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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

NMR Studies of the Hydration Equilibria of Mesylate and Dialkyl Phosphate Derivatives of Acetone; and Investigations of Novel Hypervalent Iodine Compounds

Chun, Joong-Hyun January 2005 (has links)
No description available.
2

SYNTHESES AND ESTROGENICITY STUDY OF DIETHYLSTILBESTROL AND BISPHENOL-A ANALOGS AS POTENTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR BISPHENOL-A AND INVESTIGATION ON NOVEL REACTIONS INDUCED BY IODANE/QUATERNARY AMMONIUM HALIDES

Potturi, Hima 01 August 2011 (has links)
Dynamic isomerization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) makes it difficult to ascertain the active estrogen between its E and Z isomers. An indirect approach has been used in this project to identify the active estrogen. Methoxylated E- and Z-DES (13 and 14) and 9,10-diethylphenanthrene-3,6-diol (15), a closed ring analog of Z-DES, were synthesized and tested for their estrogenicity. The estrogenicity of 13 is higher than that of 14 and 15, which indicates that E-DES is more estrogenic than Z-DES. Dimethylstilbestrol (16), another analog of DES, was also synthesized and tested. Its estrogenicity is lower than that of DES. Non-estrogenic analogs of bisphenol-A were designed based on the observation that (15) is far less estrogenic than DES. Closed ring analogs of bisphenol-A, 3,6-dihydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (34), 2,6-dihydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (35), and 2,7-dhydroxy-9,9-dimethylfluorene (36) were synthesized and they were found to have little or no estrogenicity. An open ring analog of bisphenol-A, 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (33) was also synthesized and its estrogenicity is much lower than that of bisphenol-A. Polycarbonate of 36 was also synthesized and its glass transition temperature was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition temperature of polycarbonate of 36 was found to be 199.92 oC, which is about 50o higher than that of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (150 oC). This indicates that polycarbonate of 36 forms a harder plastic than bisphenol-A polycarbonate. Compounds 2,8-dihydroxy-5,5-dioxo-dibenzothiophene (69) and 2,8-dihydroxydibenzothiophene (70) were also synthesized and were tested as non-estrogenic alternatives for bisphenol-S and bisphenol sulfide, respectively. Compound 69 and 70 were found to be less estrogenic than bisphenol-S and bisphenol sulfide respectively agreeing with our hypothesis. Iodane/quaternary ammonium halide in nitromethane was utilized to explore aromatic bromination, N-nitrosation-dealkylation, and benzoate ester formation from benzylamines. Koser's reagent was found to be a suitable iodane for aromatic bromination reaction, whereas for N-nitrosation-dealkylation, IBX gave the best yields. Further, for N-nitrosation-dealkylation reaction, the halides of quaternary ammonium salts play a crucial role. The effectiveness of halides follows F- > Cl- > Br- ~ I-. The lack of N-nitrosation-dealkylation and ester formation in the absence of nitromethane indicates that nitromethane is playing an essential role as well. Yields of benzoate ester from benzyl amines were low (~22%). Optimization experiments will be performed in the future. Plausible reaction mechanisms for these reactions were proposed. Aromatic bromination was thought to be induced either by iodane/halide adduct or by BrOH that was formed from iodane/halide adduct. Ester formation and N-nitrosation-dealkylation were believed to be induced either by alkyl nitrite or by nitrous acid, generated from the reaction of iodane/halide adduct with nitromethane.
3

Development and Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds : Powerful Arylation and Oxidation Reagents

Jalalian, Nazli January 2012 (has links)
The first part of this thesis describes the efficient synthesis of several hypervalent iodine(III) compounds. Electron-rich diaryliodonium salts have been synthesized in a one-pot procedure, employing mCPBA as the oxidant. Both symmetric and unsymmetric diaryliodonium tosylates can be isolated in high yields. An in situ anion exchange also enables the synthesis of previously unobtainable diaryliodonium triflates. A large-scale protocol for the synthesis of a derivative of Koser’s reagent, that is an isolable intermediate in the diaryliodonium tosylate synthesis, is furthermore described. The large-scale synthesis is performed in neat TFE, which can be recovered and recycled. This is very desirable from an environmental point of view. One of the few described syntheses of enantiopure diaryliodonium salts is discussed. Three different enantiopure diaryliodonium salts bearing electron-rich substituents are synthesized in moderate to high yields. The synthesis of these three salts shows the challenge in the preparation of electron-rich substituted unsymmetric salts. The second part of the thesis describes the application of both symmetric and unsymmetric diaryliodonium salts in organic synthesis. A metal-free efficient and fast method for the synthesis of diaryl ethers from diaryliodonium salts has been developed. The substrate scope is wide as both the phenol and the diaryliodonium salt can be varied. Products such as halogenated ethers, ortho-substituted ethers and bulky ethers, that are difficult to obtain with metal-catalyzed procedures, are readily prepared. The mild protocol allows arylation of racemization-prone a-amino acid derivatives without loss of enantiomeric excess. A chemoselectivity investigation was conducted, in which unsymmetric diaryliodonium salts were employed in the arylation of three different nucleophiles in order to understand the different factors that influence which aryl moiety that is transferred to the nucleophile. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 5: Submitted. Paper 6: Manuscript.</p>
4

Efficient and High-Yielding Routes to Diaryliodonium Salts

Bielawski, Marcin January 2008 (has links)
This thesis summarizes three novel and general reaction protocols for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts. All protocols utilize mCPBA as oxidant and the acids used are either TfOH, to obtain triflate salts, or BF3•Et2O that gives the corresponding tetrafluoroborate salts in situ. Chapter two describes the reaction of various arenes and aryl iodides, delivering electron-rich and electron-deficient triflates in moderate to excellent yields. In chapter three, it is shown that the need of aryl iodides can be circumvented, as molecular iodine can be used together with arenes in a direct one-pot, three-step synthesis of symmetric diaryliodonium triflates. The final and fourth chapter describes the development of a sequential one-pot reaction from aryl iodides and boronic acids, delivering symmetric and unsymmetric, electron-rich and electron-deficient iodonium tetrafluoroborates in moderate to excellent yields. This protocol was developed to overcome mechanistic limitations existing in the protocols described in chapter two and three. The methodology described in this thesis is the most general, efficient and high-yielding existing up to date, making diaryliodonium salts easily available for various applications in synthesis.
5

Efficient and High-Yielding Routes to Diaryliodonium Salts

Bielawski, Marcin January 2008 (has links)
<p>This thesis summarizes three novel and general reaction protocols for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts. All protocols utilize mCPBA as oxidant and the acids used are either TfOH, to obtain triflate salts, or BF3•Et2O that gives the corresponding tetrafluoroborate salts in situ.</p><p>Chapter two describes the reaction of various arenes and aryl iodides, delivering electron-rich and electron-deficient triflates in moderate to excellent yields.</p><p>In chapter three, it is shown that the need of aryl iodides can be circumvented, as molecular iodine can be used together with arenes in a direct one-pot, three-step synthesis of symmetric diaryliodonium triflates.</p><p>The final and fourth chapter describes the development of a sequential one-pot reaction from aryl iodides and boronic acids, delivering symmetric and unsymmetric, electron-rich and electron-deficient iodonium tetrafluoroborates in moderate to excellent yields. This protocol was developed to overcome mechanistic limitations existing in the protocols described in chapter two and three.</p><p>The methodology described in this thesis is the most general, efficient and high-yielding existing up to date, making diaryliodonium salts easily available for various applications in synthesis.</p>
6

Diaryliodonium Salts : Development of Synthetic Methodologies and α-Arylation of Enolates

Bielawski, Marcin January 2011 (has links)
This thesis describes novel reaction protocols for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts and also provides an insight to the mechanism of α-arylation of carbonyl compounds with diaryliodonium salts.  The first chapter gives a general introduction to the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry, mainly focusing on recent developments and applications of diaryliodonium salts. Chapter two describes the synthesis of electron-rich to electron-poor diaryliodonium triflates, in moderate to excellent yields from a range of arenes and iodoarenes. In chapter three, it is described that molecular iodine can be used together with arenes in a direct one-pot, three-step synthesis of symmetric diaryliodonium triflates. A large scale synthesis of bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)iodonium triflate is also described, controlled and verified by an external research group, further demonstrating the reliability of this methodology. The fourth chapter describes the development of a sequential one-pot synthesis of diaryliodonium salts from aryl iodides and boronic acids, furnishing symmetric and unsymmetric, electron-rich to electron-poor diaryliodonium tetrafluoroborates in moderate to excellent yields. This method was developed to overcome the regiochemical limitations imposed by the reaction mechanism in the protocols described in the preceding chapters. Chapter five describes a one-pot synthesis of heteroaromatic iodonium salts under similar conditions described in chapter two. The final chapter describes the reaction of enolates with chiral diaryliodonium salts or together with a phase transfer catalyst yielding racemic products. DFT calculations were performed, which revealed a low lying energy transition state (TS) between intermediates, which is believed to be responsible for the lack of selectivity observed in the experimental work. It is also proposed that a [2,3] rearrangement is preferred over a [1,2] rearrangement in the α-arylation of carbonyl compounds. The synthetic methodology described in this thesis is the most generally applicable, efficient and high-yielding to date for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts, making these reagents readily available for various applications in synthesis.

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