Filtro ativo de potência paralelo utilizando inversores monofásicos full-bridge aplicado em sistemas trifásicos a quatro-fiosCampanhol, Leonardo Bruno Garcia 30 August 2012 (has links)
CAPES / Este trabalho apresenta o estudo, projeto e implementação digital usando DSP de um Filtro Ativo de Potência Paralelo (FAPP) trifásico com potência de 4,5kVA, sendo este implementado utilizando três topologias de inversores monofásicos em ponte completa compartilhando o mesmo barramento de tensão CC. O FAPP é utilizado em sistemas trifásicos a quatro-fios para supressão de harmônicos de corrente, compensação de reativos e compensação de desbalanços das correntes de carga. Dentre as características mais relevantes desta topolgia de FAPP, pode-se citar: possibilidade de controle de corrente independente entre as fases; tensão reduzida no barramento CC; isolação galvânica entre o FAPP e a rede elétrica; e modularidade. Os algoritmos adotados para obtenção das correntes de referência de compensação são fundamentados no método de controle baseado no sistema de eixos de referência síncrona (SRF). Estes podem ser empregados em sistemas monofásicos bastando, para isso, a criação de um sistema trifásico fictício. Desse modo, em um sistema trifásico a quatro-fios, cada uma das correntes de fase pode ser controlada de forma independente. Duas estratégias distintas de operação do FAPP são implementadas. Na primeira delas, chamada de Controle de Corrente Independente por Fase (CCIF), o FAPP atua na supressão de correntes harmônicas da carga e compensação de potência reativa. Neste caso, as correntes da rede serão senoidais, no entanto desequilibradas. Na segunda estratégia, além de atuar na supressão de harmônicas da carga e compensação de potência reativa, o FAPP também atua na Compensação dos Desequilíbrios das Correntes de Carga (CDCC). Assim, as correntes da rede, além de senoidais, serão equilibradas. Análises matemáticas são realizadas de forma a obter o modelo matemático que representa o sistema físico do FAPP. Além disso, é apresentada uma metodologia de projeto para a obtenção dos ganhos dos controladores das malhas de corrente e de tensão do barramento CC. Resultados de simulação e experimentais são apresentados de forma a validar o desenvolvimento teórico realizado e avaliar o desempenho do FAPP. / This work deals with the study, design and digital implementation by means of digital signal processor (DSP) of a 4.5kVA three-phase shunt active power filter (SAPF), which is implemented by using three single-phase full-bridge converters sharing the same dc-bus voltage. The SAPF is applied to three-phase four-wire systems performing harmonic current suppression, reactive power compensation and load unbalance compensation. The main characteristics of the SAPF topology can be related: possibility of independent current control; low DC-link voltage; galvanic isolation between the SAPF and the grid utility; and possibility of modular implementation. The algorithms adopted for obtaining the current references are based on the synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method. They can be employed in single-phase systems by creating a fictitious three-phase system. Thereby, in a three-phase four-wire system, it is possible the controlling of each phase current independently. Two different operation strategies of the SAPF are implemented. In the first one, which is called Independent Phase-Current Control (IPCC), the SAPF performs harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation. In this case, the source current will become sinusoidal although unbalanced. In the second strategy, besides acting in the harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation, the SAPF performs Load Unbalance Compensation (LUnC). In this case, the source currents will become sinusoidal and balanced. Mathematical analyses are carried out in order to obtain the mathematical model which represents the physical system of the SAPF. Additionally, a design methodology is presented, which is used to obtain the controller gains of both current and dc-bus voltage loops. Simulation and experimental results will be presented in order to validate the presented theoretical development and evaluate the performance of the SAPF.
Bokoro, Ntambu Pitshou
04 June 2012
M.Ing. / Line commutated thyristor converters are proven to be natural line harmonic currentgenerating sources regardless of their operating modes. The quality of harmonic current components induced back to the lines is commonly described to be similar under both states of operation. This however does not seem to be quite obvious as far as the aggregate harmonic current contribution to the phase inputs per operating region of thyristor converters. It becomes thus important to examine the degree of association between thyristor converter operating states and the magnitude of current harmonic pollution induced back to the input lines to subsequently establish the most current harmonic polluting region of operation. For the purpose of this study, the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, best known as the sampling theorem, whereby the converter output signal or waveform is sampled by the switching function to reconstruct the input waveform, is numerically applied in conjunction with the MatLab/Simulink 7.0 which enables the simulation of the two-quadrant operation of direct current variable speed drive (DC VSD) and that of high voltage direct current link (HVDC) converter station operation, as well as physical measurements on the twoquadrant operation of the DC VSD (Saftronics DC2L) with the aid of the digital scope meter (DSO)1200 series. However, numerical analysis based on the sampling theorem, practical measurements obtained and the MatLab/Simulink simulations indicate that the converter operating states cause a randomly distributed harmonic current generation trend in the input lines as the firing angle is increased and the most harmonic current contribution cannot be attributed to a specific region of the controlled converter firing angle.
Van Greunen, Corneluis Erasmus
Thesis (MScEng (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005. / This thesis presents the design and implementation of a Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) shunt Active Filter (AF) for non-linear loads. A NPC shunt AF is an attractive solution for AFs at the medium volage level, because it eliminates the need for cosly injection transformers. The balance of the capacitors of the direct current (dc) bus of the NPC inverter needs to maintained for stable and satisfactory operation though. Modulation techniques and their associated balancing techniques of the NPC inverter are analysed and discussed in the shunt AF setup. Specifically, the effect of Power Factor (PF), harmonics and unbalance of non-linear loads are considered. The practical design and implementation of the NPC shunt AF is presented. Practical and simulation results are presented which validates the presented theory.
Schlecht, Martin F
Thesis (Sc.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1982. / MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING. / Includes bibliographies. / by Martin Frederick Schlecht. / Sc.D.
Determining the load composition in commercial buildings based upon harmonic current characteristics /Suh, Inyoung, January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 2000. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 253-261). Available also in a digital version from Dissertation Abstracts.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Mississippi State University. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. / Title from title screen. Includes bibliographical references.
Kim, Taekhyun, 1977-
18 September 2012
In this dissertation, we present the theory and application of polyspectral signal analysis techniques for interharmonics in shipboard power systems. Interharmonics are generated from various kinds of adjustable speed drives (ASD) in such power systems. ASDs are highly nonlinear devices due to the use of rectifiers and inverters. Since interharmonics can seriously hamper the normal operation of electric ships in many different ways (e.g., excitation of undesirable electrical and/or mechanical resonances, misoperation of control devices, and light flicker), the detection and analysis of interharmonic-related events is a critical issue in assessing power quality in an all-electric ship. Standard signal analysis techniques for regular harmonics are not immediately applicable to interharmonics due to their small amplitude and uncertain frequency of occurrence. Hence, we propose the use of alternative polyspectral analysis techniques such as higher-order spectra (the cross bispectrum/bicoherence) for the detection and analysis of the ASD-generated interharmonics. First, we develop the interharmonic application specific definitions of the cross bispectrum and the cross bicoherence. The statistical characteristics and frequency domain symmetries are also investigated. We apply the modified cross bispectrum to interharmonic detection problems. Due to their small amplitudes, the detection of interharmonics is sensitive to many undesirable factors such as spectral leakage and measurement error. Our analysis results demonstrate that the detection performance of the conventional DFT-based method is seriously degraded in the presence of noise. Hence, we develop a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) interharmonic detector based on the modified cross bispectrum. Our analysis and experimental results show that our method can provide more robust detection performance than conventional methods in the presence of noise. We also develop an ASD condition monitoring method based on the cross bicoherence. The key idea is to diagnose the status of the load side of an ASD from observations made at the source side. In this dissertation, we apply our method to detection and analysis of phase imbalance at the load side of the ASD. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method provides a unique interharmonic signature for detection and classification of asymmetric impedance associated with the phase imbalance. Furthermore, the proposed method shows a more sensitive detection performance compared to the conventional imbalance measurement method, which enables prognosis of potential faults. A novel quadratic phase coupling detector for a single data record with coherent interharmonics is developed. The traditional bicoherence definition fails when its ’phase randomization’ assumption is not satisfied. This assumption is not appropriate for certain applications such as continuous monitoring of rotating machines. Therefore, we propose a novel quadratic phase coupling detector and compare it with previous techniques. It is shown that our detector is superior to previous detectors at high SNRs, and can also address partially coherent cases which previous approaches could not properly address. Flicker issues related to interharmonics are also discussed. We present a newly found limitation of the current IEC flickermeter regarding detecting flicker caused by low frequency interharmonics. We also present observation results of flicker responses of various lamps including light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps. Our observation results confirm that compact fluorescent and LED lamps are sensitive to high frequency interharmonics, although the IEC flickmeter can not detect flicker caused by such interharmonics. Hence, we develop an alternative flicker detection method based on down-up sampling. Our experiment results show that our method can detect flicker regardless of the value of the interharmonic frequencies. Independent of interharmonic topics, we also present our additional achievement involving application of wavelet denoising techniques to network congestion monitoring problems. This was a collaboration with researchers at the Department of Computer Sciences in the University of Texas at Austin, and mainly completed before becoming engaged in the electric ship project. By applying wavelet techniques, we could drastically enhance shared congestion detection performance over previously proposed methods. / text
Experimental studies in laser interaction with wavelength scale matter via second harmonic production and hard x-ray productionSumeruk, Hernan Ariel 28 August 2008 (has links)
Not available / text
Influence of winding configurations on torque ripple production in high phase order induction machines.Muteba, Mbika. January 2013 (has links)
M. Tech. Electrical Engineering. / Discusses the placement of windings in the slots of high phase order induction machines (HPOIMs) leads to a stepped-like waveform of stator (rotor) MMFs which exhibit space harmonics as well as the fundamental wave. The interaction of air-gap field components, which have the same pole number but rotate at different speeds, produce the torque ripple whose magnitude depends on the product of the magnitude of the two interacting fields. The frequency of the torque ripples also depends on the difference between the speeds of these two fields. A winding configuration or a combination of different configurations that reduces some air-gap components has the edge in terms of mitigating the ripple torque contents.
Use of Higher Order Harmonics from a Limiter to Improve the Single-Tone Detection Performance of an Envelope DetectorChowdhury, Rehana Momtaz, Engineering & Information Technology, Australian Defence Force Academy, UNSW January 2009 (has links)
The limiter is a commonly used device in communication receiving systems to remove the amplitude variations of the received signal, but it is usually observed that limiter degrades the envelope detection performance of a single tone. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that the limiter-generated third harmonic can be used to improve the envelope detection performance of a single tone over that of the linearly processed fundamental. Differences in the probability distributions of the limiter-generated harmonics cause differences in their detection probabilities, which lead to differences in the performance of subsequent envelope detection. Comparison of the envelope detection performance of the limiter-generated third harmonic and the input to the limiter shows a maximum detection probability gain of 1.12 and also error probability gain of 2.4 in linear scale, whereas the fundamental harmonic does not show any practically significant gain. The envelope detection performance of the vector sum of the limiter-generated fundamental and third harmonics is also evaluated. This combination provides better performance than do the individual harmonics, especially for a large clipping parameter of the limiter. The combined harmonics shows a maximum detetction probability gain of 1.15 and error probability gain of 14, over that of the envelope detection performance of a tone without limiter. It is also observed that the envelope detection performance of a tone with limiter-generated higher harmonics shows non-monotonic behaviour as functions of either noise or the limiter-clipping parameter, which is a signature of stochastic resonance. The theoretical results from earlier research on the envelope detection of a single tone embedded in additive white Gaussian noise, both with and without a limiter, are presented and shown to match our simulation results. In previous work when a limiter was used in the envelope detection of a single tone, only the envelope of the fundamental harmonic was considered under very specific conditions. By contrast we also take notice of the limiter-generated higher harmonics and obtain improved envelope detection performance in the detection of a single tone.
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