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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Series operation of thyristors in HVDC converters

Naik, K. R. January 1970 (has links)
High voltage direct current. (hvdc) transmission of electrical paver has been made possible with the recent advent of multi-anode mercury arc valves with grading electrodes. However, mercury are valves do suffer from random phenomena such as arcback, which requires special bracing for the converter transformer. In addition, mercury arc valves need considerable auxiliaries, including cooling and vacuum plants. Research and development directed towards the improvement in the voltage and current capabilities of thyristors are yielding encouraging results. In contrast to mercury arc valves, thyristors do not suffer from random phenomena and require minim auxiliaries. Considering these advantages, thyristors offer a viable alternative to mercury arc valves for hvdc converters. The comparatively low ratings of thyristors necessitate series and parallel connection of thyristors in order to construct a valve of sufficient rating for hvdc operation. The design of thyristor valve should ensure even distribution of voltage and current among all thyristors of the valve, during all operating conditions. To achieve this objective transmission of the firing signal to the gate of each thyristors should have good coherence. The thesis examines design aspects, and considers the different methods of firing both theoretically and practically. Finally, the design and subsequent experimental results of the prototype thyristors valve rated at 10kv and 10A are also included.
2

Investigations into the upgrading of transmission lines from HVAC to HVDC.

Naidoo, Pathmanathan. January 2007 (has links)
Emanating from the proceedings of CIGRE 2004, a new idea for higher power transmission by recycling and up rating high voltage alternating current transmission lines for high voltage direct current application was presented at the HYDC working group session. To date, there is no known application of the idea. Globally, transmission congestion, power transfer bottlenecks with restricted and limited power transfers and unobtainable servitudes challenge electric power utilities. The literature review shows that since the early sixties, several authors have studied this proposal. However, no applications were done. Admittedly, early HYDC technology was troubled by problems with multi-terminal designs, external insulation breakdown in the presence of DC stress and mercury valve rectifiers struggled with arc backs. To date, power electronic and external insulation technology has grown and matured for confident application both in point to point and multi-terminal application. The economic costs of introducing the DC technology are also more affordable given reducing prices due to higher volume of purchases. With promising developments in insulation and power electronic technology and driven by South Africa's surging growth in the consumption of electrical energy; the subject of upgrading HYAC transmission for HYDC application is revisited. For the research, the emphasis is beyond FACTS and towards a solution that could develop into a new supergrid that could overlay the existing national grid. Thus, the solution is prepared specifically for the case of recycling existing assets for higher power transfers. The working environment is defined by the difficulty in acquiring new powerline servitudes, transmission congestion in complex networks, the need for electrical islands within complex interconnections, and the need for enhanced power system stability and to promote new ancillary services energy management. The focus of this research study was to determine the technical feasibility of upgrading of existing HYAC circuits for HYDC application. It is assumed that the transmission line will remain as is in structure, layout and mechanical design. The changing of external line insulators using live line technology is an accepted modification to the original HYAC line, if required. From the study, we conclude that not all HYAC lines are recommended for upgrade to HYDe. We introduce boundary conditions as a first step towards checking on the suitability of the proposed upgrade from HVAC to HYDC mode. Emanating from this study, the first paper published introduced the initial boundary conditions as being only those lines where the "unused gap" between surge impedance loading and conductor current carrying capability is appreciable and large; generally three to four times surge impedance loading. In the case where the unused gap is the smallest or negligible, then we do nothing. In between, where the unused gap is about two to three times the surge impedance loading, then we can consider active or passive compensation using the HVAC FACTS technology options as proposed by EPRl. Having determined the candidate transmission line configuration for the proposed upgrade to HYDC application, we select the DC operating voltage as based on the voltage withstand capability of external insulation for varying environmental conditions. In addition, the DC voltage will generate allowable electrical fields and corona effects within and outside the transmission servitude. The optimum DC operating voltage would satisfy the conditions of minimum transmission power losses and volt drop for the case of maximum power transfers; within the limits of electrical fields and corona effects. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2007.
3

A study of high voltage direct current conductor corona in a purpose built corona cage.

Sibilant, Gary Charles. January 2003 (has links)
The main aim of this study was concerned with the design and commissioning of a corona cage, which could be used under Direct Current (DC) conditions. The cage was designed based on empirical formulas and equations as well as electric field simulations. The designed cage was then fabricated. The commissioning of the cage was undertaken in the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) laboratory at the University of Durban - Westville (UDW). Tests to determine the effects of a silicone coating as well as wind on the corona performance of conductors were undertaken. The tests were done in order to determine ways of improving the corona performance of conductors under HVDC potential. The tests were carried out using various conductor surface conditions. The wind tests were made possible by using a powerful fan. A silicone coating was also used to determine the effects that it would have in mitigation of corona activity on HVDC conductors. The conductors were tested without the coating, with half of their length coated and then fully coated. Results showed that the effect of wind on corona generation in a corona cage is minimal. The effect of the silicone coating was that it increased the corona currents measured in the corona cage. The conductors with no coating generated the lowest currents, the half coated conductors generated the second highest measured currents and the fully coated conductors generated the most corona. Analysis of the increased currents showed that the increase in corona currents due to the silicone coating could be attributed to three factors. Firstly the coating caused an increase in conductor to cage capacitance. Secondly, partial discharges could have occurred in the silicone due to microscopic air particles and lastly, the increase in corona currents could be ascribed to the effect of the boundary conditions on the boundary between the conductor and the coating. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Durban-Westville, 2003.
4

Parallel multi-modal optimal design and sensitivity assessment for electric power systems

Yazdanpanah Goharrizi, Ali 05 April 2016 (has links)
This thesis proposes a novel algorithm to optimize multi-modal, nonlinear, black-box objective functions for electric power system design using an electromagnetic transients (EMT) simulator. The algorithm discovers multiple local optimal solutions for a given complex power system, and then generates accurate surrogate models of an objective function around each discovered local optimal solution. These surrogate models represent the local behaviour of the objective function that can be used in the subsequent stages of sensitivity analyses. Using surrogate models instead of intensive transient simulation during sensitivity analysis reduces computational intensity and simulation time. This makes the proposed algorithm particularly suited for optimization of computationally expensive black-box functions. The stages of the algorithm can be implemented independently and hence the computations can be done in parallel. Therefore, the algorithm is implemented in a parallel environment to gain significant speed-up in the design of electric power systems. Comparative studies in terms of objective function evaluation and computation time are provided. Using several multi-modal benchmark objective functions, the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to other recently developed algorithms is demonstrated. Additionally, the application of the algorithm in the design process of complex electric power system demonstrated through several examples. The case studies show that the parallelized algorithm provides computational savings up to 39 times compared to the conventional sequential approach. / May 2016
5

Comparative Study of HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems With Proposed Machine Learning Algorithms for Fault Location Detection

January 2019 (has links)
abstract: High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Technology has several features that make it particularly attractive for specific transmission applications. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of the HVDC projects, which demonstrates a heightened interest in the HVDC technology. In parallel, the use of renewable energy sources has dramatically increased. For instance, Kuwait has recently announced a renewable project to be completed in 2035; this project aims to produce 15% of the countrys energy consumption from renewable sources. However, facilities that use renewable sources, such as solar and wind, to provide clean energy, are mostly placed in remote areas, as their installation requires a massive space of free land. Consequently, considerable challenges arise in terms of transmitting power generated from renewable sources of energy in remote areas to urban areas for further consumption. The present thesis investigates different transmission line systems for transmitting bulk energy from renewable sources. Specifically, two systems will be focused on: the high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) system and the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system. In order to determine the most efficient way of transmitting bulk energy from renewable sources, different aspects of the aforementioned two types of systems are analyzed. Limitations inherent in both HVAC and HVDC systems have been discussed. At present, artificial intelligence plays an important role in power system control and monitoring. Consequently, in this thesis, the fault issue has been analyzed in transmission systems, with a specific consideration of machine learning tools that can help monitor transmission systems by detecting fault locations. These tools, called models, are used to analyze the collected data. In the present thesis, a focus on such models as linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), linear support vector machine (LSVM) , and adaptive boost (AdaBoost). Finally, the accuracy of each model is evaluated and discussed. The machine learning concept introduced in the present thesis lays down the foundation for future research in this area so that to enable further research on the efficient ways to improve the performance of transmission line components and power systems. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Electrical Engineering 2019
6

A study of HVDC transmission line audible noise and corona loss in an indoor corona cage.

Lekganyane, Mokwape Johannah. January 2007 (has links)
The main objective of this research was to study DC conductor corona loss (CL) and audible noise (AN) in the context of local climatic conditions, through corona cage measurements, and do a comparative analysis of the measured data with results available in literature and EPRI TLW software simulation results. The ultimate aim was to assess the applicability of the software to our local conditions and hence determine, if necessary, appropriate correction factors for application in HYDC transmission line designs. For this study, short term measurements of corona AN and currents were carried out in an indoor meshed cylindrical corona cage, under DC and AC voltages. The cage was later converted into a short test line and some of the measurements repeated. The DC supply was obtained from a two stage ±500 kV Walton-Cockroft generator. The AC voltages were obtained from a 2x 100 kV, 50 Hz, AC test transformer set. The tests were performed using single solid and stranded aluminum conductors with three different diameters (1.6 cm, 2.8 cm, and 3.5 cm). All the measurements were carried out at low altitude. A CoroCAM I camera was used to determine the corona inception gradients and to observe the corona activity at different surface gradients and under different voltages and polarities. AN measurements at different conductor surface gradients were done using the Rohde&Schwarz and the Bruel&Kjaer sound level meters. To obtain the frequency spectra, a Bruel&Kjaer octave-band filter set attached to the sound level meter was used. The measured data was corrected for both height and length effects, and then compared with simulations from the EPRI-TLW software through curve fitting. A digital micro-ammeter connected to the centre of the cage through a 560 .Q measuring resistor was used to measure the corona current. Current pulses were viewed using a digital storage oscilloscope. To verify the corona current results obtained from the cage measurements, current measurements were also done for a point-plane spark gap. The corona current data was, later on, used to evaluate the total corona power loss for DC. The results obtained from test line measurements were used to compare the CL and AN for different configurations. The effect of the space charge under DC voltages was assessed through current measurements. The measurements were done with the cage covered with an aluminum foil to trap the charge and then repeated with the cage uncovered. On the test line, the space charge effect was investigated using a high power fan blowing along the conductor, to simulate the wind factor. The results of this study have shown the characteristics of corona discharges under different system voltages. The results also give an understanding of how factors such as conductor surface conditions and size, polarity and system voltage affect CL and AN. Both CL and AN were found to increase with conductor size for the same conductor surface gradient and to be higher for stranded conductors. Positive polarity DC and AC noise levels were higher than the negative polarity levels. CL under positive polarity DC was lower than the negative polarity loss. The effects of space of space charge were noted to some extend. The comparison of test line results and cage results showed that CL depends more on the gap size and the shorter the gap the higher the loss. Hence CL results were not compared with the software simulations. The comparison between the corrected AN results and the software simulations showed a very good agreement. The comparison was done for the 3.5 cm and the 2.8 cm diameter conductors under both positive and negative polarities. The trends compared through curve fitting were quite similar and the trend line equations were of the same order of magnitude. The magnitudes of the corrected noise levels were higher than the CRIEPI and BPA predictions but closer to the EPRl prediction. Generally there is a very good and encouraging agreement between the available literature, simulation results and the results obtained from the laboratory measurements. It is proposed, as part of further studies, to extend this work to high altitude regions and use bundled conductors as well. Consideration of different and larger test configurations will provide an understanding of the effects of geometry on corona discharges. Space charge analysis will also assist in determining the effect of space charge on different configurations. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2007.
7

Harmonic interaction between weak AC systems and VSC-based HVDC schemes

Krige, Ernst 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The implementation of the Caprivi Link Interconnector (CLI) High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) scheme in 2010 connecting the weak Namibian and Zambian Alternating Current (AC) transmission networks via overhead line is based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This world-first combination of attributes presents a unique opportunity to study harmonic interaction between weak AC systems and VSC-based HVDC schemes. Relatively few publications exist that focus on AC and DC harmonic interaction and very few refer to VSC HVDC schemes. Because weak AC systems are much more prone to harmonic distortion than strong AC systems, there is a clear motivation for more detailed work in this field. In order to understand the context wherein AC and DC harmonic interaction exists, the fields of AC power system harmonic analysis and resonance, VSC switching theory, HVDC scheme configurations, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques and frequency domain analysis techniques are discussed. This thesis then presents the concept of Harmonic Amplitude Transfer Ratio (HATR) by a theoretical analysis of AC and DC harmonic interaction due to the fundamental component, as well as harmonic interaction due to scheme characteristic harmonics and is compared to the simulation results obtained from different software solutions. Simulation and modelling techniques for AC and DC harmonic interaction are discussed including AC and DC systems modelling. The theoretical results and simulation results are compared to the results obtained from a real life case study on the CLI HVDC scheme where a harmonic resonance condition occurred. The correlation of these three sets of results confirms the validity of the theories presented and possible mitigation of the case study resonance problems is explored. The results and conclusion highlight a variety of interesting points on harmonic sequence components analysis, VSC zero sequence elimination, AC and DC harmonic interaction due to the fundamental component and the HATR for different PWM methods, AC and DC harmonic interaction due to scheme characteristic harmonics, modelling techniques and mitigation for the resonance conditions experienced in the analysed real life case study. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die implementering van die Caprivi Skakel Tussenverbinder (CLI) hoogspannings- gelykstroom (HSGS) skema in 2010 wat die swak Namibiese and Zambiese Wisselstroom (WS) transmissienetwerke verbind via „n oorhoofse lyn is gebasseer op Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter tegnologie. Hierdie wêreld-eerste kombinasie van eienskappe verskaf „n unieke geleentheid om harmoniese interaksie tussen swak WS stelsels en Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter Hoogspannings GS stelsels te bestudeer. Relatief min publikasies wat fokus op WS en GS harmoniese interaksie bestaan, en baie min verwys na Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter Hoogspannings GS skemas. Omdat swak WS stelsels baie meer geneig is tot harmoniese verwringing as sterk WS stelsels, is daar „n duidelike motivering vir meer gedetaileerde werk in hierdie veld. Om die konteks te verstaan waarin WS en GS harmoniese interaksie bestaan, word die velde van WS kragstelsel harmoniese analise en resonansie, Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter skakelteorie, Hoogspannings GS skema opstellings, Pulswydte Modulasie (PWM) tegnieke, en frekwensiegebied analiese tegnieke bespreek. Hierdie tesis stel dan die konsep van Harmoniese Amplitude Oordragsverhouding voor deur „n teoretiese analise van WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van die fundamentele komponent, asook harmoniese interaksie a.g.v. harmonieke wat die stelsel kenmerk en word vergelyk met die simulasieresultate verkry uit verskilllende sagteware oplossings. Simulasie- en modelleringstegnieke vir WS en GS harmoniese interaksie word bespreek insluitend WS- en GS stelselmodellering. Die teoretiese resultate en simulasieresultate word vergelyk met die resultate wat verkry is uit „n werklike gevallestudie op die CLI HSGS skema waar „n harmoniese resonansie toestand voorgekom het. Die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie drie stelle resultate bevestig die geldigheid van die teorieë soos uiteengeset voor, en die moontlike verbetering van die gevallestudie resonansie probleme word verken. Die resultate en samevatting beklemtoon „n verskeidenheid punte aangaande harmoniese volgorde-komponent analiese, Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter zero-volgorde uitskakeling, WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van die fundamentele komponent en die Harmoniese Amplitude Oordragsverhouding vir verskillende PWM metodes, WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van skema-kenmerkende harmonieke, modelleringstegnieke, asook verbetering van die resonansie toestande soos ervaar in die analise van die werklike gevallestudie.
8

Analysis And Design Of Test Methods And Test Circuits For HVDC Thyristor Valves

Lal, Ghamandi 12 1900 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.
9

Modelling and Analysis of Mobile Energy Transmission for Offshore Wind Power : An analysis of flow batteries as an energy transmission system for offshore wind power

Lundin, Rasmus, Beitler-Dorch, Benjamin January 2018 (has links)
A comparison between a traditional fixed high voltage direct current energy transmission system and a mobile transmission system utilizing vanadium redox flow batteries has been conducted in this degree work.  The purpose of this comparison was to evaluate if a mobile energy transmission system could be competitive in terms of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness for use in offshore wind power applications. A literary study was made to fully grasp the various technologies and to create empirical ground of which cost estimation methods and energy calculations could be derived. A specific scenario was designed to compare the two transmission systems with the same conditions. To perform the comparison, a model was designed and simulated in MATLAB. The results from the model showed that the flow battery system fell behind in energy efficiency with a total energy loss of 33.3 % compared to the 11.7 % of the traditional system, future efficiency estimations landed it at a more competitive 17.5 %. The techno-economic results proved that a mobile flow battery system would be up to nine times more expensive in comparison to a traditional transmission system, with the best-case scenario resulting in it being roughly two times more expensive. The main cause of this was found out to be the expensive energy subsystem, specifically the electrolyte, used in the flow battery system. Several environmental risks arise when using a flow battery system with this electrolyte as well which could harm marine life severely. In conclusion; with further development and cost reductions, a case could be made for the advantages of a truly mobile energy transmission system. Specifically, in terms of the pure flexibility and mobility of the system, allowing it to circumvent certain complications. The mobility of the system gives the possibility of selling energy where the spot prices are at their highest, providing a higher revenue potential compared to a traditional fixed system. As for now though, it is simply too expensive to be a viable solution.
10

Design and reliability of polymeric packages for high voltage power semiconductors

Nobeen, Nadeesh January 2011 (has links)
This thesis focuses on the development of a novel polymer based housing for power thyristor devices typically used in long distance high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission. Power thyristor devices used in HVDC power conversion stations are typically packaged in a hermetically sealed ceramic housing and have demonstrated an excellent history of reliability and performance. However, to avoid increasing the number of thyristors in future higher powered HVDC schemes thyristors having higher power ratings at 8.5 kV and sizes at 125 mm and 150 mm diameters are sought for implementation to achieve higher transmission ratings of, for example, 4000 A at +/- 800 kV. The main disadvantages of such large ceramic-based packages are higher processing cost and weight whilst robustness is also a concern. To overcome these issues, replacing the current ceramic housing with a polymeric material has been investigated in this project. The advantages it is anticipated such packages will provide include lower cost, less weight, robustness, recyclability, etc. However, some challenges it will also offer are: non-hermeticity i.e. polymers are moisture and gas permeable, potentially more complex manufacturing routes, and different electrical, mechanical and thermal properties compared to ceramic materials. The work presented in this thesis was part of a larger project where these challenges have been addressed by developing and testing a prototype polymeric thyristor housing. The prototype is aimed at demonstrating that polymer packages can deliver performance and reliability comparable to, if not better than, current ceramic packages. In this thesis, it is the package development and reliability related studies that are discussed. Because the housings will experience severe electrical stresses and various thermal excursions during their service life, the electrical and thermo-mechanical behaviour of the polymer housing was studied using finite element analysis to gain an understanding of the effects of various design variables and materials properties on performance and the tradeoffs between performance and manufacturability. From these modelling studies, design guidelines have been established for the future development of polymer housings. On the other hand, to identify the physics-of-failure of the prototype that was manufactured as part of the project, accelerated life tests were performed to study its reliability. The knowledge gained from the polymer prototype development was then applied to the design of a larger 125 mm diameter housing using the Taguchi method of experimental design.

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