Data reconciliation and gross error detection are traditional methods toward detecting mass balance inconsistency within process instrument data. These methods use a static approach for statistical evaluation. This thesis is concerned with using an alternative statistical approach (Bayesian statistics) to detect mass balance inconsistency in real time. The proposed dynamic Baysian solution makes use of a state space process model which incorporates mass balance relationships so that a governing set of mass balance variables can be estimated using a Kalman filter. Due to the incorporation of mass balances, many model parameters are defined by first principles. However, some parameters, namely the observation and state covariance matrices, need to be estimated from process data before the dynamic Bayesian methods could be applied. This thesis makes use of Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate these parameters, separating process disturbances from instrument measurement noise. / Process Control
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Thesis (MScEng)-- Stellenbosch University, 2013. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: All process measurements contain some element of error. Typically, a distinction is made between random errors, with zero expected value, and gross errors with non-zero magnitude. Data Reconciliation (DR) and Gross Error Detection (GED) comprise a collection of techniques designed to attenuate measurement errors in process data in order to reduce the effect of the errors on subsequent use of the data. DR proceeds by finding the optimum adjustments so that reconciled measurement data satisfy imposed process constraints, such as material and energy balances. The DR solution is optimal under the assumed statistical random error model, typically Gaussian with zero mean and known covariance. The presence of outliers and gross errors in the measurements or imposed process constraints invalidates the assumptions underlying DR, so that the DR solution may become biased. GED is required to detect, identify and remove or otherwise compensate for the gross errors. Typically GED relies on formal hypothesis testing of constraint residuals or measurement adjustment-based statistics derived from the assumed random error statistical model. Classification methodologies are methods by which observations are classified as belonging to one of several possible groups. For the GED problem, artificial neural networks (ANN’s) have been applied historically to resolve the classification of a data set as either containing or not containing a gross error. The hypothesis investigated in this thesis is that classification methodologies, specifically classification trees (CT) and linear or quadratic classification functions (LCF, QCF), may provide an alternative to the classical GED techniques. This hypothesis is tested via the modelling of a simple steady-state process unit with associated simulated process measurements. DR is performed on the simulated process measurements in order to satisfy one linear and two nonlinear material conservation constraints. Selected features from the DR procedure and process constraints are incorporated into two separate input vectors for classifier construction. The performance of the classification methodologies developed on each input vector is compared with the classical measurement test in order to address the posed hypothesis. General trends in the results are as follows: - The power to detect and/or identify a gross error is a strong function of the gross error magnitude as well as location for all the classification methodologies as well as the measurement test. - For some locations there exist large differences between the power to detect a gross error and the power to identify it correctly. This is consistent over all the classifiers and their associated measurement tests, and indicates significant smearing of gross errors. - In general, the classification methodologies have higher power for equivalent type I error than the measurement test. - The measurement test is superior for small magnitude gross errors, and for specific locations, depending on which classification methodology it is compared with. There is significant scope to extend the work to more complex processes and constraints, including dynamic processes with multiple gross errors in the system. Further investigation into the optimal selection of input vector elements for the classification methodologies is also required. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alle prosesmetings bevat ŉ sekere mate van metingsfoute. Die fout-element van ŉ prosesmeting word dikwels uitgedruk as bestaande uit ŉ ewekansige fout met nul verwagte waarde, asook ŉ nie-ewekansige fout met ŉ beduidende grootte. Data Rekonsiliasie (DR) en Fout Opsporing (FO) is ŉ versameling van tegnieke met die doelwit om die effek van sulke foute in prosesdata op die daaropvolgende aanwending van die data te verminder. DR word uitgevoer deur die optimale veranderinge aan die oorspronklike prosesmetings aan te bring sodat die aangepaste metings sekere prosesmodelle gehoorsaam, tipies massa- en energie-balanse. Die DR-oplossing is optimaal, mits die statistiese aannames rakende die ewekansige fout-element in die prosesdata geldig is. Dit word tipies aanvaar dat die fout-element normaal verdeel is, met nul verwagte waarde, en ŉ gegewe kovariansie matriks. Wanneer nie-ewekansige foute in die data teenwoordig is, kan die resultate van DR sydig wees. FO is daarom nodig om nie-ewekansige foute te vind (Deteksie) en te identifiseer (Identifikasie). FO maak gewoonlik staat op die statistiese eienskappe van die meting aanpassings wat gemaak word deur die DR prosedure, of die afwykingsverskil van die model vergelykings, om formele hipoteses rakende die teenwoordigheid van nie-ewekansige foute te toets. Klassifikasie tegnieke word gebruik om die klasverwantskap van observasies te bepaal. Rakende die FO probleem, is sintetiese neurale netwerke (SNN) histories aangewend om die Deteksie en Identifikasie probleme op te los. Die hipotese van hierdie tesis is dat klassifikasie tegnieke, spesifiek klassifikasiebome (CT) en lineêre asook kwadratiese klassifikasie funksies (LCF en QCF), suksesvol aangewend kan word om die FO probleem op te los. Die hipotese word ondersoek deur middel van ŉ simulasie rondom ŉ eenvoudige gestadigde toestand proses-eenheid wat aan een lineêre en twee nie-lineêre vergelykings onderhewig is. Kunsmatige prosesmetings word geskep met behulp van lukrake syfers sodat die foutkomponent van elke prosesmeting bekend is. DR word toegepas op die kunsmatige data, en die DR resultate word gebruik om twee verskillende insetvektore vir die klassifikasie tegnieke te skep. Die prestasie van die klassifikasie metodes word vergelyk met die metingstoets van klassieke FO ten einde die gestelde hipotese te beantwoord. Die onderliggende tendense in die resultate is soos volg: - Die vermoë om ‘n nie-ewekansige fout op te spoor en te identifiseer is sterk afhanklik van die grootte asook die ligging van die fout vir al die klassifikasie tegnieke sowel as die metingstoets. - Vir sekere liggings van die nie-ewekansige fout is daar ‘n groot verskil tussen die vermoë om die fout op te spoor, en die vermoë om die fout te identifiseer, wat dui op smering van die fout. Al die klassifikasie tegnieke asook die metingstoets baar hierdie eienskap. - Oor die algemeen toon die klassifikasie metodes groter sukses as die metingstoets. - Die metingstoets is meer suksesvol vir relatief klein nie-ewekansige foute, asook vir sekere liggings van die nie-ewekansige fout, afhangende van die klassifikasie tegniek ter sprake. Daar is verskeie maniere om die bestek van hierdie ondersoek uit te brei. Meer komplekse, niegestadigde prosesse met sterk nie-lineêre prosesmodelle en meervuldige nie-ewekansige foute kan ondersoek word. Die moontlikheid bestaan ook om die prestasie van klassifikasie metodes te verbeter deur die gepaste keuse van insetvektor elemente.
Desenvolvimento de um software para reconciliação de dados de processos quimicos e petroquimicos / Development of software for data reconciliation of chemical and petrochemical processesBarbosa, Agremis Guinho 11 June 2003 (has links)
Orientador: Rubens Maciel Filho / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-10T21:51:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Barbosa_AgremisGuinho_M.pdf: 1501070 bytes, checksum: c20fd373ba5e239e2b783608aebbc7f2 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2003 / Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é o desenvolvimento de rotinas computacionais para o condicionamento de dados provenientes de um processo químico, de modo que estes sejam consistentes para a representação do comportamento do processo. A descrição adequada do comportamento de um processo é a base fundamental de qualquer sistema de controle e/ou otimização, uma vez que será em resposta às medições deste processo (sua descrição) que os referidos sistemas atuarão. Desta forma o tratamento e correção dos erros de medição, especificamente, e a estimativa de parâmetros, de um modo mais geral, constituem uma etapa que não deve ser negligenciada no controle e otimização de processos. O condicionamento de dados estudado neste trabalho é a reconciliação de dados, que tem como característica principal o uso de um modelo de restrições para condicionar a informação. Geralmente os modelos de restrição são balanços de massa e energia e os somatórios das frações mássicas e molares, mas outros modelos também podem ser usados. Matematicamente, a reconciliação de dados é um problema de otimização sujeito a restrições. Neste trabalho, a formulação do problema de reconciliação é a dos mínimos quadrados ponderados sujeito a restrições e a abordagem para a sua solução é a fatoração QR. Objetiva-se também reunir as rotinas desenvolvidas em uma única ferramenta computacional para a descrição, resolução e análise dos resultados do problema de reconciliação de dados, constituindo-se em um software de fácil utilização e que tenha ainda um mecanismo de comunicação com banco de dados, conferindo-lhe interatividade em tempo real com sistemas de aquisição de dados de processo / Abstract: The purpose of this work is the development of computational routines for conditioning chemical process data in order to represent the process behavior as reliable as possible. Reliable process description is fundamental for any control or optimization system development, since they respond to the process measurements (its description). Thus, data conditioning and correction of process measurement errors, and parameter estimation are a step that should not be neglected in process control and optimization. The data conditioning considered in this work is data reconciliation which has as the main characteristic the use of a constraint model. In general constraint models are mass and energy balances and mass and molar fraction summation, but other models may be used. Under a mathematical point of view, data reconciliation is an optimization subject to constraints. In this work, it is used the formulation of weighed least squares subject to constraints and QR factorization approach to solve the problem. The additional objective of this work is to accommodate the developed routines in such a way to build up an integrated computational tool characterized by its easy to use structure, capability to solve and perform data reconciliation. Its structure takes into account the interaction with data bank, giving it real time interactiveness with process data acquisition systems / Mestrado / Desenvolvimento de Processos Químicos / Mestre em Engenharia Química
Výpočtový systém pro vyhodnocení výrobních ukazatelů spaloven komunálních odpadů / Computational tool for processing of production data from waste-to-energy systemsMachát, Ondřej January 2013 (has links)
This thesis contains evaluation of crucial operational indicators of a waste-to-energy plant. Above all, it is lower heating value of municipal solid waste and boiler efficiency. An approach for evaluation improvement by mathematical methods is proposed. The approach is implemented in a computational tool developed in Microsoft Excel. The approach is tested and subsequently used for operational data from a real waste-to-energy plant.
An adaptive modeling and simulation environment for combined-cycle data reconciliation and degradation estimation.Lin, TsungPo 26 June 2008 (has links)
Performance engineers face the major challenge in modeling and simulation for the after-market power system due to system degradation and measurement errors. Currently, the majority in power generation industries utilizes the deterministic data matching method to calibrate the model and cascade system degradation, which causes significant calibration uncertainty and also the risk of providing performance guarantees. In this research work, a maximum-likelihood based simultaneous data reconciliation and model calibration (SDRMC) is used for power system modeling and simulation. By replacing the current deterministic data matching with SDRMC one can reduce the calibration uncertainty and mitigate the error propagation to the performance simulation. A modeling and simulation environment for a complex power system with certain degradation has been developed. In this environment multiple data sets are imported when carrying out simultaneous data reconciliation and model calibration. Calibration uncertainties are estimated through error analyses and populated to performance simulation by using principle of error propagation. System degradation is then quantified by performance comparison between the calibrated model and its expected new & clean status. To mitigate smearing effects caused by gross errors, gross error detection (GED) is carried out in two stages. The first stage is a screening stage, in which serious gross errors are eliminated in advance. The GED techniques used in the screening stage are based on multivariate data analysis (MDA), including multivariate data visualization and principle component analysis (PCA). Subtle gross errors are treated at the second stage, in which the serial bias compensation or robust M-estimator is engaged. To achieve a better efficiency in the combined scheme of the least squares based data reconciliation and the GED technique based on hypotheses testing, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is utilized as the optimizer. To reduce the computation time and stabilize the problem solving for a complex power system such as a combined cycle power plant, meta-modeling using the response surface equation (RSE) and system/process decomposition are incorporated with the simultaneous scheme of SDRMC. The goal of this research work is to reduce the calibration uncertainties and, thus, the risks of providing performance guarantees arisen from uncertainties in performance simulation.
This thesis is focused on problem data reconciliation of measurements. The objective of this thesis was reconciled measured value from electric drum dryer to suit exactly to the mathematical model of drying. For solution was used nonlinear data reconciliation with constrained nonlinear optimization. The entire calculation is processed in programme MATLAB and outputs are graphs of reconciled values of measurement on dryer such as inlet and outlet temperature and humidity, differential pressure of exhaust moisture air, weight of laundry, atmospheric pressure and electric supply. Achieved solution can by characterized by an amount of evaporated water. Weight of wet and dry laundry are 27,7 kg a 17,7 kg. The calculated amount of evaporated water from measurements was almost 18,8 kg. With reconciled measurements it was 9,7 kg. Goals of the thesis were found more realistic values.
既有建物作為空載光達系統點雲精度評估程序之研究 / The Study of Accuracy Assessment Procedure on Point Clouds from Airborne LiDAR Systems Using Existing Buildings詹立丞, Chan, Li Cheng Unknown Date (has links)
空載光達系統於建置國土測繪基本資料扮演關鍵角色，依國土測繪法，為確保測繪成果品質，應依測量計畫目的及作業精度需求辦理儀器校正。國土測繪中心已於102年度建置航遙測感應器系統校正作業中，提出矩形建物之平屋頂面做為空載光達系統校正之可行性，而其所稱之校正，是以點雲精度評估待校件空載光達系統所得最終成果品質，並不對儀器做任何參數改正，但其校正成果可能因不同人員操作而有差異，因此本研究嘗試建立一套空載光達點雲半自動化精度評估程序，此外探討以山形屋脊線執行點雲精度評估之可行性。 由於光達點雲為離散的三維資訊，不論是以山形屋脊線或矩形建物之平屋頂面作為標物執行點雲精度評估，均須先萃取屋頂面上之點，為避免萃取成果受雜訊影響，本研究引入粗差偵測理論，發展最小一乘法結合李德仁以後驗變方估計原理導出的選擇權迭代法(李德仁法)將非屋頂點視為粗差排除。研究中分別對矩形建物之平屋頂面及山形屋脊線進行模擬及真實資料實驗，其中山形屋脊線作為點雲精度評估之可行性實驗中發現不適合用於評估點雲精度，因此後續實驗僅以萃取矩形建物之平屋頂面點雲過程探討粗差比率對半自動化點雲精度評估程序之影響。模擬實驗成果顯示最小一乘法有助於提升李德仁法偵測粗差數量5%至10%；真實資料實驗，以含有牆面點雲的狀況為例，則有助提升5%的偵測粗差數量。本研究由逐步測試結果提出能夠適用於真實狀況的半自動化之點雲精度評估程序，即使由不同人員操作，仍能獲得一致的成果，顯示本研究半自動化精度評估程序之可信度。 / The airborne LiDAR system plays a crucial role in building land surveying data. Based on the Land Surveying and Mapping Act, to ensure the quality of surveying, instrument calibration is required. The approach proposed by National Land Surveying and Mapping Center (NLSC) in 2013 was confirmed the feasibility for airborne LiDAR system calibration using rectangular horizontal roof plane. The calibration mean to assess the final quality of airborne LiDAR system based on the assessment of the accuracy of the point cloud, and do not adjust the instrument. But the results may vary according to different operators. This study attempts to establish a semi-automatic procedure for the accuracy assessment of point clouds from airborne LiDAR system. In addition, the gable roof ridge lines is discussed for its feasibility for the accuracy assessment of point cloud. No matter that calibration is performed using rectangular horizontal roof plane or gable roof ridge line, point clouds located on roof planes need to be extracted at first. Therefore, Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) combined with the Iteration using Selected Weights (Deren Li method) is developed to exclude the non-roof points which regarded as gross errors and eliminate their influences. The simulated test and actual data test found that gable roof ridge lines are not suitable for accuracy assessment. As for the simulated test using horizontal roof planes, LAD combined with Deren Li method prompts the rate of gross error detection about 5% to 10% than that only by Deren Li method. In actual test, data contains wall points, LAD combined with Deren Li method can prompt about 5%. Meanwhile, a semi-automatic procedure for real operations is proposed by the step-by-step test. Even different operators employ this semi-automatic procedure, consistent results will be obtained and the reliability can achieve.
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