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Power and performativity in prison: exploring male sex workers' experiences and performances of gender and sexuality pre/during/post-incarcerationLewin, Jan-Louise January 2017 (has links)
This study explores the narratives of men who become male sex workers after being in prison. This study looks at prison as a fluid space for sexual expression and gender performativity, which is ironic given the view of prison as punitive and repressive. Sex within the South African prison system is silenced and taboo particularly within the Number prison gang where sex is heavily regulated, ritualized and fiercely guarded. The research question asks how do men who are or become male sex workers construct and perform their gendered and sexual identities in prison and on the street? This qualitative study employs the organizing metaphor of dramaturgy to explore how prison as a social setting (stage) impacts on the gendered and sexual performances of men (actors) who have been incarcerated. Drawing on Foucault's theories of the repressive hypothesis and peripheral sexualities (1990), Butler's theory of performativity (1990) and Gagnon and Simon's scripting theory (1973) this study illustrates theoretically how prison sex culture and male sex work can be theorized from a feminist standpoint perspective. This feminist study is located in the social constructionist paradigm. It is underpinned by grounded theory and narrative methodology to explore the narratives of men who have been incarcerated and continue into sex work post-release. Biographical interviews were conducted with 15 men who were participants in a male sex work support group. Findings revealed two overarching themes in the narratives that explain how men construct and perform their gendered and sexual identities in prison. Renegotiation was the process where the subject engaged in an internalized monologue with self, constantly exploring and (re)constructing the gendered and sexual self in response to the shifting contexts of prison and the streets. Negotiation was the process where the subject engaged in an external dialogue with others. Through interactions with others, they were able to perform gender and sexuality publicly. By framing it within the discourse of dramaturgy, this study shows an alternative view of prison sex culture. (Re)imagining prison as the 'stage', prisoners as the 'actors', prison rituals as the 'script' and identity performances as the 'act', we can begin to envision an alternative script and narrative of prison unfolding.
Recollections and representations the negotiation of gendered identities and 'safe spaces' in the lives of LGBTI refugees in Cape Town, South AfricaMartin, Heidi January 2012 (has links)
Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references.
She is also playing; she is also wearing the mask that I am wearing :' investigating the gendered dynamics of implementing a forum theatre project for young women in Manenberg'Okech, Awino January 2007 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 114-119) / This thesis examines the utilization of forum theatre techniques to explore the processes of gendering women within a workshop consisting of twenty-three young women in Manenberg, South Africa. It examines the opportunities that these techniques provide the group in uncovering, understanding and questioning the practices, norms and patterns that inform the construction of femininity. This thesis draws on theories of community theatre praxis in South Africa, gender and development discourse as well as research on contemporary 'rites of passage' practices in Manenberg. As a qualitative study embedded in feminist epistemology and feminist activism, this research utilises a range of methods, including participant observation, appreciative inquiry and second hand ethnography. There methods are used to critically analyse the opportunities and gaps that emerge when using forum theatre with this particular group. My positionality as a researcher and activist is engaged in this thesis as a critical site for reflection and analysis. This research establishes that forum theatre through specific activities provide the space for the exploration, analysis and comprehension of the gendered experiences of the young women in Manenberg. However there are methodological shortcomings, which are pointed out as areas for future research.
Untangling the knots : understanding the hair politics of black femininity in a post-Apartheid contextHaanyama, Mazuba January 2007 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 191-196).
Football, Femininity and Muscle: An exploration of Heteronormative and Athletic Discources in the lives of elite-level women footballers in South AfricaEngh, Mari Haugaa January 2010 (has links)
Normalised constructions of masculinity and femininity within a heteronormative social structure have shaped beliefs about women's capacities, characteristics and bodies, and have constructed a hegemonic feminine ideal that has historically excluded the possibility of being simultaneously feminine and athletic. However, following developments in Europe and North America (such as Title IV and WIS) and the increased production and consumption of globalised sports, new and more athletic feminine ideals have emerged and opened spaces for women to form sporting and athletic subjectivities. As a part of this process, women's football, across the world, has grown exponentially, in popular support and participation rates, since the first World Cup was organised in China in 1991 (Hong, 2004; Cox and Thompson, 2000). In South Africa, the development of structures for women's football was late, and women's football is not yet fully professional. In South Africa football is viewed as a game for men, and it remains a flagship masculine sport that serves to maintain and support masculine domination (Pelak, 2005). Because women's participation in a sport like football is considered a transgression, there is a heightened need to mark women's bodies as feminine, so as to reinforce the heteronormative and dichotomous constructions of male/female and masculine/feminine. This thesis presents an exploration of the ambivalent relationship between empowerment and surveillance as it presents itself in the lives of elite level women footballers in South Africa. It discusses empowerment and surveillance as they appear at the most intimate levels of women's sporting experience, and impact on the ways in which women footballers discipline and regulate their bodies within the expectations of heteronormativity, femininity and athleticism. The discussion is based on qualitative, informal interviews with 18 elite level women footballers in South Africa, 12 of which are currently members of the 5 senior women's national football team, Banyana Banyana. The remaining 6 participants are members of one of Cape Town's oldest and most successful women's football teams. The interviews took place at a national team camp in Pretoria in October 2008, and in Cape Town between August and November 2008. Utilising discourse analysis and postmodern feminist standpoint theory this thesis concludes that the empowerment and transformation sport has the potential to offer women should not be assumed to follow directly from participation. Women's access to sports participation and sporting subjectivities is stratified, and a complex and ambivalent relationship exists between empowerment and surveillance. This tense relationship between is particularly evident in analyses of gender/race/class intersections, heteronormativity and through examining women's participation at a professional level. Although the neo-liberal feminine athletic validates sporting subjectivities and offers women in elite-level South African football an arena for physical expression and freedom, this empowerment is deeply embedded within the regulatory schemes produced through constructions of a heteronormative feminine aesthetic.
"We are all products of history, but each of us can choose whether or not to become its victims" : an exploration of the discourses employed in the Women's National Coalition.Thipe, Thuto January 2012 (has links)
Includes abstract. / Includes bibliographical references. / As South Africa transitioned into democracy and began negotiating the terms of the new dispensation, the near exclusion of women from the early stages of the negotiations propelled a movement of women across the country, organising to ensure that their needs and aspirations were represented in the defining of the new political order. At the heart of this movement was the Women's National Coalition (WNC), formed in 1991 to identify and advocate for women's primary needs in the post-apartheid Constitution. This created unprecedented opportunities for women from all parts of the country to identify and to organise around commonalities, and it also exposed some of the deep divisions and power inequalities that separated groups of women from each other. In seeking to understand these dynamics, I explore dominant discourses that were employed within the WNC.
Constructing rape, imagining self : discourses of rape and gender subjectivity in South AfricaDosekun, Simidele January 2007 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 130-142). / This thesis explores the meanings and impact of rape in South Africa for fifteen women located at the University of Cape Town (UCT) who claim to have never experienced rape. Drawing upon feminist post-structuralist theories of subjectivity and taking a discursive analytic approach, the thesis explores how these women construct the phenomenon of rape in their society and thereby imagine themselves. It is based upon empirical data collected through qualitative interviews. Analysis of this data shows that the women discursively construct rape as highly prevalent in South Africa but ordinarily distant from their personal lives, concerning then 'the Other.' However, it is argued that the women also construct themselves as gendered and embodied subjects inherently vulnerable to male violence such as rape. This means that the fear and imagination of rape are not absent from their daily lives, but rather shape their sense of safety, agency, sexuality and citizenship in South Africa. Because these fifteen women deny personal experiences of rape, the thesis shows that they draw on public discourses and their subjective imaginations to theorise rape and rape crisis in post-apartheid South Africa.
"All the world's a stage": 'gendered performativities of 'transitional' masculinities within a South Africa female-to-male (FTM) transsexual contextKinoti, Patricia January 2009 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 191-204). / The theoretical framework for this research was designed through contemporary work, both international and South Africa, on questions of gender, performativity, and masculinities. In addition, questions of social justice for those marginalized by gender conventions created the context for a qualitative research process in which transgender men's experiences of their subjectivities as 'men' served as a route through which to explore questions of gender surveillance in a post-democratice South Africa...The research contributes significantly to knowledge on often silenced and marginalized communities within African societies, where the majority of alternative sexualities and gender identities are often regarded as 'un-African'. The research concludes that the Trans men's masculinities play a pivital role in the deconstruction of the gender institution as 'natural' by presenting alternatives states of being as viable options within seemingly static boundaries.
Discourses of gendered vulnerability in the context of HIV/AIDS: An analysis of the 16 Days of Activism Against Women Abuse Campaign 2007 in Khayelitsha, South AfricaMonte, Loredana January 2009 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (p.115-128). / This thesis explores discourses on gender and gender based violence produced in the 16 Days of Activism Against Women Abuse campaign 2007 in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. The public awareness campaign united a number of local, community based organisations that work in the overlapping fields of HIV/AIDS and gender based violence. For the purpose of this study, three of the most vocal organisations in this campaign were chosen as research participants; The local branch of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) Khayelitsha, the Rape Survivors Centre Simelela, and the youth drama group Masibambisane. Assuming that discourses are embedded in unequal relations of power, this study adopts a discourse analytical approach to the 'gendering' of HI VIA IDS to reveal how knowledge and meanings are produced, reproduced and contested between more powerful institutions and a marginalised community. The thesis first explores dominant discourses on HIV/AIDS and gender in development discourse and social and biomedical research, and uncovers how HIV/AIDS risks are mostly related to women's lack of power and inherent vulnerability to violence. Such hegemonic discourses are then also found in international and national guidelines and policy frameworks that address the 'gendered' risks of HIV and AIDS, while at the same time these frameworks also promote approaches to HIV/AIDS that acknowledge contextual and societal factors that shape vulnerability. Eventually, a review of international and national frameworks that address the 'dual epidemics' shows how the so called 'community sector' is often highlighted as a crucial partner in multi-sectoral approaches to HIV/AIDS. The empirical study then aims at locating such discourses in a localised, South African context, and explores the ways in which dominant discourses are reproduced, contested, and redefined by community activists. Empirical data is collected through participant observation with the organisations coordinating the campaign, recording of speeches delivered during the public events, and semi-structured, qualitative interviews with five key members of the organisations. A discursive analysis of the data reveals that femininity and masculinity are mainly constructed in rather conservative ways, portraying women as inherently vulnerable and men as either perpetrators of violence, or protectors of women and children. These constructions of gender are based in a patriarchal, hegemonic notion of masculinity as powerful and responsible for the suffering or salvation of weak and vulnerable women. However, within these hegemonic gender notions, women speakers simultaneously contest their victimhood status by claiming their rights as citizens of South Africa, by relocating power in their collective struggle, and by reframing their vulnerabilities as embedded in intersecting inequalities of gender, class and race, and as members of a community largely marginalised by the state. The multitude of discourses at play in the public campaign point at the necessity for a re-reading of the intersections of HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and gender based violence beyond victim-agent dualisms.
An exploration of the experiences of Zimbabwean women informal cross-border traders at the Zimbabwean/South African BeitBridge border postGaratidye, Serita January 2014 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. / Much research on economically-enforced migration between Zimbabwe and South Africa locates women as partners of men, rather than as economic agents in their own terms. Research on cross-border trade, however, has theorized that gender dynamics may empower women traders as they learn to negotiate new business networks and as they develop economic independence; a different perspective on gender dynamics suggests that far from empowerment, women cross border-traders face particular abuse and harassment. This research worked with eleven Zimbabwean cross border traders to explore the theoretical tensions between notions of ‘empowerment’ and notions of ‘disadvantage’ arising from the traders’ experiences. The study concentrated in particular on the traders’ representation of their experiences at the Zimbabwe/South Africa Beitbridge border post crossing point. Analysing the material qualitatively, the dissertation argues that while gender dynamics can be seen to afford the traders both opportunities and great challenges, the traders’ representations of the interplay of official corruption and the impact of economic pressure on all border-players reveal the border-post itself as a complex site of micro-negotiations whereby survival becomes the ‘business’ itself.
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