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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The Battered Body : A Feminist Legal History

January 1998 (has links)
This thesis investigates a current debate within feminist theory, and specifically within feminist legal theory, about how to challenge the liberal construction of women's subjectivity. It contends that positioning women as either equal to or different from the universalised liberal subject (based on male experience) fails to recognise women's experience as diverse, and differentiated. This thesis explores this issue through the empirical area of the treatment in the public sphere (constituted by the state and the law) of domestic violence, and of domestic violence survivors who kill their abusive spouses. It argues that the current feminist jurisprudential responses to the battered woman who kills, articulated through criticisms of the Battered Woman Syndrome, identify the need to challenge the binary oppositional framework in which these cases are decided and discussed by liberal legalism. However, it suggests that these responses do not ground their discussion in the historical preconditions which gave rise to the debate and the feminist framework in which that debate is conducted. This thesis argues that an historical re-examination of the ways in which women's experience of domestic violence, as well as the law's reading of it, was constructed is an important contribution to feminist legal theory. It undertakes this historical re-examination by situating the Battered Woman Syndrome and domestic violence within the struggles and campaigns of feminism in the past, especially feminism as it developed through the Women's Liberation Movement of the 1970s. It argues that the understanding of women and women's experience as diversely constituted through this period is essential for an understanding of current debates. This thesis represents an interdisciplinary feminist legal history. It uses both the method and evidence of history to challenge the legal understandings of battered women who kill. It posits that an interdisciplinary engagement between postmodern legal and historical theories, which contest objective assessments of subjects' experience, allows for a more complex and comprehensive assessment of how to approach, and critique, the Battered Woman Syndrome. It suggests that this can be accomplished by applying the techniques of narrative developed in historical theory to feminist legal theory. It therefore posits that a postmodern methodological approach, realised through a genealogical investigation of the subjectivity of battered women, is of value in the current debate about how to deal with the paradox presented by feminism's engagement with liberalism, and evidenced through the law's assessment of the battered woman who kills.

Maritime arrest : a legal reflection on the international arrest conventions and on domestic law in Germany and Sweden

Kirchner, Andree January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

Återfall i brott

Östlin, Carina January 2008 (has links)
No description available.

The claim for effective administrative handling - is it worth the cost?

Olsson, Andreas January 2009 (has links)
<p>In FL some of the paragraphs consist of a different set of regulations concerning exercise of public authority towards privates then towards other parts, such as authorities. I investigate the underlying causes for this separation of norms and in this investigation I also define the term exercise of public authority. My investigation leads me to conclude that the legislator has weighed two types of claims against each other and the result of this weighing are the differentiating of regulations of exercise of public authority towards privates and other parts. The claims are efficiency and legal security. When it comes to privates the claim for legal security weighs heavier and when it comes to other parts the claim for efficiency weighs heavier, resulting in different sets of regulations for the different parts. Ensuing, effective administrative handling leads to less legal security. Is it worth it?</p>

Internationellt skiljedomsförfarande : - parters rättigheter och skyldigheter -

Nordin, Joel January 2009 (has links)
No description available.

The EC Essential Facilities Doctrine, the <em>Microsoft</em> Case and the Treatment of Trade Secrets

Ansari, Dina January 2009 (has links)
<p>One of the main objectives of the European Community (EC) is to avoid the distortion of competition in the internal market. This aim is to be achieved through the application of the more detailed competition provisions in the EC Treaty, namely the Articles 81 and 82. Article 82 states that any abusive conduct of a dominant undertaking which may affect trade between Member States is prohibited. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has, through a wide stream of judgements, set the frame for which conducts that may be considered as abusive. These judgements have also led to the development of the so called “essential facilities doctrine” in EC law, which concerns the grant of access to a facility or resource controlled by a dominant firm. The central concept of the essential facilities doctrine is that a dominant firm's refusal to provide access to something it owns or controls, to which the access for other firms is essential in order for them to provide products or services to customers, may be held as abusive and therefore also prohibited. This means that a dominant undertaking may have a duty to share its facilities – which it many times has developed during many years – with competitors. A broad application of the essential facilities doctrine could therefore risk removing incentives for research and innovation, as it would become less fruitful for undertakings to invest in such facilities. On the other hand, if the essential facility is a monopoly asset of a dominant undertaking, a non-application of the essential facilities doctrine could allow the undertaking to set abusively high access prices or to permanently exclude competition on the related market by refusing to share the facility.</p><p>The essential facilities doctrine was first developed in cases where a dominant firm refused to supply a physical facility to other firms. In more recent cases, however, the European courts have also held a dominant firm's refusal to license intellectual property (IP) rights as infringing Article 82.6 The reason for such an approach has mainly been that exclusive rights, such as IP rights, give the right-holder a temporary monopolistic position and that a refusal to license therefore may lead to the elimination of all competition on the market as it will be impossible for competitors to enter that market without a license. Thus, in exceptional cases, the exercise of exclusive rights, in means of a refusal to license, has been prohibited by Article 82.</p><p>One particular area of refusal to license concerns “interface information” within the information technology sector. Interface information is such information that providers of software need in order to create products which can operate with other programs and systems. This information is many times either protected by IP rights, such as patent or copyright, or kept as a non-patented know-how and thus only protected by its secret nature. In a recent judgement of the European Court of First Instance (CFI) Microsoft was held to infringe Article 82 by refusing to license secret interface information. This case is highly interesting not only because it may clarify the relation between EC competition law and IP rights in essential facilities cases, but also because of the way the CFI equalled secret information – know-how – with other IP rights in its judgement by stating that</p><p>“… there is no reason why secret technology should enjoy a higher level of protection than, for example, technology which has necessarily been disclosed to the public by its inventor in a patent-application procedure.”</p><p>As mentioned above, one of the main reasons for competition rules to interfere with exclusive rights is that such rights may give the owner a legally protected monopolistic position for a longer period and that it is feared that the exercise of exclusive rights may eliminate all competition in that area from the market. This is however not the case with trade secrets which, once they are revealed, cannot be protected from other's exploitation. One may therefore question if trade secrets in reality endanger competition to the same extent than IP rights.</p>

Väsentlig anknytning : En analys av skattskyldighet i Sverige med särskild fokus på väsentlig anknytning och dess förenlighet med EG-rättens fria rörlighet / Essential connection : An analysis of the tax obligation in Sweden with focus on essential connection and its associability with the EC free movement

Bolin, Jonas January 2009 (has links)
<p>Uppsatsens huvudsakliga syfte är att utreda vilken innebörd domstolarna har tillmätt de olika anknytningsmomenten samt vilken betydelse respektive anknytningsmoment har tillmätts vid avgörandet huruvida väsentlig anknytning föreligger eller ej. Genom analys av relevanta rättsfall avser jag att på ett överskådligt vis klargöra vad som krävs för att väsentlig anknytning skall anses föreligga. Jag avser även att belysa hur reglerna kan anses vara ett hinder mot EG-rättens fria rörlighet.</p>

Bevisvärdering i frågor om skatt : En studie av rekvisitet uppsåt / Probative Value in Questions of Tax : A Study of the Prerequisite “Malicious Intent”

Arvidsson, Sofia January 2009 (has links)
<p>I Sverige finns i dag två parallella sanktionssystem i mål om skatt. I taxeringsprocessen (inomförvaltningen) kan en skattskyldig som har lämnat en oriktig uppgift påföras ett skattetillägg.Om en oriktig uppgift bedöms som allvarlig kan den skattskyldige, förutom skattetillägget, bliföremål för en brottsutredning och åtalad av åklagare i allmän domstol. Det är olika rekvisitför åtal i allmän domstol och för påförande av skattetillägg. För att bli dömd enligt 2 § skattebrottslagenskall den åtalade ha haft uppsåt vid lämnandet av den oriktiga uppgiften, medanuppsåt inte är ett rekvisit för påförande av skattetillägg. Däremot kan en skattskyldig få befrielsefrån skattetillägg om den oriktiga uppgiften kan anses ursäktad.</p><p>Skattebrott är vanligen svårutredda för åklagare och polis, dels på grund av de många transaktionerna,dels på grund av det stora skriftliga materialet. Åklagaren måste, för att den åtaladeskall kunna dömas till ansvar, lyckas bevisa att den åtalade lämnade den oriktiga uppgiftenmed uppsåt. Till sin hjälp har åklagaren samma bevismedel som i övriga brottmål. Skattebrottetsspeciella karaktär gör dock att det kan vara svårt för åklagaren att föra bevisning och därförser processen i allmän domstol för skattebrott ofta annorlunda ut jämfört med andra brottmål.Finns det anledning att sänka beviskravet för uppsåtsrekvisitet vid skattebrott?</p><p>Bevisläran är inte närmare uttryckt i lagtext, varför det är doktrin och praxis som blir avgörandeför att finna svar på frågan om beviskravet. Även i doktrin råder det dock delade meningarom beviskravet och det finns inga prejudicerande domar från HD som rör frågan ombeviskrav vid skattebrott. Min slutsats är att bevissvårigheter inte är exklusiva problem förskattebrott, och att det ligger i rättssäkerheten att åklagaren skall få anstränga sig för att bevisauppsåt. Att det ställs stora krav på utredningen är snarare bra än dåligt och jag har inte kunnatfinna något som motiverar en sänkning av beviskravet vid skattebrott från det gängse ”ställtutom rimligt tvivel”.</p>

Hyresrätten vid bodelning : Bör en bostadshyresrätt tilldelas ett värde vid bodelning? / The right of tenancy at the distribution of marital property : Should a right of tenancy have a value in a distribution of marital property?

Klevell, Maria January 2009 (has links)
<p>Bör en bostadshyresrätt tilldelas ett positivt värde vid bodelning med anledning aväktenskapsskillnad? Under vilka omständigheter skall i sådana fall bostadshyresrätten åsättasett värde?</p><p>Syftet med uppsatsen är att kritiskt undersöka huruvida en bostadshyresrätt bör tilldelas ettvärde vid en bodelning med anledning av äktenskapsskillnad. Detta innefattar att utreda omförbudet i 12 kap 65 § JB hindrar att en hyresrätt ges ett värde vid bodelningssammanhangsamt att utreda vilka konsekvenser det skulle innebära om hyresrätten tilldelades ett värde.Undersökningen utgår i från de begränsningar lagen uppställer vid att åsätta en hyresrätt ettvärde. Med anledning av detta är syftet dessutom att belysa under vilka omständigheterhyresrätten kan komma att tilldelas ett värde och även belysa vilka skyddsintressen som finnsatt beakta.</p>

Vårdslöst framkallande av försäkringsfall : Särskilt om moralklausulen som undantagsbestämmelse i företagsförsäkringen / Insurance claim due to a negligent cause : In particular with regard to the 'moral clause' policy exclusion in business insurance

Gustafsson, Elin January 2009 (has links)
<p>Uppsatsen presenterar moralklausulen, som återfinns i företagsförsäkringsvillkor, vars syfte är attförhindra försäkringstagarens spekulation i sitt försäkringsskydd. Olika utformningar av klausulenjämförs och jag utreder dess förenlighet med lagtext för framkallande av försäkringsfall i 8 kap 11 och14 §§ NFAL, där slutsatsen är att förenlighet med lag avgörs i varje enskilt fall. Jag utreder även omskyldigheten att inte framkalla försäkringsfall är att se som en biförpliktelse, vilket den ses som iNFAL, men kommer fram till att den inte är att se som en sådan. I uppsatsen klargörs dessutom attmoralklausulen kan tillämpas gentemot andra försäkrade än den som har visat dålig moral. Härtillstuderas hur klausulen har tillämpats historiskt enligt GFAL och hur den tillämpas i enlighet medNFAL idag, varvid jag har funnit att tillämpningen är restriktiv och inte har ändrats i någon störreomfattning. Villkor som tar sikte på skador som sannolikt kommer att inträffa visar sig vidtillämpningen vara hårdare mot den försäkrade, än villkor som tar sikte på skador som oundvikligenkommer att inträffa. Slutligen utreds förhållandet mellan moralklausulen och begreppet oförutseddskada, eftersom det kan ifrågasättas varför ordet förutse används i två olika meningar i villkoren.Slutsatsen är att moralklausulen återfinns i villkorens undantagsbestämmelser, medan begreppetoförutsedd skada återfinns i omfattningsbestämmelserna och vi har att göra med två olika situationer.Vid tillämpning av moralklausulen tillmäts omständigheterna i det enskilda fallet större betydelse.</p> / <p>This thesis presents the 'moral clause', which appears in business insurance terms, with the purpose toprevent policy-holders from speculating in the insurance coverage. Different formulations of the'moral clause' are compared to one another and I investigate its consistence with the regulation ofcausing insurance claims, chapter 8, 11 and 14 §§ NFAL, where the conclusion is that consistencewith law has to be determined in each case. Furthermore, I investigate if the insured's obligation not tocause insurance claims is to be seen as an accessory obligation, which it is according to NFAL. Theconclusion is that it is not to be regarded as an accessory obligation. The thesis makes it clear that the'moral clause' can be applied towards other policy-holders than the insured who has acted immorally.It is analysed how the clause has been applied historically in accordance with GFAL, and how it isapplied in accordance with NFAL. I have found the application to be restrictive, and it has not changedsignificantly. Terms applicable to damages that are likely to occur has in practice shown to be tougheragainst the policy-holder, other than terms which applies to damages that will occur unavoidably.Finally the relationship between the 'moral clause' and the conception of unforeseen damage isexplained, since it has been questioned why the word foresee is used in two different sentences in theterms. The conclusion is that the 'moral clause' is found in the exclusion directions, while the conceptof unforeseen damage is found in the extent directions and we are dealing with two differentsituations. By the application of the 'moral clause', the circumstances of the individual situation are ofgreater importance.</p>

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