are studied in diverse applications, including the spreading of a droplet and fluid flow in the lung. The nonlinear partial differential equations that govern thin films are difficult to solve analytically, and must be approached through numerical simulations. We describe the development of a numerical solver designed to solve a variety of thin film problems in two dimensions. Validation of the solver includes grid refinement studies and comparison to previous results for thin film problems. In addition, we apply the solver to a model of surfactant spreading and make comparisons with theoretical and experimental results.
8

Block-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Finite-volume Scheme for Hybrid Multi-block Meshes

Zheng, Zheng Xiong 27 November 2012 (has links)
A block-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) finite-volume scheme is developed for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws on two-dimensional hybrid multi-block meshes. A Godunov-type upwind finite-volume spatial-discretization scheme, with piecewise limited linear reconstruction and Riemann-solver based flux functions, is applied to the quadrilateral cells of a hybrid multi-block mesh and these computational cells are embedded in either body-fitted structured or general unstructured grid partitions of the hybrid grid. A hierarchical quadtree data structure is used to allow local refinement of the individual subdomains based on heuristic physics-based refinement criteria. An efficient and scalable parallel implementation of the proposed algorithm is achieved via domain decomposition. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through application to solution of the compressible Euler equations for a number of flow configurations and regimes in two space dimensions. The efficiency of the AMR procedure and accuracy, robustness, and scalability of the hybrid mesh scheme are assessed.
9

Block-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Finite-volume Scheme for Hybrid Multi-block Meshes

Zheng, Zheng Xiong 27 November 2012 (has links)
A block-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) finite-volume scheme is developed for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws on two-dimensional hybrid multi-block meshes. A Godunov-type upwind finite-volume spatial-discretization scheme, with piecewise limited linear reconstruction and Riemann-solver based flux functions, is applied to the quadrilateral cells of a hybrid multi-block mesh and these computational cells are embedded in either body-fitted structured or general unstructured grid partitions of the hybrid grid. A hierarchical quadtree data structure is used to allow local refinement of the individual subdomains based on heuristic physics-based refinement criteria. An efficient and scalable parallel implementation of the proposed algorithm is achieved via domain decomposition. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through application to solution of the compressible Euler equations for a number of flow configurations and regimes in two space dimensions. The efficiency of the AMR procedure and accuracy, robustness, and scalability of the hybrid mesh scheme are assessed.
10

Stable High-Order Finite Difference Methods for Aerodynamics / Stabila högordnings finita differensmetoder för aerodynamik

Svärd, Magnus January 2004 (has links)
In this thesis, the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations (PDE) is studied. In particular high-order finite difference methods on Summation-by-parts (SBP) form are analysed and applied to model problems as well as the PDEs governing aerodynamics. The SBP property together with an implementation of boundary conditions called SAT (Simultaneous Approximation Term), yields stability by energy estimates. The first derivative SBP operators were originally derived for Cartesian grids. Since aerodynamic computations are the ultimate goal, the scheme must also be stable on curvilinear grids. We prove that stability on curvilinear grids is only achieved for a subclass of the SBP operators. Furthermore, aerodynamics often requires addition of artificial dissipation and we derive an SBP version. With the SBP-SAT technique it is possible to split the computational domain into a multi-block structure which simplifies grid generation and more complex geometries can be resolved. To resolve extremely complex geometries an unstructured discretisation method must be used. Hence, we have studied a finite volume approximation of the Laplacian. It can be shown to be on SBP form and a new boundary treatment is derived. Based on the Laplacian scheme, we also derive an SBP artificial dissipation for finite volume schemes. We derive a new set of boundary conditions that leads to an energy estimate for the linearised three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The new boundary conditions will be used to construct a stable SBP-SAT discretisation. To obtain an energy estimate for the discrete equation, it is necessary to discretise all the second derivatives by using the first derivative approximation twice. According to previous theory that would imply a degradation of formal accuracy but we present a proof that this is not the case.

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