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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The cytotoxic immune response to HBV

O'Rourke, Sara Marie January 1995 (has links)
No description available.

HBV pre-C/C variation : geographical and functional aspects

Boner, Winifred January 1997 (has links)
No description available.

Genotyping and molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus(HBV) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in southern Africa

Makondo, Euphodia 26 January 2012 (has links)
M.Sc.(Med.), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 2011 / Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (Thakur et al.) are endemic in South Africa. There no data on the HBV genotypes prevailing in HIV-infected South Africans. The aim this study was to determine the HBV genotypes in HIV-infected patients and to identify mutations occurring in the basic core promoter/preccore (BCP/PC) and complete S regions. Twenty six HBV isolates from HBV-HIV co-infected individuals from Helen Joseph urban hospital prior to and at six month after initiation of HAART were analyzed. Three hundred HBV isolates from the rural Shongwe Hospital were recruited prior to treatment. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) together with sequencing of the BCP/PC and complete surface region amplicons were employed for genotyping and analysis. There was no significant difference in the HBV genotypes from both cohorts. Subgenotype A1 was the predominant genotype. HBV DNA was detected in 13/26 (50 %) Helen Joseph patients and 72/300 (24%) HBV DNA was detected in patients from Shongwe cohort: 28/300 (9.3%) HBsAg-positive and 44/300 (14.7%) HBsAg-negative. The BCP/PC region of HBV isolates from both cohorts showed mutations that could account for the HBeAg negativity, although in the case of the Helen Joseph cohort the HBeAg status was unknown because of depletion of serum. The HBeAg negativity in 44/49 Shongwe patients (89,7%) could be accounted for by the following mutations: 1) the basic core promoter mutations T1753C A1762T G1764A, which down regulate transcription of precore mRNA; 2) the Kozak sequence mutants that affect HBeAg translation, 3) the G1862T mutation, which interferes with post-translational modification of the HBeAg-precursor, and 4) the classical G1896A stop codon mutation with C1858T. The G1862T mutation occurred in HBV from 24.1% HBsAg-positive Shongwe patients but in none of the HBsAg-negative patients (p<0.05). PreS deletion mutants were found in isolates from both cohorts. These have previously been described in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The Helen Joseph HBV isolates had the “a” determinant and immune/vaccine escape mutants. In addition to these, Shongwe isolates had HBV reactivation markers mutations V168A + S174N in 23.8% of the HBsAg-negative and in none of the HBsAg-positive infections. Drug resistant mutations were found in three Shongwe HBV isolates from ART naïve individuals and in none Helen Joseph HBV isolates. In conclusion, South African HIV-infected individuals were predominantly infected with subgenotype A1 of HBV. Mutations in the BCP and precore region of HBV isolates could account for the HBeAg negativity in the majority of patients. A number of HBV isolates displayed both immune escape and drug resistance mutations that were responsible of the HBsAg-negativity in patients from which they were isolated.

Occult hepatits B virus (HBV) infection in the Chacma Baboon (Papio ursinus orientalis)

Dickens, Caroline 23 November 2011 (has links)
Members of the family Hepadnaviridae have been detected in both avian and mammalian species. They have a very limited host range, and among the nonhuman primates, have been found to occur naturally in chimpanzees, gorillas, gibbons, orang-utans and woolly monkeys. The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been shown to infect chimpanzees, Barbary macaques and tree shrews. During the course of a previous study, to determine the susceptibility of baboons (Papio ursinus orientalis) to HBV infection, HBV DNA was detected in the serum of 2 baboons prior to their inoculation with HBV-positive human serum, raising the possibility that baboons are naturally infected with a hepadnavirus. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in wildcaught baboons and to molecularly and functionally characterise the virus isolated from these baboons. DNA was extracted from the sera of wild-caught baboons and four separate regions of the HBV genome amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Samples were only considered to be positive for HBV if at least three of these regions amplified. DNA was extracted from the liver tissue of one of the HBV DNA-positive baboons using a proteinase K digestion followed by a phenolchloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. From this extract, the complete HBV genome was amplified by nested PCR of eight overlapping subgenomic fragments, and sequenced. This sequence was analysed phylogenetically using both the PHYLIP and Simmonic software packages. A selective real time PCR using SYBR®-green detection was used to detect covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. RNA was extracted from the baboon liver tissue using a guanidinium-acidphenol extraction method, reverse transcribed and portions of the HBV genome amplified by nested PCR. Transmissibility of the virus was tested by injecting four experimentally naïve baboons individually with serum from four HBV DNApositive baboons and followed for 26 weeks. HBV was detected in the serum of 5/69 (7,2%) wild-caught baboons by Southern hybridization and in 11/49 (22,4%) adult and 4/20 (20,0%) juvenile wild caught baboons. This gave an overall prevalence of 21,7% in the baboon population surveyed. Serologically, the baboon sera were negative for all markers of HBV infection and alanine aminotransferse (ALT) levels were normal. In the one baboon liver tissue available, HBcAg was detected by immunohistochemical staining in some of the hepatocyte nuclei, but HBsAg was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the HBV isolate found it to cluster with subgenotype A2, a surprising result considering that subgenotype A1 predominates in South Africa. However, unlike other subgenotype A2 isolates, the basic core promoter had the G1809T / C1812T double mutation characteristic of subgenotypes A1 and A3 and the precore region had the G1888A mutation unique to subgenotype A1. These mutations in the basic core promoter and precore regions have previously been shown to reduce the expression of the precore and core proteins. Four additional mutations in the polymerase, surface, X and core open reading frames (ORFs) further differentiated the baboon HBV strain form the majority of previously sequenced subgenotype A2 isolates. cccDNA was detected at low levels in the baboon liver tissue. Regions of the precore/core and surface ORFs were amplified off reverse transcribed cDNA. These results demonstrate HBV replication in the baboon liver. Transmission of the virus was shown by the detection of HBV DNA in the sera of the four inoculated baboons at various times throughout the 26 week follow-up period. These baboons also showed transient seroconversion for HBsAg and HBeAg during this period with intermittent fluctuations in ALT levels. Moreover, using DNA extracted from liver tissue obtained at necropsy from one of the injected baboons, the sequence of the HBV surface gene amplified was found to be identical to the sequence of the isolate from inoculum. The finding of subgenotype A2 in the baboon is paradoxical because subgenotypes A1 and A3 as well as genotypes D and E predominate in Africa. The possibility exists that subgenotype A2 is an older strain that has been overtaken by these other strains. There is however a scarcity of subgenotype A2 sequencing data from Africa and a higher circulation of this subgenotype could be uncovered with more extensive molecular epidemiological studies in more remote areas. Alternatively, a recent discovery of alternative compartmentalization of subgenotype A2 infections in the peripheral blood lymphocyte population of individuals from India, where subgenotype A1 also predominates, could explain the lack of detection of this subgenotype in Africa. Occult hepatitis B infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg by currently available assays. The detection of HBV DNA in the baboon liver and serum in the absence of serological markers therefore classifies this infection as occult. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a naturally occurring occult HBV infection in non-human primates.

The relationship between hepatitis b virus and apoptosis in humans and in a transgenic mouse model

Viana, Raquel Valongo 17 January 2012 (has links)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been found to be highly endemic in Africa and south east Asia. In southern Africa, subgenotype A1 and genotype D prevail while in south east Asia genotype B and C predominate. Infection with HBV can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to self-limited acute or fulminant hepatitis to chronic hepatitis with progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been shown that viral factors as well as a number of host and environmental factors can influence the course of HBV infection. Development and progression of various liver diseases are associated with either an increase or decrease in hepatocyte apoptosis. Dysregulated apoptosis itself may be a fundamental feature of most acute and chronic human liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterise the subgenotype A1 and genotype D HBV infection, prevailing in South Africa. To control for the influence of host factors on HBV infection as well as to avoid the use of in vitro cell lines, such as Huh-7, that have defective apoptotic pathways, the in vivo urokinase plasminogen activator severe combined immunodeficient (uPA-SCID) transgenic mouse model was utilised. The HBV infection of the transgenic mice infected with HBV positive sera containing either subgenotype A1 wildtype, subgenotype A1 with the G1862T mutation, subgenotype A2 or genotype D, was compared. For the first time, we were able to demonstrate the successful infection of the uPA-SCID transgenic mouse model with subgenotype A1 of HBV. The successful establishment of the in vivo HBV infection with different genotypes or subgenotypes in the uPA-SCID transgenic mice was demonstrated by the increase of HBV DNA levels, the presence of cccDNA and HBV transcripts as well as the detection of the core and/or surface HBV antigens in the liver tissue of the chimeric mice. Differences between the HBV infections with the various genotype/subgenotypes were observed. Subgenotype A1 with the G1862T mutation showed the earliest detection and therefore highest levels of cccDNA as well as the highest HBV DNA levels when compared to the other strains. The highest HBV DNA levels were recorded for the subgenotype A1 G1862T infected transgenic mouse followed by genotype D, subgenotype A2 and the lowest levels observed in the subgenotype A1 wild-type infected transgenic mouse. HBsAg was also only detected in the livers of mice infected with subgenotype A1 with the G1862T mutation. HBcAg staining in the chimeric liver was positive when the mice were infected with genotype D, which concurs with previous observations that genotype D is characterised by high HBcAg expression. Subgenotype A1 with the 1862 mutant showed the highest levels of apoptosis as a result of the abnormal precore precursor protein accumulation shown to be associated with this 1862 missense mutation. Thus different genotypes and subgenotypes as well as variations within genotypes can influence HBV infection. Moreover, the results of these experiments in the immunocompromised chimeric mice, grafted with liver cells from a single donor, suggests that even when host and environmental risk factors are controlled for, the subgenotype or genotype can influence the course of infection. The limitations of the uPA-SCID transgenic mouse model include the lack of an immune system and the short life-span of the animal; therefore a population based study was carried out to investigate the influence of host factors on HBV infection in various disease groups. The study cohort comprised 635 serum samples from South Africa, China and Japan. Of these samples, 564 were HBsAg-positive and the remaining 71 HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA negative controls. The study cohort included asymptomatic carriers; chronically infected HBV patients as well as patients with HBV associated HCC. Possible associations were determined between HBV genotype, HBV viral load, apoptosis levels, disease group and the age and gender of the patient where available. Apoptosis levels were quantified by the measurement of cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30) in serum. Patients infected with genotype C or subgenotype A1 were shown to possess a higher odds ratios of developing HCC compared to subgenotype B2 or genotype D, respectively. Significantly higher HBV viral loads were observed in genotype C compared to subgenotype B2. Among the Asian cohort, it was also shown that the male gender was positively associated with high viral loads in HCC patients. Moreover, a positive association between higher HBV viral load levels and HCC in the South African cohort was observed. Male gender, older age, HBV viral load, subgenotype A1 and the presence of the G1862T mutation were shown to be positively and significantly associated with higher levels of apoptosis. In this study it was discovered that the levels of cleaved cytokeratin 18 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the severity of HBV infection because a significant difference was observed with the apoptosis levels between the asymptomatic and HCC patient disease groups. We conclude that even when the influence of host and environmental factors is controlled for, as is the case in the chimeric mouse model, the HBV genotype can affect the progression of infection. Moreover, it was shown in the population based study that the effect of HBV genotype on the outcome of HBV infection can be influenced by host factors. The subgenotype A1 G1862T mutation was shown in both studies to affect both HBV infection and apoptosis. This suggests that HBV variants should be investigated to ascertain their potential impact on the course of HBV infection as it may differ from the wild-type. Apoptosis was shown to be associated with HBV infection in both studies and could possibly be an ideal marker of the progression of HBV infection. These findings are important in helping us to understand factors influencing the course of HBV infection. We have therefore shown in both the studies that differences do exist between the South African subgenotype A1 and genotype D, and that these differences should be taken into consideration for the future evaluation of HBV infection and treatment of South African HBV infected patients. Moreover, cleaved cytokeratin 18 may provide an ideal surrogate marker for HBV disease progression and monitoring.

Full length genome characterisation of Hepatitis B virus isolates at Dr George Mukhari Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa

Magobo, Rindidzani Edith 09 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc. (Medical Virology))-- University of Limpopo, 2011. / Introduction: Sub-Saharan Africa is a region with hepatitis B virus (HBV) hyperendemicity with more than 8% HBsAg prevalence. An estimate of two billion people has been reported to carry HBV markers. HBV was associated with about 25% of annual deaths in Africa. HBV possesses a DNA polymerase which lacks proofreading mechanism. This results in highly variability and genetic diversity which poses a challenge for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HBV infection. High mutation rate of HBV also has great implications on the development of drug resistant mutations. Moreover, HBV diversity represents a challenge for the sensitivity of immunological and molecular diagnostic assays. A number of studies on HBV full length genome have been conducted particularly in developed countries. Limited studies are available in Africa and South Africa. In South Africa, few studies have been done analysing the complete genome of HBV isolates from patients with asymptomatic carriers and fulminant hepatitis B (Owideru et ai, 2001 a; Owideru et ai, 2001 b; Kimbi et ai, 2004; Kramvis et ai, 2002).This study was aimed at characterising the full-length genome of HBV isolates at Dr George Mukhari Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, with a view of developing a PCR-based technology for amplification and characterisation of HBV strains with different serological profiles. The technology, if successfully developed, will contribute in understanding the molecular mechanisms resulting in various HBV variants or isolates. Methods: The study design was exploratory. Four stored serum samples collected from HBV infected patients at Dr George Mukhari hospital, Pretoria, were used to develop the molecular technology and test the hypothesis. HBV serology was previously performed targeting 5 HBV serological markers; HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe using Elecsys version; HBV DNA quantification was done using Cobas Amplicor HBV DNA monitor assay, HBV DNA was extracted and subjected to nested PCR assay targeting HBV full length genome as two overlapping fragments: fragment A (1670 bp) and fragment B (1868 bp). The generated PCR products for both fragments were cloned into the pGEM T easy vector and 2 clones were selected from each sample. The plasm ids were purified using Invisorb@ Spin Plasmid Mini Two and the clones were recovered by PCR assay. The sample PCR products and the clone PCR products were purified and sequenced using SpectruMedix SCE2410 genetic analysis system. HBV genotyping was performed using the NCBI web-based genotyping tool. Phylogenetic analysis was done using MEGA 4 software to confirm HBV genotypes. Results: Serology results were as follows: All samples were HBsAg positive, Anti-HBs negative, anti-HBc positive and anti-HBe negative. Sample B1121 and sample 6 were HBeAg positive while samples B452 and 5 were HBeAg negative. A total of 12 PCR products were sequenced (4 study samples and 8 clones [2 clones each sample]). In total, 7 HBV full length genome sequences were deduced from this study, with 3 sequences belonging to genotype A, 2 to genotype C and 2 to genotype D. 3 HBV genotypes were detected from this study; genotype A, C and D with subgenotype A2, C1 and D1 respectively. Mutations were observed throughout the genome. In the pre-S/S open reading frame (ORF), the most significant findings were the detection of mutations within the "a" determinant site and major hydrophilic region (MHR). These mutations included Y161F,E164G observed in sample B1121 and B1121C1 belonging to subtype A1; 2 amino acid insertion at aa 161-162 in sample 5 belonging to subtype C1. Drug resistance associated mutations were identified in the polymerase gene, these included M204T and L217R which are associated with adefovir resistance, M204T also resulted in a change from tryptophan (W) to arginine (R) at aa 196 on the overlapping surface gene on sample B452 C1. Basal core promoter (BCP) and pre core/core mutations were detected in study isolates; specifically the BCP double mutation (1762/1764) was seen in 8 isolates which belonged to subtype C1 (5) and D1 (3) and the pre-core stop codon mutations (G1896A) in 4 isolates. (2 belonging to subtype C1 and the other 2 to D1). Other changes observed included a 48 nucleotides deletion in the pre-core gene, 6 nucleotides insertion in the HBx gene of all subtype D1 isolates and a 3 nucleotides deletion in subtype C1 clone. Conclusion: This study successfully optimised a PCR-based technology for the amplification and characterisation of HBV full length genome. 3 HBV genotypes were detected with subtypes A2, C1 and D1. However, the detected subtypes are rarely detected in South Africa. The detection of subtype A2 may confirm its Southern African origin. Drug resistance associated mutations were observed in this study. These included the adefovir resistance mutation which the current study confirmed it is a naturally occurring mutation as it was detected in adefovir therapy na'ive patient. The BCP and pre-core/core mutations were detected in genotype C and D isolates; however, their association with serological profile and clinical outcomes could not be deduced. Unique or novel mutations were seen in the study isolates, these included 48 nucleotides deletion in the pre core gene, 3 amino acids insertion in the RNase H and 8 amino acids deletion in the RT domain of polymerase gene. To our knowledge, these mutations have not been identified or reported in the literature. The detection of 6 nucleotide insertion in the HBx gene was reported for the first time in South African isolates. Further analysis is required to ascertain the biological significance of the unique mutations detected in this study.

Translational control mechanisms used by the human Hepatitis B virus : an upstream open reading frame modulates expression of the pregenomic RNA

Chen, Augustine, n/a January 2007 (has links)
The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small hepatotropic virus, which affects approximately 350 million chronic sufferers worldwide. It has a compact 3.2 kbp dsDNA genome encoding four major overlapping genes namely core, polymerase, surface and X required for its replication. The virus synthesises a pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) which functions both as an RNA intermediate for reverse transcription into the DNA genome and as the mRNA for the translation of the core (C) and polymerase (P) proteins. The core overlaps the polymerase gene and is translated at a 10 to 1 ratio. The polymerase gene translated from the P AUG codon is preceded by at least 4 upstream AUG codons (uAUGs), namely C AUG, C1 AUG, J AUG and C2 AUG. Various mechanisms have been implicated in the synthesis of the polymerase protein. This led to the currently accepted model which involves leaky scanning and a reinitiation mechanism in polymerase synthesis. However, multiple sequence alignment of the pgRNA revealed a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) highly conserved at the nucleotide level in all HBV subtypes and mammalian hepadnaviruses. This previously unreported uORF, designated as C0 ORF in this study is also conserved in its position and length. Past studies have either omitted this uORF in their test constructs or ignored its potential role. The C0 ORF has a conserved weak initiation context and is located within the epsilon structure within the 5� leader of the pgRNA, required for viral encapsidation. Importantly, the C0 ORF precedes and overlaps the core ORF, which may suggest an alternative model in which the core and polymerase may be translated and coordinately regulated. Fusion of the C0 ORF to luciferase showed for the first time that this uORF is translated through the detection of reporter activity (~20% of C) and also visualisation of the fusion protein via western analysis using anti-C0 and anti-luciferase antibodies. Subsequent removal of the C0 ORF implicated a role in repressing downstream core fusion protein synthesis in HepG2 cells. A similar repression was observed on J expression. To study the effect of C0 on downstream polymerase translation, a pgRNA-like DNA construct was made and subsequent mutations introduced. Mutation of the C0 AUG led to an increase in initiation at the downstream P AUG. Alteration of the existing weak initiation context to an optimal context which favours stronger initiation consistently showed a potential role for C0 ORF in facilitating reinitiation at certain downstream initiation codons including P AUG. Mutations of other uAUGs preceding the P AUG were also done to better understand their roles in regulating polymerase synthesis. The removal of the C AUG markedly increased expression from the P AUG. This study revealed other internal uAUGs in-frame to the C AUG, namely the C1 and C2 AUGs are also effectively translated, further reducing availability of translating ribosomes to downstream P AUG. Indeed the removal of the C1 and C2 AUGs led to a corresponding increase in initiation from the P AUG. Initiation at the internal J AUG was also reported and its removal showed a significant decrease in expression from the P AUG, consistent with the previous model implicating reinitiation at the P initiation site after translation of the short J ORF. The inhibitory role of the 5 uAUGs prior to the P AUG were confirmed when all were removed, giving rise to translation almost equal to that at C AUG. Taken together, these results suggest a new model in which the HBV C0 ORF plays a key role in controlling core and polymerase synthesis by repressing core translation and making available more ribosomes to downstream AUGs possibly facilitating translation reinitiation. In addition, the translation of the C0 ORF across the [epsilon] region may also preclude encapsidation, potentially acting as a switch discriminating the pgRNA template between encapsidation and translation. Therefore, the highly conserved [epsilon] region and C0 ORF present an excellent target for molecular based antiviral drugs (antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers, ribozymes) potentially providing new anti HBV drugs.

Hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA is associated with methylated histones H3 and H4 and heterochromatin complex proteins : implication of their roles in viral replication

Lin, Shing-cho, 連承祖 January 2013 (has links)
Hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) forms a mini-chromosome structure inside infected hepatocyte nuclei and plays an important role in chronic hepatitis B infection. Methylation of cccDNA-bound histone and the associations of heterochromatin HP1 complex related proteins with cccDNA were investigated in this thesis using transient transfection study system and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 residue (H3K4), which plays an activating role in eukaryotic transcription, were found to associate with cccDNA in a way in parallel to the level of HBV replication in our system. On the other hand, tri-methylation of H3K9, which plays an inhibitory role in eukaryotic transcription, was found to associate with cccDNA during decline of HBV replication. During the decline of HBV replication, cccDNA was associated with histone methyltransferases SUV39H1 and SUV420H1 and histone demethylase PLU1. The dynamic of the association of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) to cccDNA was similar to that of SUV39H1. The association of cccDNA with five HP1 complex-related proteins (three DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Dnmt1 and two methylated DNA binding proteins MBD1 and MeCP2) was studied, and their associations could be roughly divided into two stages. From 72 hours to 96 hours post-transfection, there was an increased association of cccDNA with Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MBD1, which was in parallel to the increased association of HP1 and SUV39H1with -cccDNA. From 96 hours to 120 hours after transfection, an increased association of Dnmt1 and MeCP2 with cccDNA was detected, which was correlated to that of SUV420H1. At the time when HBV replication was declining at 120 hours post-transfection, a highest association of SUV39H1, SUV420H1, HP1 and all 5 HP1 complex-related proteins with cccDNA was found. In conclusion, methylation of cccDNA-bound histone was associated with HBV replication. Activating H3K4 methylation was found to correlate with increase in HBV replication, while inhibitory H3K9 methylation correlated with decrease in HBV replication. The association of HP1 was in parallel to that of SUV39H1, indicating that HP1-SUV39H1 complex might be involved, and thereby recruiting other proteins for transcription suppression. Recruitment of DNA methyltransferases and methylated DNA binding proteins to cccDNA provided further evidence that methylation of cccDNA plays a role in transcription suppression. This study identified the associations of methylated histone and other related proteins with cccDNA and their correlations with viral replication. These results enhance our knowledge in HBV replication cycles and transcription regulation. It may show a novel area in development of antiviral drugs such as histone methyltransferase modulators. / published_or_final_version / Medicine / Master / Master of Philosophy

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the Chinese: natural history, sequelae, treatment and prevention

Yuen, Man-fung., 袁孟峰 January 2001 (has links)
published_or_final_version / abstract / toc / Medicine / Master / Doctor of Medicine

Production and characterisation of mutant recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface proteins identified in genotype D occult HBV infections

El Chaar, Mira Hisham January 2011 (has links)
No description available.

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