Methods for Testing and Analyzing Lithium-Ion Battery Cells intended for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric VehiclesSvens, Pontus January 2014 (has links)
Lithium-ion batteries designed for use in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are continuously improved in terms of performance and longevity, but they still have limitations that need to be considered when developing new hybrid vehicles. The aim of this thesis has been to study and evaluate potential test and analysis methods suitable for being used in the design process when maximizing lifetime and utilization of batteries in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. A concept for battery cell cycling on vehicles has been evaluated. The work included development of test equipment, verification of hardware and software as well as an extended period of validation on heavy-duty trucks. The work showed that the concept has great potential for evaluating strategies for battery usage in hybrid vehicles, but is less useful for accelerated aging of battery cells. Battery cells encapsulated in flexible packaging material have been investigated with respect to the durability of the encapsulation in a demanding heavy-duty hybrid truck environment. No effect on water intrusion was detected after vibration and temperature cycling of the battery cells. Aging of commercial battery cells of the type lithium manganese oxide - lithium cobalt oxide / lithium titanium oxide (LMO-LCO/LTO) was investigated with different electrochemical methods to gain a deeper understanding of the origin of performance deterioration, and to understand the consequences of aging from a vehicle manufacturer's perspective. The investigation revealed that both capacity loss and impedance rise were largely linked to the positive electrode for this type of battery chemistry. Postmortem analysis of material from cycle-aged and calendar-aged battery cells of the type LMO-LCO/LTO and LiFePO4/graphite was performed to reveal details about aging mechanisms for those cell chemistries. Analysis of cycle-aged LMO-LCO/LTO cells revealed traces of manganese in the negative electrode and that the positive electrode exhibited the most severe aging. Analysis of cycle-aged LFP/graphite cells revealed traces of iron in the negative electrode and that the negative electrode exhibited the most severe aging. / Litiumjonbatterier anpassade för användning i tunga hybridfordon förbättras kontinuerligt med avseende på prestanda och livslängd men har fortfarande begränsningar som måste beaktas vid utveckling av nya hybridfordon. Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att studera och utvärdera potentiella prov- och analysmetoder lämpliga för användning i arbetet med att maximera livslängd och utnyttjandegrad av batterier i tunga hybridfordon. Ett koncept för battericykling på fordon har utvärderats. Arbetet innefattade utveckling av testutrustning, verifiering av hårdvara och mjukvara samt en längre periods validering på lastbilar. Arbetet har visat att konceptet har stor potential för utvärdering av strategier för användandet av batterier i hybridfordon, men är mindre användbar för åldring av batterier. Batterier kapslade i flexibelt förpackningsmaterial har undersökts med avseende på kapslingens hållbarhet i en krävande hybridlastbilsmiljö. Ingen påverkan på fuktinträngning kunde påvisas efter vibration och temperaturcykling av de testade battericellerna. Åldring av kommersiella battericeller av typen litiummanganoxid - litiumkoboltoxid/litiumtitanoxid (LMO-LCO/LTO) undersöktes med olika elektrokemiska metoder för att få en djupare förståelse för prestandaförändringens ursprung och för att förstå konsekvenserna av åldrandet ur en fordonstillverkares användarperspektiv. Undersökningen visade att både kapacitetsförlust och impedanshöjning till största delen var kopplat till den positiva elektroden för denna batterityp. Post-mortem analys av material från cyklade och kalenderåldrade kommersiella battericeller av typen LMO-LCO/LTO och LiFePO4/grafit utfördes för att avslöja detaljer kring åldringsmekanismerna för dessa cellkemier. Vid analys av cyklade LMO-LCO/LTO celler påvisades mangan i den negativa elektroden samt uppvisade den positiva elektroden kraftigast åldring. Vid analys av cyklade LFP/grafit celler påvisades järn i den negativa elektroden samt uppvisade den negativa elektroden kraftigast åldring. / <p>QC 20140520</p>
A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric VehicleLai, Lin 02 October 2013 (has links)
Commercially available Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been around for more than ten years. However, their market share remains small. Focusing only on the improvement of fuel economy, the design tends to reduce the size of the internal combustion engine in the HEV, and uses the electrical drive to compensate for the power gap between the load demand and the engine capacity. Unfortunately, the low power density and the high cost of the combined electric motor drive and battery packs dictate that the HEV has either worse performance or much higher price than the conventional vehicle. In this research, a new design philosophy for parallel HEV is proposed, which uses a full size engine to guarantee the vehicle performance at least as good as the conventional vehicle, and hybridizes with an electrical drive in parallel to improve the fuel economy and performance beyond the conventional cars. By analyzing the HEV fuel economy versus the increasing of the electrical drive power on typical driving conditions, the optimal hybridization electric power capacity is determined. Thus, the full size engine HEV shows significant improvement in fuel economy and performance, with relatively short cost recovery period. A new control strategy, which optimizes the fuel economy of parallel configured charge sustained hybrid electric vehicles, is proposed in the second part of this dissertation. This new approach is a constrained engine on-off strategy, which has been developed from the two extreme control strategies of maximum SOC and engine on-off, by taking their advantages and overcoming their disadvantages. A system optimization program using dynamic programming algorithm has been developed to calibrate the control parameters used in the developed control strategy, so that the control performance can be as close to the optimal solution as possible. In order to determine the sensitivity of the new control strategy to different driving conditions, a passenger car is simulated on different driving cycles. The performances of the vehicle with the new control strategy are compared with the optimal solution obtained on each driving condition with the dynamic programming optimization. The simulation result shows that the new control strategy always keeps its performance close to the optimal one, as the driving condition changes.
A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Loss Model to Compare Well-to-Wheel Energy Use from Multiple SourcesJohnson, Kurt M. 16 July 2008 (has links)
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) come in many sizes and degrees of hybridization. Mild hybrid systems, where a simple idle stop strategy is employed, eliminate fuel use for idling. Multiple motor hybrid systems with complex electrically continuously variable transmissions in passenger cars, SUVs and light duty trucks have large increases in fuel economy. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) takes the electrification of the automobile one step further than the HEV by increasing the battery energy capacity. The additional capacity of the battery is used to propel the vehicle without using onboard fuel energy. Commercial software of great complexity and limited availability is often used with sophisticated models to simulate powertrain operation. A simple method of evaluating technologies, component sizes, and alternative fuels is the goal of the model presented here. The objective of this paper is to define a PHEV model for use in the EcoCAR competition series. E85, gaseous hydrogen, and grid electricity are considered. The powertrain architecture selected is a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (SPHEV). The energy for charge sustaining operation is converted from fuel in an auxiliary power unit (APU). Compressed hydrogen gas is converted to electricity via the use of a fuel cell system and boost converter. For E85, the APU is an engine coupled to a generator. The results of modeling the vehicle allow for the comparison of the new architecture to the stock vehicle. In combination with the GREET model developed by Argonne National Lab, the multiple energy sources are compared for well to wheel energy use, petroleum energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. / Master of Science
Development and Applications of the Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) to Evaluate Hybrid Electric Powertrain Components and Energy Management StrategiesLohse-Busch, Henning 16 October 2009 (has links)
This work describes the design, development and research applications of a Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT). MATT is built to evaluate technology components in a hybrid vehicle system environment. MATT can also be utilized to evaluate energy management and torque split control strategies and to produce physical measured component losses and emissions to monitor emissions behavior. In the automotive world, new technology components are first developed on a test bench and then they are integrated into a prototype vehicle for transient evaluation from the vehicle system perspective. This process is expensive and the prototype vehicles are typically inflexible in hardware and software configuration. MATT provides flexibility in component testing through its component module approach. The flexible combination of modules provides a vehicle environment to test and evaluate new technology components. MATT also has an open control system where any energy management and torque split strategy can be implemented. Therefore, the control's impact on energy consumption and emissions can be measured. MATT can also emulate different types and sizes of vehicles. MATT is a novel, unique, flexible and powerful automotive research tool that provides hardware-based data for specific research topics. Currently, several powertrain modules are available for use on MATT: a gasoline engine module, a hydrogen engine module, a virtual scalable energy storage and virtual scalable motor module, a manual transmission module and an automatic transmission module. The virtual battery and motor module uses some component Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) principles by utilizing a physical motor powered from the electric grid in conjunction with a real time simulation of a battery and a motor model. This module enables MATT to emulate a wide variety of vehicles, ranging from a conventional vehicle to a full performance electric vehicle with a battery pack that has virtually unlimited capacity. A select set of PHEV research studies are described in this dissertation. One of these studies had an outcome that influenced the PHEV standard test protocol development by SAE. Another study investigated the impact of the control strategy on emissions of PHEVs. Emissions mitigation routines were integrated in the control strategies, reducing the measured emissions to SULEV limits on a full charge test. A special component evaluation study featured in this dissertation is the transient performance characterization of a supercharged hydrogen internal combustion engine on MATT. Four constant air-fuel ratio combustions are evaluated in a conventional vehicle operation on standard drive cycles. Then, a variable air fuel ratio combustion strategy is developed and the test results show a significant fuel economy gain compared to other combustion strategies, while NOx emissions levels are kept low. / Ph. D.
The lithium ion battery is today mainly used in cell phonesand laptops. In the future, this kind of battery might beuseful in hybrid electric vehicles as well. In this work, the main focus has been to gain more knowledgeabout the lithium ion battery in the hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) and more precisely to examine what processes of thebattery that are limiting at HEV currents. Both experiments andmathematical modelling have been used. In both cases, highrate, pulsed currents typical for the HEV, have been used. Two manuscripts have been written. Both of them concern thebehaviour of the battery at HEV load, but from different pointsof view. The first one concerns the electrochemical behaviourof the battery at different ambient temperatures. Theexperimental results of this paper were used to validate amathematical model of a Li-ion battery. Possiblesimplifications of the model were identified. In this work itwas also concluded that the mass transfer of the electrolyte isthe main limiting process within the battery. The mass transferof the electrolyte was further studied in the second paper,where the concentration of lithium ions was measured indirectlyusing in situ Raman spectroscopy. This study showed that themathematical description of the mass transfer of theelectrolyte is not complete. One main reason of this issuggested to be the poor description of the physical parametersof the electrolyte. These ought to be further studied in orderto get a better fit between concentration gradients predictedby experiments and model respectively.
Sensitivity Analysis of the Battery Model for Model Predictive Control Implementable into a Plug-in Hybrid Electric VehicleSockeel, Nicolas Rene 04 May 2018 (has links)
Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flow inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC) based algorithm. Inside an MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC search algorithms. In fact, the literature does not deal with the impact of the battery model on MPC. This is why this Ph.D. dissertation evaluates the impact of different battery models of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) through a sensitivity analysis to reach optimal performance for an MPC. The required fidelity of the battery might depend on different factors:the prediction horizon also called look-ahead step time the vehicle states update time the vehicle model step time the objective function The results of simulations show that higher fidelity model improves the capability to predict accurately the battery aging. As the battery pack is currently one of the most expensive components of an electric vehicle and lithium is a limited natural resource, being able to manage precisely the battery aging is a crucial point for both the automotive company and the battery manufacturer. Another important aspect highlighted by this PhD dissertation is that higher battery fidelity model reduces the possibility to violate the SoC constraint, which is greatly desirable. In fact, this constraint is usually defined by battery manufacturers for safety and battery aging management reasons. Last but not least, it has been proven that the impact of the battery modeling for the MPC controller depends on what the objective function aims to optimize. For instance, battery modeling have limited impact if the objective function takes into account the fuel consumption but far more for if it considers the battery degradation.
Merkle, Matthew Alan
05 March 1998
A growing dependence on foreign oil, along with a heightened concern over the environmental impact of personal transportation, had led the U. S. government to investigate and sponsor research into advanced transportation concepts. One of these future technologies is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), typically featuring both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, with the goal of producing fewer emissions while obtaining superior fuel economy. While vehicles such as the Virginia Tech designed and built HEV Lumina have provided a substantial proof of concept for hybrids, there still remains a great deal of research to be done regarding optimization of hybrid vehicle design. This optimization process has been made easier through the use of ADVISOR, a MATLAB simulation program developed by the U. S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Lab. ADVISOR allows one to evaluate different drivetrain and subsystem configurations for both fuel economy and emissions levels. However, the present version of ADVISOR uses a constant power model for the auxiliary power unit (APU) that, while effective for cursory simulation efforts, does not provide for a truly accurate simulation. This thesis describes modifications made to the ADVISOR code to allow for the use of a load sharing APU scheme based on models developed from vehicle testing. Results for typical driving cycles are presented, demonstrating that the performance predicted by the load sharing simulation more closely follows the results obtained from actual vehicle testing. This new APU model also allows for easy adaptation for future APU technologies, such as fuel cells. Finally, an example is given to illustrate how the ADVISOR code can be used for optimizing vehicle design. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract XCG-6-16668-01 for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. / Master of Science
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain: On-line Parameter Estimation of an Induction Motor Drive and Torque Control of a A PM BLDC Starter-generatorHasan, S.M. Nayeem 12 May 2008 (has links)
No description available.
<p>The lithium ion battery is today mainly used in cell phonesand laptops. In the future, this kind of battery might beuseful in hybrid electric vehicles as well.</p><p>In this work, the main focus has been to gain more knowledgeabout the lithium ion battery in the hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) and more precisely to examine what processes of thebattery that are limiting at HEV currents. Both experiments andmathematical modelling have been used. In both cases, highrate, pulsed currents typical for the HEV, have been used.</p><p>Two manuscripts have been written. Both of them concern thebehaviour of the battery at HEV load, but from different pointsof view. The first one concerns the electrochemical behaviourof the battery at different ambient temperatures. Theexperimental results of this paper were used to validate amathematical model of a Li-ion battery. Possiblesimplifications of the model were identified. In this work itwas also concluded that the mass transfer of the electrolyte isthe main limiting process within the battery. The mass transferof the electrolyte was further studied in the second paper,where the concentration of lithium ions was measured indirectlyusing in situ Raman spectroscopy. This study showed that themathematical description of the mass transfer of theelectrolyte is not complete. One main reason of this issuggested to be the poor description of the physical parametersof the electrolyte. These ought to be further studied in orderto get a better fit between concentration gradients predictedby experiments and model respectively.</p>
Northcott, Daniel Ross
27 September 2007
This thesis evaluates a series hybrid electric drivetrain design for use in parking patrol vehicles. Due to the particular attributes of this application, it is proposed that the design would improve the energy efficiency of such a vehicle. The scheme is evaluated in depth through the use of electromagnetic transient simulation tools, which are used to create a highly accurate model of the vehicle. A prototype vehicle of the same design is built, and used to verify and improve the accuracy of the simulation model. The simulation model is then used to predict the energy efficiency of the series hybrid design for parking patrol. This simulation based design strategy is proposed as a method for more rapid and cost effective design of hybrid electric vehicles.
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