Producing the academy school : an ethnographic study of failure, transformation, and survival in English secondary educationPennacchia, Jodie January 2017 (has links)
Academy schools have been the flagship education policy in England since 2000. The policy is controversial and its evidence base is contested, but it is also resilient and academy status continues to be extended to a greater number of schools. The claim to transform, which has played a pivotal role in the construction of academies in contexts of poverty, raises a set of ontological questions that have not yet been given the detailed consideration they require. The term ontology captures the nature of being, how particular entities come to exist, and how these shape the conditions of possibility with which we live. This thesis contributes to research on the academies policy by taking up this ontological direction of inquiry to analyse how academy status and the academy school are produced in underperforming schools in contexts of poverty. Combining Foucauldian discourse analysis and an ethnography of a secondary school – Eastbank Academy – it interrogates how the academy school is produced across different discursive spaces, and how this affects the identities and experiences of staff and students. Across four analysis chapters I attend to the linguistic, material, spatial, and pedagogical shaping of the failing school that becomes an academy, making a number of central arguments. First, academies are shaped as policy objects through a set of representations and truths that enable them to mesh with other social policy narratives that are flourishing in austere times. Second, academy status is renarrativised around the recognition of poverty in Eastbank, which is part of ethical relations between staff and students. Third, academy status creates a context of threat and surveillance in a failing school in a context of poverty, the trace of which can be read through the shifting visual, material, and spatial culture of Eastbank. Fourth, academy status is produced through pedagogical shifts that divide, categorise, and monitor, resulting in unjust and exclusionary learning experiences for some students. I combine these sub-findings to argue that academy status is produced in multi-modal ways, across which, a fluctuating, divisive, and fraught academy ontology emerges. This, in turn, produces increasingly fraught and divided identities for staff and students, and is implicated in unjust educational practices and experiences. I argue that this outcome is symptomatic of the delicate process of survival that marked the production of Eastbank Academy in the current education policy context. To conclude, I outline the implications of this study for knowledge of the academy school and the methodologies required to study education policy as a complex, shifting, and multi-modal entity. This thesis highlights some of the silenced possibilities for how academy status is produced in schools that are categorised as failing, presenting academy status as a disciplinary tool. It draws attention to the negotiated nature of academy status and how these negotiations play a pivotal role in young people’s experiences of schooling, in creating possibilities for resistance, and in creating unjust schooling practices. These are important considerations given the continued policy momentum to turn schools into academies.
This thesis describes and analyses the PhD candidates in the Humanities at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin and at Columbia University, New York, from 1871 to 1913 as well as the reforms related to the PhD programs at said institutions. The thesis uses primary sources such as the theses and curriculum vitaes of the PhD candidates but also the reports of the universities, statistics released, census records of government institutions as well as newspapers and biographical collections. The goal is to compare the PhD candidates at these two universities according to their numbers, age, gender, religion, place of birth and social background. It further includes a comparison of the reforms and transformation of the two universities with a focus on those which most affected PhD candidates. Instead of focusing on the careers of PhD candidates after they acquired their degree (as in most other studies), this thesis focuses on the background and the life of PhD candidates before they received their degree from their university. By doing so, this thesis will contribute to the understanding of the development of the universities and societies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, taking into account the debates regarding the German Sonderweg, the professionalisation of education and cross-border exchange among academics wherever possible.
Education of deaf African Americans in Washington, DC and Raleigh, NC during the 19th and 20th centuries, through the eyes of two heroes and a sheroJoyner, Marieta Davis 01 January 2008 (has links)
My dissertation, "Education of Deaf African Americans in Washington DC and Raleigh, NC, during the 19th and Early 20th Centuries, Through the Eyes of Two Heroes and a Shero," investigates the education of deaf African Americans during Reconstruction and into the twentieth century in two cities. The document includes three narratives. The first is of Douglas Craig, a loss African American deaf child who was brought to Gallaudet University in Washington, DC in the mid 1800s by a New Hampshire Senator named Aaron Cragin. The child later became an employee who was often referred to as a “jack of all trades.” Craig was admired and loved by many until his death in 1936 which is reflected in the street named in his honor on the campus. The other two narratives tell the stories of Effie Whitaker and Manuel Crockett of Raleigh North Carolina, both hearing, both graduates of Hampton Institute, and educators who taught at the first known school for deaf and blind African American students in the United States. Their commitment to teaching greatly enhanced the quality of life for many students. The three stories demonstrate how political, social, race and economic conditions were very much intertwined with the segregated education system before the 1954 Brown v Board of Education case. ^ In addition to the narratives, I briefly note the 1952 Miller v District of Columbia Board of Education case: A victory that integrated the Kendall School in Washington, DC, which was, and still is, the most influential institution for deaf individuals in the United States. The stories about these unsung heroes and many others are rarely mentioned. However, their narratives are now a small part of a body of scholarly work that contributes to the history of one of the most understudied areas of African American education and there is much more to be done. ^
Contesting Islam : "Homegrown Wahhabism," education and Muslim identity in northern Ghana, 1920--2005 /Iddrisu, Abdulai, January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009. / Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 70-06, Section: A, page: . Adviser: Jean Allman. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 263-282) Available on microfilm from Pro Quest Information and Learning.
Le projet pedagogique de Radio-College dans la decennie 1940: La conservation des institutions scolaires traditionnelles et la promotion des sciences.Petit, Kim. Unknown Date (has links)
Thèse (M.A.)--Université de Sherbrooke (Canada), 2008. / Titre de l'écran-titre (visionné le 1 février 2007). In ProQuest dissertations and theses. Publié aussi en version papier.
Dorn, Renee Felicia
31 August 2013
<p> Starting in the mid-1800s, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were created for the purpose of educating Black students. Since their inception, HBCUs have transformed from institutions of higher learning with a core curriculum of teaching and ministerial education serving the Black community to progressive colleges and universities that provide bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees in specialized areas of study which serve and benefit communities of all races around the world. As advanced as HBCUs have become, they still have the stigma of being less than adequate producing underachieving students. An increase in publicity of their accomplishments would help to change public perceptions, but so far they have not received a lot of positive media attention. The question that continues to be asked and is the main question of this study is whether Historically Black Colleges and Universities are still relevant. </p><p> The research design for this investigation into HBCUs is a qualitative, multi-case study using purposive sampling in the selection of 4 universities or units. HBCU alumni and associates were interviewed to discuss their views on the relevance of HBCUs and how they plan to change public perceptions. The data gathering instruments used were documents, archived records, interviews, and researcher observations, and through the examination of four unique universities, questions about their missions, demographics, academic programs, graduation rates, accreditation, and accomplishments were researched with data collection and analysis occurring simultaneously. </p><p> The findings collected showed that the 4 HBCUs are still relevant because they serve a racially and economically diverse student body focusing on nurturing students and giving them the chance to excel in a comfortable learning environment with rigorous and challenging academic programs that are geared to prepare them to enter the workforce and succeed. They must be proactive and disseminate positive information to the public, including alumni, which could encourage them to support their alma maters. The 4 HBCUs still have some work to do to stay progressive and provide for their students, but the need for all HBCUs to educate is still apparent, not just for African-American students, but for all students.</p>
Teachers' perspectives on factors which facilitated and hindered the implementation of Curriculum 2005 (C2005) in the General Education and Training (GET) band in one district of the Eastern Cape Province in South AfricaCishe, Elphinah Nomabandla January 2011 (has links)
The study investigated teachers' perspectives on factors which facilitated and hindered the implementation of Curriculum 2005 in the General Education and Training (GET) Band in one district of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Curriculum 2005 was the new curriculum underpinned by the outcomes-based education. It was introduced in South Africa as a way of moving away from the apartheid system of education, which was based on racial lines, and to offer a uniform system of education. The implementation of Curriculum 2005 was a process which had to follow a certain time-frame, starting from Grade 1 in 1998, with the intention that it would have been introduced in all grades by 2005. When in the year 2000 it became clear that the suggested time-frame could not be achieved, the then Minister of Education, Asmal, commissioned a review process which culminated in the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) introduced in 2004, and finally the National Curriculum Statement (NCS), which was introduced for the first time in 2006, in the Further Education and Training (FET) Band. This study was carried out in the OR Tambo district municipality of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. The schools used were drawn from the rural, urban and former Model C. In selecting the sample, every sixth school was used. This gave a total of twenty schools. From each school, two teachers from the foundation and intermediate phases and one member of School Management Teams (SMT) were used as participants. In selecting the participants, a combination of purposive, theoretical and systematic sampling was used. In order to investigate factors which facilitated and hindered the implementation of Curriculum 2005, a qualitative research design was adopted. The study was informed by grounded theory. Interviews conducted in the participants' places of work were used to generate data. Once gathered the data were analyzed using coding and theoretical sampling procedures to examine commonalities and differences between different categories of participants, for example those from rural, urban and Model C schools. The main findings of this study were as follows. Firstly most of the teachers charged with the implementation of Curriculum 2005 did not fully understand the outcomes-based methods of teaching and as a result, in many cases, continued to use traditional methods of teaching. Secondly, participants perceived that Curriculum 2005 was more appropriate for facilitating learning than the previous Apartheid curriculum and that the Revised National Curriculum Statement was an improvement of C2005 because it simplified the original version of C2005. Thirdly, the training provided for teachers was too brief and did not adequately prepare them for implementing Curriculum 2005. Fourthly, the implementation of Curriculum 2005 was detrimentally affected by a lack of support from the Department of Education and districts. Finally, curriculum implementation was compromised by the lack of basic teaching and learning resources in the majority of schools which participated in the study. This study has contributed to the existing literature by confirming most of the key findings presented here. However, this study has added to the existing literature by the presentation of a comparison between the traditional curriculum, C2005 and the RNCS. According to the majority of the participants in this study, RNCS simplified C2005 while the latter was an improvement to the traditional curriculum. The implications of the study for policy and practice with respect to the implementation of Curriculum 2005 are that: there should be effective and creative preservice education and training of teachers; the Department of Education should communicate information about the process of implementation before any policy initiatives are introduced; there should be continuous professional development activities for all those engaged in the process and in future training for implementation has to be provided before the implementation of any policy initiatives such as the one suggested in this thesis.
The object of this study is to trace the social history of the professional group of 'elementary school teachers' from the beginning of the profession to the present day. Its focus is on the teachers themselves, on the ways in which they were recruited and trained, their conditions of employment, their position in the social structure, their professional associations and their group activities.
Turner, Maureen Alexander
In this study, the depth of Malthus's involvement in education will be seen. During his years at Haileybury College, Malthus proved himself to be a caring and conscientious teacher who, as will be demonstrated in Chapter III, was remembered with affection in later life by many of his pupils; he was a loyal member of staff who defended the college against critical reports in the press; he was concerned about the welfare of the boys in his charge, as well as an appropriate curriculum for them and fair methods of assessing their progress. A detailed examination of biographies, letters and published articles will provide ample evidence to prove these claims about Malthus. The criticism has sometimes been made that Malthus wished to condemn the poor to a life made even more difficult by the withdrawal of the assistance offered by the Poor Laws, but the analysis of his theories which appears in Chapters V and VI of this study will demonstrate that this was not Malthus's intention. Far from wanting the poor to suffer increased privation, Malthus hoped that his proposals would offer them the chance to improve their situation and influence their own destiny. A critical study of his own words will show the importance of education in his vision of a better future. An education populace would understand the reasons behind food shortage and would appreciate the necessity of delaying marriage, thereby slowing down the increase in population. Education would encourage the lower classes to strive for self-improvement; it would show them how to be careful and plan for the future; it would `have a considerable effect in the prevention of crimes and the promotion of industry, morality and regular conduct'(2); it would even bring about a more peaceful and stable society as an educated populace would understand the truth about their situation and would not be persuaded by the `false declamation of interested and ambitious demagogues'(3). It is certainly true that Malthus recommended the abolition of the existing Poor Laws, but this does not mean that he wished to condemn the poor to increased suffering. On the contrary, an examination of the historical background of the system of poor relief at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century will help us to understand Malthus's attitude to the Poor Laws, and a detailed analysis of his own proposals in Chapter VI of this study will explain how his ideas about Poor Law reform were linked to his theories about social and economic reform. Finally, Chapters VIII, IX and X of this study will contain an examination of the extent of the influence exerted on public opinion by Malthus and his theories.
How South Asians achieve education : a comparative study of Bangladeshis, Indians and Pakistanis in Birmingham schools and collegesAbbas, Tahir January 2000 (has links)
The educational achievements of South Asians have been shaped by economic, social and political developments in the post war history of British race relations. Social class background of individual students and the school effect have been shown to be the major determinants of achievement but the precise characteristics of differences at the ethnic minority sub-group level have remained uncharted. In addition, past research has primarily relied on large-scale quantitative methods to develop comparative knowledge of South Asian educational performance. This research is an attempt to understand wider variations of difference in the educational achievement of South Asians. The research is unique as it explores differences between Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani groups, additionally distinguished along lines of social class, ethnicity and gender. Six schools, three of which were selective and three comprehensive, and three further education colleges, were used to obtain samples of South Asian pupils and students. The methods used in this study were principally qualitative. Face-to-face in-depth interviews with school pupils, parents and teachers accounted for the main part of the empirical research, which was also supplemented by a survey of college students and a survey of teachers. The research explored the achievements, aspirations and motivations of pupils, students and parents to analyse educational life histories, interpreting and evaluating differences between South Asian groups by social class, ethnicity and gender, as well as religion and culture. Teachers were interviewed and surveyed in order to determine their perceptions of and actions in relation to South Asians in education. Altogether, 137 respondents (89 school pupils, 25 parents and 23 teachers) were interviewed by the researcher and 176 respondents (109 college students and 67 teachers) participated in the two postal surveys (313 altogether). Questions asked were about secondary school entry, 13-plus subject choices, GCSE and A level achievements, and potential higher education entry. It was found that all South Asians that entered `effective' schools performed competently. Furthermore, the factors which led to the positive educational outcomes for Indian (Hindu and Sikh) groups were oppositional to those which led to the educational underachievement of South Asian Muslim groups and, here, rather more Pakistanis than Bangladeshis. The educational success of Indian groups was attributable to educational norms and values relative to social class. The educational experiences of Bangladeshis and Pakistanis were problematic, largely because of factors in their lives outside of school: such as the limited education and occupational levels of parents, parents' inadequate understanding of the education, and insufficient use of English within the home. Teachers interviewed from the sampled schools and colleges were inclined to advocate positive approaches for managing issues relating to South Asians in education. In conclusion, therefore, it is argued that the educational achievements of South Asians in schools and colleges in Birmingham are closely related to social class background and the school effect. Factors associated with religion and culture are more likely to affect South Asian Muslims. The increasingly competitive nature of the education system has led to a divergence between South Asian groups: with Hindu and Sikh Indians (including some East African Asians) firmly established as educational `successes' and Pakistani and Bangladeshi South Asian Muslims, in contrast, routinely considered as educational `failures'.
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