Leonard, Benjamin Yoshi
22 September 2011
Highly agile, hover capable flapping wing flight is a relatively new area of study in engineering. Researchers are looking to flapping flight as a potential source for the next generation of reconnaissance and surveillance vehicles. These systems involve highly complicated physics surrounding the flapping wing motion and unusual characteristics due to a hover requirement not normally associated with conventional aircraft. To that end this study focuses on examining the various models and physical parameters that are considered in various other studies. The importance of these models is considered through their effect on the trim and stability of the overall system. The equations of motion are modeled through a quasi coordinate Lagrangian scheme while the aerodynamic forces are calculated using quasi-steady potential flow aerodynamics. Trim solutions are calculated using periodic shooting for several different conditions including hover, climb, and forward flight. The stability of the trim is calculated and examined using stroke-averaged and Floquet theory. Inflow and viscous effects are added and their effects on trim and stability examined. The effects of varying hinge location and the inclusion of stroke deviation in the wing kinematics are also explored. The stroke-averaged system was not found to be a direct replacement for the periodic system as the stability was different for the two systems. Inflow and viscosity were found to have large effects on the stability of the system and models accounting for the two should be included in future flight dynamic models. / Master of Science
Murphy, Ian Patrick
05 March 2013
The study of fixed wing aeronautical engineering has matured to the point where years of research result in small performance improvements. In the past decade, micro air vehicles, or MAVs, have gained attention of the aerospace and robotics communities. Many researchers have begun investigating aircraft schemes such as ones which use rotary or flapping wings for propulsion. While the engineering of rotary wing aircraft has seen significant advancement, the complex physics behind flapping wing aircraft remains to be fully understood. Some studies suggest flapping wing aircraft can be more efficient when the aircraft operates in low Reynolds regimes or requires hovering. Because of this inherent complexity, the derivation of flapping wing control methodologies remains an area with many open research problems. This thesis investigates flapping wing vehicles whose design is inspired by avian flight. The flapping wing system is examined in the cases where the core body is fixed or free in the ground frame. When the core body is fixed, the Denavit Hartenberg representation is used for the kinematic variables. An alternative approach is introduced for a free base body case. The equations of motion are developed using Lagranges equations and a process is developed to derive the aerodynamic contributions using a virtual work principle. The aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady state formulation where the lift and drag coefficients are treated as unknowns. A collection of nonlinear controllers are studied, specifically an ideal dynamic inversion controller and two switching dynamic inversion controllers. A dynamic inversion controller is modified with an adaptive term that learns the aerodynamic effects on the equation of motion. The dissipative controller with adaptation is developed to improve performance. A Lyapunov analysis of the two adaptive controllers guarantees boundedness for all error terms. Asymptotic stability is guaranteed for the derivative error in the dynamic inversion controller and for both the position and derivative error in the dissipative controller. The controllers are simulated using two dynamic models based on flapping wing prototypes designed at Virginia Tech. The numerical experiments validate the Lyapunov analysis and illustrate that unknown parameters can be learned if persistently excited. / Master of Science
Duffield, Michael Luke
10 July 2013
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Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) modeling is a powerful way of modeling complicated systems. However, some hardware is expensive to use in terms of time or mechanical wear. In cases like these, optimizing using the hardware can be prohibitively expensive because of the number of calls to the hardware that are needed. Variable fidelity optimization can help overcome these problems. Variable fidelity optimization uses less expensive surrogates to optimize an expensive system while calling it fewer times. The surrogates are usually created from performing a design of experiments on the expensive model and fitting a surface to the results. However, some systems are too expensive to create a surrogate from. One such case is that of a flapping flight model. In this thesis, a technique for variable fidelity optimization of HIL has been created that optimizes a system while calling it as few times as possible. This technique is referred to as an intelligent DOE. This intelligent DOE was tested using simple models of various dimension. It was then used to find a flapping wing trajectory that maximizes lift. Through testing, the intelligent DOE was shown to be able to optimize expensive systems with fewer calls than traditional variable fidelity optimization would have needed. Savings as high as 97% were recorded. It was noted that as the number of design variables increased, the intelligent DOE became more effective by comparison because the number of calls needed by a traditional DOE based variable fidelity optimization increased faster than linearly, where the number of hardware calls for the intelligent increased linearly.
Windes, Peter William
14 July 2020
Bats have many impressive flight characteristics such as the ability to rapidly change direction, carry substantial loads, and maintain good flight efficiency. For several years, researchers have been working towards an understanding of the specific aerodynamic phenomena which relate the unique wing structure of bats to their flight abilities. Computational fluid dynamics, a powerful tool used extensively across aerospace research, has led to substantial progress in the understanding of insect flight. However, due to technical challenges, numerical simulation has seen limited use in bat flight research. For this research, we develop, validate, and apply computational modeling techniques to three modes of bat flight: straight flight, sweeping turn, and U-turn maneuver. 3D kinematic data collection was achieved using a 28 camera multi-perspective optical motion capture system. The calibration of the cameras was conducted using a multi-camera self-calibration method. Point correspondences between cameras and frames was achieved using a human-supervised software package developed for this project. After the collection of kinematic data, we carried out aerodynamic flow simulations using the incompressible Navier-Stokes solver, GenIDLEST. The immersed boundary method (IBM) was used to impose moving boundary conditions representing the wing kinematics. Validation of the computational model was preformed through a grid independence study as well as careful evaluation of other relevant simulation parameters. Verification of the model was performed by comparing simulated aerodynamic loads to the expected loads based on the observed flight trajectories. Additionally, we established that we had a sufficient resolution of the wing kinematics, by calculating the sensitivity of the simulation results to the number of kinematic markers used during motion capture. For this study, three particular flights are analyzed—a straight and level flight, a sweeping turn, and a sharp 180 degree turn. During straight flight, typical flight velocities observed in the flight tunnel were 2-3 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number of about 12,000. Lift generation occurred almost exclusively during the downstroke, and peaks mid-downstroke. At the beginning of each downstroke, the effective angle of attack of the wings transitions from negative to positive and a leading edge vortex (LEV) quickly forms. LEVs are known to augment lift generation in flapping flight and allow lift to remain high at large angles of attack. During the end of each downstroke, the LEVs break up and lift drops substantially. As the wingbeat cycle transitions from downstroke to upstroke, the wings rotate such that the wing chordline is vertical as the wing moves upward. This wing rotation is critical for mitigating negative lift during the upstroke. Many of the basic flight mechanisms used for straight flight—i.e. LEV formation, wing rotation during upstrokes—were also observed during the sweeping turn. In addition, asymmetries in the wing kinematics and consequently the aerodynamics were observed. Early in the turn, the bank angle was low and elevated levels of thrust were generated by the outer wing during both the upstroke and downstroke causing a yaw moment. As the bat moved towards the middle of the turn, the bank angle increased to 20-25 degrees. Although the bank angle remained nominally constant during the middle and later portion of the turn, there was variation within each wingbeat cycle. Specifically, the bank angle dropped during each upstroke and subsequently was recovered during each downstroke as a consequence of elevated lift on the outer wing. Banking served to redirect the net force vector laterally causing a radial, centripetal force. Considering the mass of the bat, the nominal flight velocity, and the radius of curvature, the magnitude of the radial force fully explained the expected centripetal acceleration during the middle and later portion of the turn. Over the entire turn, yaw was found to be important in initiating the turn while banking was more important during the middle part of the turn. Over the course of 5 wingbeat cycles, the change in bearing angle (direction of flight) was about 45 degrees. Analysis of the U-turn flight showed many of the same characteristics as were observed during the sweeping turn, as well as a few key differences. The bat's ability to rotate its body rapidly appears to be more limited than its ability to change its trajectory. For this reason, the yaw rotation began about one to two cycles before the rapid bearing angle change and was stretched out over several wingbeat cycles. At the apex of the U-turn, the bat combined a high roll angle with a low flight velocity magnitude to very rapidly redirect its bearing direction and negotiate a low radius of curvature flight trajectory. Increases in roll angle occurred almost exclusively during the downstrokes, while both the upstroke and downstroke were active in generating yaw. Elevated thrust on the left outer wing during the end of the upstroke was observed throughout the flight, and elevated drag on the right inside wing did not appear to have an impact on the turn. We hope that this project motivates and facilitates further computational analysis into bat flight aerodynamics. Additionally, the data and findings will be useful for applications such as the design of bioinspired MAVs or flexible membrane energy harvesting technology. / Doctor of Philosophy / Bats have many impressive flight characteristics such as the ability to rapidly change direction, carry substantial loads, and maintain good flight efficiency. A better understanding of the physics of how bats fly can help scientists and engineers build more maneuverable, quieter, and more efficient bioinspired micro air vehicles. This engineering approach leverages the incredible capabilities observed in nature, but requires detailed knowledge of the animal as a prerequisite. Computational fluid dynamics, a powerful tool used extensively across aerospace research, has led to substantial progress in the understanding of animal flight broadly. However, due to technical challenges, numerical simulation has seen limited use in bat flight research. For this research, we develop, validate, and apply computer modeling techniques to the investigation of bat flight aerodynamics. Three particular modes of flight were analyzed—a straight and level flight, a sweeping turn, and a sharp 180 degree turn. During straight flight, typical flight velocities observed in the flight tunnel were 2-3 m/s. Lift generation, the force keeping the bat aloft, occurred almost exclusively during the downstroke, and peaks mid-downstroke. As the wing flap transitions from downstroke to upstroke, the wings rotate such that the wing is vertical as it moves upward. This wing rotation is critical for maximizing lift force during flight. During the sweeping turn, asymmetries in the wing kinematics and consequently the aerodynamics were observed. Early in the turn, the bank angle was low and elevated levels of thrust were generated by the outer wing during both the upstroke and downstroke causing rotation of the bat. As the bat moved towards the middle of the turn, the bank angle increased to 20-25 degrees. Banking served to redirect the net force vector laterally causing a turning force. Over the course of 5 wingbeat cycles, the change in direction of flight was about 45 degrees. Analysis of the U-turn flight showed many of the same characteristics as were observed during the sweeping turn, as well as a few key differences. At the apex of the U-turn, the bat combined a high roll angle with a low flight velocity magnitude to very rapidly redirect its bearing direction and negotiate a low radius of curvature flight trajectory. We hope that this project motivates and facilitates further computer simulations studying bat flight aerodynamics. Additionally, the data and findings will be useful for applications such as the design of bioinspired MAVs or flexible membrane energy harvesting technology.
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Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) are defined as a class of vehicles with their larger dimension not exceeding 15 cm and weighing 100 gm. The three main approaches for providing lift for such vehicles are through fixed, rotating and flapping wings. The flapping wing MAVs are more efficient in the low Reynolds-number regime than conventional wings and rotors. Natural flapping ﬂyers, such as birds and insects, serve as a natural source of inspiration for the development of MAV. Flapping wing design is one of the major challenges to develop an MAV because it is not only responsible for the lift, but also propulsion and maneuvers. Two important issues are addressed in this thesis: (1) an equivalent beam-type modeling of actual insect wing is proposed based on the experimental data and (2) development of the numerical framework for design and analysis of insect scale smart flapping wing. The experimental data is used for structural modeling of the blowfly Calliphora wing as a stepped cantilever beam with nine spanwise sections of varying mass per unit lengths, flexural rigidity (EI) and torsional rigidity (GJ) values. Natural frequencies, both in bending and torsion, are obtained by solving the homogeneous part of the respective governing differential equations using the finite element method. It is found that natural frequency in bending and torsion are 3.17 and 1.57 times higher than flapping frequency of Calliphora wing, respectively. The results provide guidelines for the biomimetic structural design of insect-scale flapping wings. In addition to the structural modeling of the insect wing, development of the biomimetic mechanisms played a very important role to achieve a deeper insight of the flapping ﬂight. Current biomimetic flapping wing mechanisms are either dynamically scaled or rely on pneumatic and motor-driven flapping actuators. Unfortunately, these mechanisms become bulky and flap at very low frequency. Moreover, mechanisms designed with conventional actuators lead to high weight and system-complexity which makes it difficult to mimic the complex wingbeat kinematics of the natural flyers. The usage of the actuator made of smart materials such as ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) and piezoceramics to design flapping wings is a potential alternative. IPMCs are a relatively new type of smart material that belongs to the family of Electroactive Polymers (EAP) which is also known as “artificial muscles”. In this work, structural modeling and aerodynamic analysis of a dragonﬂy inspired IPMC flapping wing are performed using numerical simulations. An optimization study is performed to obtain improved flapping actuation of the IPMC wing. Later, a comparative study of the performances of three IPMC flapping wings having the same size as the actual wings of three different dragonﬂy species Aeshna Multicolor, Anax Parthenope Julius and Sympetrum Frequens is conducted. It is found that the IPMC wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. In addition to the IPMC, piezoelectric materials are also considered to design a dragonfly inspired flapping wing because they have several attractive features such as high bandwidth, high output force, compact size and high power density. The wings of birds and insects move through a large angle which may be obtained using piezofan through large deflection. Piezofan which is one of the simple motion amplifying mechanisms couples a piezoelectric unimorph to an attached flexible wing and is competent to produce large deflection especially at resonance. Non-linear dynamic model for the piezoelectrically actuated flapping wing is done using energy method. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. Subsequently, a comparative study of the performances of three piezoelectrically actuated flapping wings is performed. Numerical results show that the ﬂapping wing based on geometry of dragonfly Sympetrum Frequens wing is suitable for low speed flight and it represents a potential candidate for use in insect scale micro air vehicles. In this study, single crystal piezoceramic is also considered for the flapping wing design because they are the potential new generation materials and have attracted considerable attention due to superior electromechanical properties. It is found that the use of single crystal piezoceramic can lead to considerable amount of wing weight reduction and increase of aerodynamic forces compared to conventional piezoelectric materials such as PZT-5H. It can also be noted that natural fliers flap their wings in a vertical plane with a change in the pitch of the wings during a ﬂapping cycle. In order to capture this particular feature of the wingbeat kinematics, coupled flapping-twisting non-linear dynamic modeling of piezoelectrically actuated flapping wing is done using energy method. Excitation by the piezoelectric harmonic force generates only the flap bending motion, which in turn, induces the elastic twist motion due to interaction between flexural and torsional vibrations modes. It is found that the value of average lift reaches to its maximum when the smart flapping wing is excited at a frequency closer to the natural frequency in torsion. Moreover, consideration of the elastic twisting of flapping wing leads to an increase in the lift force.
An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for moving boundary flows and its application to flapping flight / 埋め込み境界--格子ボルツマン法を用いた移動境界流れの数値計算法の開発とその羽ばたき飛翔への応用Suzuki, Kosuke 24 March 2014 (has links)
京都大学 / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(工学) / 甲第18271号 / 工博第3863号 / 新制||工||1592(附属図書館) / 31129 / 京都大学大学院工学研究科航空宇宙工学専攻 / (主査)教授 稲室 隆二, 教授 泉田 啓, 教授 青木 一生 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Philosophy (Engineering) / Kyoto University / DFAM
Hardester, Eric R.
01 March 2015
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Man has always been fascinated by the flight of birds and insects. First attempts at flight involved flapping wings to mimic the birds and insects that had been observed in flight. Fixed wings proved to be a more practical approach and have been used for over 100 years for manned flight. Emphasis has been placed on flapping wing designs for micro air vehicles (MAVs) as research has shown that challenges arise in lift generation and stability in fixed wing flight as the scale decreases .This research explores the use of 3D, time-resolved, Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV) in measuring flow velocities on the mechanical flapping wing of a MAV in tethered flight. The vortical structures on the MAV are measured using both SAPIV and 2DPIV to be able to analyze 2D and 3D velocity fields. The 3D vorticity plots and 2D slice vorticity plots show the three-dimensional nature of the Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and Trailing Edge Vortex (TEV). 2DPIV plots and 2D slices from the 3D data show general agreement in the structure and behavior of the flow around the flapping wing. The lift and thrust generated by the MAV are measured using a force gauge. The wing tip is tracked in 2D and 3D for synchronization of the measured lift forces with the flow field measurements from the SAPIV. The positive and negative circulation are plotted against the measured lift and thrust forces. The measured lift and thrust forces from the force gauge are then compared to the calculated lift and thrust forces from the measured 3D circulation found through the SAPIV flow field measurements. A plane measured parallel to the LEV and TEV vortex cores allows the defining of a unit vector that is directed normal to the top of the wing and the LEV and TEV cores. The decomposition of the unit vector allows for the calculation of the lift and thrust generated by the circulation around the wing. The comparisons between the measured and calculated forces show good agreement in the case of the measured and calculated lift forces.
Gaston, Zachary Robert
No description available.
01 December 2011
In summary the tilting mechanism helps to explain the overall flow structure and the stability of the leading edge vortex.; The leading edge vortex has been identified as the most critical flow structure for producing lift in flapping wing flight. Its stability depends on the transport of the entrained vorticity into the wake via spanwise flow. This study proposes a hypothesis for the generation and enhancement of spanwise flow based on the chordwise vorticity that results from the tilting of the leading edge vortex and trailing edge vortex. We investigate this phenomenon using dynamically scaled robotic model wings. Two different wing shapes, one rectangular and one based on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), are submerged in a tank of mineral oil and driven in a flapping motion. Two separate kinematics, one of constant angular velocity and one of sinusoidal angular velocity are implemented. In order to visualize the flow structure, a novel three dimensional particle image velocimetry system is utilized. From the three dimensional information obtained the chordwise vorticity resulting from the vortex tilting is shown using isosurfaces and planar slices in the wake of the wing. It is observed that the largest spanwise flow is located in the area between the chordwise vorticity of the leading edge vortex and the chordwise vorticity of the trailing edge vortex, supporting the hypothesis that the vortex tilting enhances the spanwise flow. Additionally the LEV on the rectangular wing is found to detach at about 80% span as opposed to 60% span for the elliptical wing. Also, two distinct regions of spanwise flow, one at the base and one at the tip, are observed at the beginning of the sinusoidal kinematic, and as the velocity of the wing increases these two regions unionize into one. Lastly, the general distribution of vorticity around each wing is found to be nearly the same, indicating that different wing shapes do not greatly affect the distribution of vorticity nor stability mechanisms in flapping flight.
Effect of frontal gusts and stroke deviation in forward flapping flight and deconstructing the aerodynamics of a fruit batViswanath, Kamal 16 May 2013 (has links)
This dissertation broadly seeks to understand the effect different kinematic parameters, external forces, and dynamic wing conformation have on the fluid dynamics of flapping flight. The primary motivation is to better grasp the fundamental fluid phenomena driving efficient flapping flight in the Reynolds number regime of birds, bats, and man made fliers of similar scale. The CFD solver (GenIDLEST) used is a Navier-Stokes solver in a finite volume formulation on non-staggered structured multiblock meshes. It has the capability for both body-fitted moving grid simulations and Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for simulating complex bodies moving within a fluid. To that purpose we investigate the response of a rigid flapping thin surface planar wing in forward flight, at Re=10,000, subjected to frontal gusts. Gusts are a common ecological hazard for flapping fliers, especially in crowded environments. Among the various temporal and spatial scales of gust possible, we look at the phasing and duration of very large spatial scale gusts and their impact on the unsteady fluid dynamics of flapping within a single flapping cycle. The gust is characterized by a step function with time scale much smaller than the flapping time period. Having the advantage of prescribing the motion, as well as the timing and duration of the gust, this allowed the observation of the effect of angle of attack (AOA) and wing rotation on the evolution of the Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and, hence the instantaneous lift and thrust profiles, by varying the parameters. During the downstroke, frontal gusts accelerated the flow development resulting in early separation of existing LEVs and formation of new ones on the wing surface which influenced the force generation by increasing the lift and thrust. These phenomena underscored the importance of the unsteady vortex structures as the primary force generators in flapping flight.The effect of the gust is observed to be diminished when it occurs during rapid supination of the wing. Unlike the influence of the vortices during the downstroke, the upstroke primarily reacted to effective AOA changes. A key characteristic of the kinematics of fliers in nature is stroke deviation. We investigate this phenomenon using a similar framework as above on a rigid thin surface flat-plate flapping wing in forward flight. Stroke deviation happens due to a variety of factors including wing flexion, wing lateral translation, and wing area change and here we investigate the different stroke deviation trajectories. Various trajectories were analyzed to assess the different capabilities that such kinematics might offer. The instantaneous lift and thrust profiles were observed to be influenced by a combination of the Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and the Trailing Edge Vortex (TEV) structures existing in the flow at any given time. As an index of the cost of performance across all cases, the power requirements for the different cases, based on the fluid torques, are analyzed. Anti-clockwise figure-of-eight-cycle deviation is shown to be very complex with high power costs while having better performance. The clockwise elliptic-cycle held promise in being utilized as a viable stroke deviation trajectory for forward flight over the base non stroke deviation case. Armed with insight gained from these simple flapping structures, we are able to conduct the analysis of the flapping flight data obtained on a fruit bat. Understanding the full complexity of bat flight and the ways in which bat flight differs from that of other vertebrate flight requires attention to the intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the wings and the resulting unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow around the wings. We extract the detailed kinematic motion of the bat wing from the recorded data and then simulate the bat wing motion in the CFD framework for a range of Reynolds numbers. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the flow physics is dominated by the oscillatory motion. From the data the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. This force output is modulated by the bat through varying wing camber and the wing area. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the wing kinematics is undertaken to compile a simpler set of kinematic modes that can approximate the original motion used by the fruit bat. These modes are then analyzed based on aerodynamic performance and power cost for more efficient flight. Understanding the physics of these modes will help us use them as prescribed kinematics for mechanical flappers as well as improve upon them from nature. / Ph. D.
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