Groundwater arsenic pollution in Bangladesh : a study of water consumption behaviour and decision-making processes within rural communitiesChoudhury, Zubaida Akhtar January 2012 (has links)
No description available.
Mozumder, Rajib Hassan
Chronic exposure to naturally occurring arsenic (As) in groundwater threatens the health of >150 million villagers in S/SE Asia. In Bangladesh, low As aquifers offer the best hope of reducing the exposure of 35-40 million remain exposed to elevated levels of As in drinking water (>10 μg/L). These low As aquifers could be affected, however, by massive pumping from shallow (<30 m) depths for growing rice and overexploitation of deeper aquifer for municipal water supply. The goal of this dissertation is to assess the impacts of groundwater pumping on the distribution in groundwater of dissolved As, reactive carbon, and redox-sensitive elements in anoxic aquifers of Bangladesh based on long-term hydrologic measurements, geochemical analyses, and numerical flow modeling. In the second chapter, changes in the well-water As concentrations within a 25 sq. km area over a 10+ year timespan are assessed on the basis of continuous time series for 18 monitoring wells, a set of 271 wells resampled three times, and a large dataset obtained from blanket surveys of several thousand wells in the region. The two larger data sets both show a 10% decline in the initial areal mean As of 100 μg/L. This decline can be explained by flushing of As in the shallow aquifer by low-As recharge water, evidently compensated to some extent by the desorption of sediment-bound As. The presence of a large exchangeable pool of As in the sediment therefore seems to buffer changes in the distribution of As in the face of large perturbation in groundwater flow, albeit not enough to prevent some trends indicated by the detailed time series. The third chapter provides a complementary perspective on groundwater-sediment interactions by quantifying the rates of adsorption and desorption of As with column experiments conducted in the field for two different types of sediments: grey reduced Holocene sands and orange oxidized Pleistocene sands. The data show that, contrary to widely held beliefs, retardation of As transport by adsorption is quite similar in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments, even if Holocene sands initially contain a much larger pool of easily mobilizable As. The field column experiments also showed significant changes in solid phase speciation that affected As retention within a timespan of only a few weeks. Detailed field observations and flow modeling in the fourth chapter examine how perturbed flow paths can draw either As or reactive carbon into a Pleistocene aquifer. A groundwater flow model, constrained by head measurements and isotopic tracer data shows that certain portions of the aquifer are becoming increasingly contaminated with As as a result of municipal pumping, but against a background of redox transformation in the aquifer that probably preceded this perturbation. Overall, the research conducted for this thesis shows that alteration of the hydrological system due to local and regional forcing is affecting the distribution of As in groundwater. These changes do not affect all wells yet and, if they do, the increase in As concentrations observed so far are gradual because of the buffering capacity of the sediment. Lowering exposure by targeting low As aquifer should therefore definitely continue in Bangladesh, with particular attention paid to regular monitoring using vulnerability criteria this research has helped to identify.
Laboratory and Field Studies Directed toward Accelerating Arsenic Remediation at a Major US Superfund Site in New JerseyWovkulich, Karen January 2011 (has links)
Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large fraction of US Superfund sites. Therefore, establishing techniques for accelerating As remediation could benefit many contaminated sites. Remediation of As contaminated groundwater by conventional methods, i.e. pump and treat (P&T), can be impeded by slow desorption of As from Fe and Al (hydr)oxides in aquifer solids. Through experimentation at different physical scales (grain, bench, and field scale), the potential for chemical additions to increase As release from sediments and possibly accelerate P&T remediation is examined. The work described here focuses on As contamination and remediation at the Vineland Chemical Co. Superfund site in southern NJ. The site is extensively contaminated with As resulting from decades of poor chemical storage and disposal practices by the Vineland Chemical Co., which manufactured As-based biocides from 1949-1994. Despite significant intervention, including groundwater remediation by P&T and treatment of solids via soil washing, sufficient site clean up could require many decades with current technologies. Chemical amendments that either compete with As for sorption sites or dissolve Fe and Al (hydr)oxides can increase As mobility and potentially improve P&T remediation efficiency. Simple extrapolations from bench scale column experiments based on pore volumes suggest that treatment with 10 mM oxalic acid could lower the time necessary for clean up at the Vineland site from 600 years (with current techniques involving just groundwater) to potentially on the order of 4 years. Small scale (<1 mm2) X-ray fluorescence maps from columns performed within the synchrotron beamline showed As release during oxalic acid treatment that was consistent with the bulk column materials and suggested that microscale processes can be predictive of the larger system. Finally, during a 3-month pilot study at the Vineland site, oxalic acid was injected into a section of the aquifer via an injection manifold system that was designed and built for the experiment. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release at a sampling well and pump and treat recovery well in the study area. Addition of oxalic acid shows promise for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site.
Arsenic is a known carcinogen, but is persistent in the environment, remaining a popular pesticide. It represents a particular hazard to humans when it stays resident in shallow soils and groundwater. This study of contaminant hydrogeology examined conditions at a former golf course in Florida with known arsenic contamination, and included a detailed examination of existing assessment data for the study area, an experimental pumping test with groundwater sampling, examination of sediment cores, and a preliminary geophysical investigation. The primary purpose was to determine what the existing controls are on As mobility. The primary findings were that redox conditions did have an effect on As concentrations. Groundwater in the study area is generally reducing, but during the pumping test was generally oxidizing. No potential As sources were definitively identified, and the most likely source remains anthropogenic, but interactive conditions with Fe, Mn, NO3-N, and S remain nebulous. / Includes bibliography. / Thesis (M.S.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2020. / FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Teclu, Daniel Ghebreyo.
Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) mediate the reduction of metals/metalloids directly or indirectly. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated water could be a cost-effective process provided a cheap carbon source is used. To this end, molasses was tested as a possible source of carbon for the growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Its chemical composition and the tolerance of SRB toward different arsenic species [As (III) and As (V)] were also investigated. Batch culture studies were carried out to assess 1, 2.5 and 5 g l-1 molasses as suitable concentrations for SRB growth. The results indicate that molasses does support SRB growth, the level of response being dependent on the concentration; however, growth on molasses was not as good as that obtained when lactate, the usual carbon source for SRB, was used. The molasses used in this study contained several metals including Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in concentrations ranging from 0.54-19.7 ìg g-1, but these levels were not toxic to the SRB. Arsenic tolerance, growth response and sulphate-reducing activity of the SRB were investigated using arsenite and arsenate solutions at final concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 mg l-1 for each species. The results revealed that very little SRB growth occurred at concentrations of 20 mg l-1 As (III) or As (V). At lower concentrations, the SRB grew better in As (V) than in As (III). Batch cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in flasks containing pine bark, sand and polystyrene as support matrices and Postgate medium B were used to study formation of biofilms. The effects of the support matrices on the growth of the organisms were evaluated on the basis of pH and redox potential change and the levels of sulphide production and sulphate reduction. Characterisation of the matrix surfaces was done by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). A consortium of SRB growing on polystyrene caused a 49% of original sulphate reduction whereas on sand a 36% reduction occurred. Polystyrene was further examined for its durability as a long-term support material for the growing of SRB in the presence of As(III) and/or As(V) at concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 mg l-1. Both sulphate reduction and sulphide production were greater in this immobilised system than in the matrix-free control cultures. With pine bark as support matrix no significant sulphate reduction was observed. The kinetics of sulphate reduction by the immobilised cells were compared with those of planktonic SRB and found to be superior. The leaching of organic compounds, particularly phenolic substances, from the pine bark had a detrimental effect on the growth of the SRB. Different proportions of pine bark extract were used to prepare media to investigate this problem. Growth of SRB was totally inhibited when 100% pine bark extract was used. Analysis of these extracts showed the concentration of phenolics increased from 0.33 mg l-1 to 7.36 mg l-1 over the extraction interval of 15 min to 5 days. Digested samples of pine bark also showed the presence of heavy metals. The effects of nitrate, iron and sulphate and combinations thereof were investigated on the growth of a mixed culture of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The addition of 30 mg l-1 nitrate does not inhibit the production of sulphide by SRB when either 50 or 150 mg l-1 sulphate was present. The redox potential was decreased from 204 to -239 mV at the end of the 14 day batch experiment in the presence of 150 mg l-1 sulphate and 30 mg l-1 nitrate. The sulphate reduction activity of the SRB in the presence of 30 mg l-1 nitrate and 100 mg l-1 iron was about 42% of original sulphate, while if no iron was added, the reduction was only 34%. In the presence of 20 mg l-1 either As(III) or As(V), but particularly the former, growth of the SRB was inhibited when the cells were cultured in modified Postgate medium in the presence of 30 mg l-1 nitrate. The bioremoval of arsenic species [As(III) or As(V)] in the presence of mixed cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria was investigated. During growth of a mixed SRB culture adapted to 0.1 mg l-1 arsenic species through repeated sub-culturing, 1 mg l-1 of either As(III) or As(V) was reduced to 0.3 and 0.13 mg l-1, respectively. Sorption experiments on the precipitate produced by batch cultured sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB-PP) indicated a removal of about 77% and 55% of As(V) and As(III) respectively under the following conditions: pH 6.9; biomass (2 g l-1); 24 h contact time; initial arsenic concentration,1 mg l-1 of either species. These results were compared with synthetic iron sulphide as adsorbent. The adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis showed the SRB-PP contained elements such as sulphur, iron, calcium and phosphorus. Biosorption studies indicated that SRB cell pellets removed about 6.6% of the As(III) and 10.5% of the As(V) from water containing an initial concentration of 1 mg l-1 of either arsenic species after 24 h contact. Arsenic species were precipitated out of synthetic arsenic-contaminated groundwater by reacting it with the gaseous biogenic hydrogen sulphide generated during the growth of SRB. The percentage removal of arsenic species was dependent on the initial arsenic concentration present. Lastly, laboratory scale bioreactors were used to investigate the treatment of arsenic species contaminated synthetic groundwater. A mixed culture of SRB with molasses as a carbon source was immobilised on a polystyrene support matrix. The synthetic groundwater contained either As(III) or As(V) at concentrations of 20, 10, 5, 1 or 0.1 mg l-1 as well as 0.1 mg l-1 of a mixture with As(III) accounting for 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80% of the total. More that 90% and 60% of the As(V) and As(III) respectively were removed by the end of the 14-day experiment. At an initial concentration of 0.1 mg l-1 total arsenic had been reduced to below the WHO acceptable level of 10 ìg l-1 when the proportion of As(III) was 20 and 30%, while at 40% As(III) this level was reached only when the treatment time was increased to 21 days. The efficiency of As(III) removal was increased by first oxidising it to As(V) using MnO2. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2008.
Potentially harmful trace elements (PHTEs) in the groundwater of Greater Giyani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: possible health implications12 November 2015 (has links)
M.Sc. (Geology) / Most rural communities in developing countries rely on borehole water as their only source of water. Since borehole water comes from underground, it is often considered pure and clean, but this is frequently not the case. Groundwater contains certain amounts of trace elements that may become deleterious to human health. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the concentration levels of Potential Harmful Trace Elements (PHTEs) and their spatial distribution patterns in borehole water in the Greater Giyani area of Limpopo, South Africa, and the potential human health risks associated with this. The method of research comprised two phases: (I) In the first phase, I assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of PHTEs in the boreholes of the Giyani area. A total of 29 water samples were collected from boreholes (including 15 community boreholes and 14 primary school boreholes) in the Greater Giyani area during the dry season (July/August 2012), and for comparison another 27 samples (including 15 community boreholes and 12 schools boreholes) from the same localities during the wet season (March 2013). The samples were analysed for the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (ICPMS) technique. In order to assess the groundwater quality, PHTEs concentrations were compared with the South African National Standard of Drinking water (SANS 241-1:2011). (II) In the second phase, I evaluated the geographic variation between PHTEs and associated human health effects. This involved acquisition of data on a total of 100 cancer cases recorded during the period 2011-2014 at Nkhensani Hospital. ArcGIS Spatial analyst tool was used to create thematic maps illustrating spatial distribution of clinical data and arsenic concentrations in boreholes.
Groundwater arsenic contamination is currently a global problem, and also a concern at numerous former industrial sites, agricultural sites, landfill sites and mining operations in the U.S. This dissertation aims to develop improved strategies of remediating these arsenic contaminated aquifers. It focuses on two distinct approaches of remediation: (1) mobilizing arsenic from contaminated aquifer sediments to decrease the quantity of arsenic at the source of contamination; and (2) immobilizing arsenic in situ, to decrease the mobility and bioavailability of this arsenic. Optimal remediation may well involve combinations of these two approaches. Arsenic mobilization using oxalic acid is effective because oxalic acid dissolves arsenic host minerals and competes for sorption sites on those minerals. In this dissertation, oxalic acid treatment was tested using sediments with contrasting iron mineralogies and arsenic contents from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized arsenic from both sites and the residual sediment arsenic was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid thus could improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat remediation. Oxalic acid did not remove all of the reactive iron(III) minerals in Vineland sediment samples, and thus released significant quantities of arsenic into solution under reducing conditions than the Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of pump-and-treat must consider iron mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater arsenic. Arsenic immobilization occurs by changing the chemical state, or speciation, of arsenic and other elements in the system. Arsenic is often assumed to be immobile in sulfidic environments. In this dissertation, sulfate reduction was stimulated in sediments from the Vineland Superfund site and the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Sulfate reduction in the Coeur d'Alene sediments was more effective at removing arsenic from solution than the Vineland sediments. The Vineland sediments initially contained abundant reactive ferrihydrite, and underwent extensive sulfur cycling during incubation. As a result, arsenic in the Vineland sediments could not be effectively converted to immobile arsenic-bearing sulfides, but instead a part of the arsenic was probably converted to soluble thioarsenates. Therefore, coupling between the iron and sulfur redox cycles must be fully understood for arsenic immobilization by sulfate reduction to be successful. Arsenic can also be immobilized by retention on magnetite (Fe3O4). Magnetite is stable under a wide range of aquifer conditions including both oxic and iron(III)-reducing environments. In this dissertation, a series of experiments were performed with sediments from the Dover and Vineland Superfund sites, to examine the potential of magnetite for use in arsenic immobilization. Our data suggest that the formation of magnetite can be achieved by the microbial oxidation of ferrous iron with nitrate. Magnetite can incorporate arsenic into its structure during formation, forming a stable arsenic sink. Magnetite, once formed, can also immobilize arsenic by surface adsorption, and thus serve as a reactive filter when contaminated groundwater migrates through the treatment zone. Reactive transport modeling is used for investigating the magnetite based arsenic immobilization strategy and for scaling laboratory results to field environments. Such modeling suggests that the ratio between iron(II) and nitrate in the injectant regulates the formations of magnetite and ferrihydrite, and thus regulates the long-term evolution of the effectiveness of the strategy. The results from field-scale models favor scenarios that rely on the chromatographic mixing of iron(II) and nitrate after injection. The studies in this dissertation demonstrate that the environmental fate of arsenic depends on the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic, iron, and to a lesser extent, sulfur. The development of effective groundwater arsenic remediation strategies depends on a good understanding of each of the involved processes, and their combinations.
Page generated in 0.1059 seconds