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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Illness Representation and Medication Adherence of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

McManus, M. Sue 16 March 2012 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Chronic kidney disease (CKD) places a high personal and economic burden globally on individuals, families, and society. Although kidney protective medications slow the progression of CKD to end stage kidney disease, adherence to these medications is inadequate. The primary purposes of this study are to: 1) describe the illness and treatment beliefs of CKD patients in stage 3 guided by the Common Sense M model (CSM); and 2) examine the relationship of those beliefs with adherence to renal protective medications, ACE-I. Secondary purposes of this study include determining adherence levels of ACE-I among patients with CKD stage 3; examining relationships between individual and clinical characteristics with patient beliefs and medication adherence with ACE-I; and examining the relationship between the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and the Medication Possession Ratio (MPR). Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 92 individuals with Stage 3 CKD was obtained from a Midwestern VA medical center. Data were collected through self-administered mailed surveys and medical record reviews. Data analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, correlation, t-tests and ANOVA. Seventeen symptoms experienced were perceived as related to CKD by at least one respondent with most reporting legs/feet swelling (n=31). Top perceived cause of CKD was aging (60%). Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) items were scored from 1 to 5 with higher scores indicating perceptions of higher personal and treatment control of chronic, cyclical illness with serious consequences and negative emotional reactions. In this study, the CKD timeline was perceived as a long-term chronic rather than short-term acute condition (M = 3.8), with minimal cyclical exacerbations (M = 2.7), and moderate severity of consequences (M = 3.1). Respondents perceived having both, but more personal control than treatment control of CKD (M = 3.5 v 3.2). Participants did not perceive CKD as related to a great negative emotional response (M = 2.8). Illness Representations were not found to be significantly correlated with self-reported medication adherence. Medication adherence levels by self-report (M = 4.8 [5 = perfect adherence]) and pharmacy refill records (73% had perfect refill ratio of 1:1) reveal highly adherent levels among this sample.
2

Studies of the bipolar inline radiofrequency ablation device (ILRFA) in liver and kidney transection.

Yao, Peng, St. George Clinical School, UNSW January 2007 (has links)
Surgical resection is the best option for both liver and kidney cancers, which providing the long term survival. However intraoperative blood loss can be a significant challenge, and is clearly associated with morbidity and mortality. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) precoagulation has been introduced into liver and kidney surgery. Promising results have already achieved in reduction of intraoperative blood loss. In this thesis, a detailed explanation on precoagulation by RFA has been given. Our group developed a novel bipolar multi-array RFA device ??? InLine (ILRFA). In this thesis, we have investigated the performance in a variety of fields. In the study of ILRFA-assisted laparoscopic liver resection, ILRFA was easily employed through a hand port and achieved significant decrease of blood loss compared to control group (p < 0.05). In the liver trauma study, ILRFA produced a 63.88% reduction of blood loss in peripheral injury and 53.57% in central injury respectively. In postoperative evaluation of ILRFA-assisted liver resection, animals underwent an uneventful recovery, no complications occurred. Histological examination revealed a typical post RFA evolution. In ILRFA-assisted partial nephrectomy, the mean intraoperative blood loss 35 ?? 7 ml in the ILRFA and 152 ?? 94 ml in the control, a 77.0% reduction (P = 0.024). The mean blood loss per centimetre resection area was 2.09 ?? 1.41 ml/cm2 in the ILRFA compared with 12.79 ?? 1.68 ml/cm2 in controls, the reduction was 79.0% (P = 0.019). In ILRFAassisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, the mean intraoperative blood loss was 32 ?? 15 ml in the ILRFA and 187 ?? 69 ml in the control group, a 77.0% reduction (P = 0.043). The mean blood loss per centimetre resection area was 2.27 ?? 0.95 ml/cm2 in the ILRFA compared with 26.46 ?? 8.81 ml/cm2 in controls, the reduction was 79.0% (P = 0.047). In the renal trauma experiment, ILRFA also achieved promising results in haemostasis. We believe that ILRFA is a useful device which may help in the treatment of patients with liver and kidney illness.
3

Role of mesenchymal stem cells in proteinuric nephropathy

Wu, Haojia, 吳浩佳 January 2014 (has links)
Proteinuria has been recognized as a common feature in many forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As traditional medications for proteinuric nephropathy, such as blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has only achieved limited clinical success, more effective renoprotective strategies need to be explored. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have recently shown promise as a therapeutic tool in acute kidney injury (AKI) models. The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in proteinuric nephropathy models is unknown. Using a co-culture model of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) and BM-MSCs, I first examined the potential effect of BM-MSCs in albumin-induced pro-inflammatory response and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PTECs. The unstimulated BM-MSCs exerted moderate suppressive effect on tubular inflammation as only albumin-induced CCL-2 and CCL-5 expression was attenuated in PTECs. When concomitantly stimulated by albumin excess, however, BM-MSCs remarkably suppressed albumin-induced tubular IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, CCL-2, and CCL-5 expression, suggesting albumin overloaded milieu to be a prerequisite for them to fully exhibit their anti-inflammatory effects. This effect was mediated via deactivation of tubular NF-κB signaling as BM-MSCs prevented the overexpression of p-IκB and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, albumin-induced tubular EMT, as shown by the loss of E-cadherin and induction of α-SMA, FN-1 and collagen IV in PTECs, was also prevented by BM-MSC co-culture. To dissect the mechanism of action, I next explored the paracrine factors secreted by BM-MSCs under an albumin-overloaded condition and studied their contribution to the protective effect on tubular inflammation and EMT. Albumin-overloaded BM-MSCs per se overexpressed 34 paracrine factors, of which hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TNFα-stimulating gene (TSG)-6 were regulated by P38 and NF-κB signaling. These paracrine factors suppressed both the proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes in albumin-induced PTECs. Neutralizing HGF and TSG-6 abolished the anti-inflammatory and anti-EMT effects of BM-MSC co-culture in albumin-induced PTECs, respectively. Finally, in albumin-overloaded mice, a well established murine model reminiscent of human CKD, treatment with mouse BM-MSCs markedly reduced BUN, tubular CCL-2 and CCL-5 expression, interstitial macrophage, α-SMA and collagen IV accumulation independent of changes in proteinuria, together with upregulated renal cortical expression of HGF. Exogenous BM-MSCs were detected in their kidneys by PKH-26 staining. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo data suggest a modulatory effect of BM-MSCs on albumin-induced tubular inflammation and fibrosis and underscore a therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs for CKD in the future. / published_or_final_version / Medicine / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
4

Studies of the bipolar inline radiofrequency ablation device (ILRFA) in liver and kidney transection.

Yao, Peng, St. George Clinical School, UNSW January 2007 (has links)
Surgical resection is the best option for both liver and kidney cancers, which providing the long term survival. However intraoperative blood loss can be a significant challenge, and is clearly associated with morbidity and mortality. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) precoagulation has been introduced into liver and kidney surgery. Promising results have already achieved in reduction of intraoperative blood loss. In this thesis, a detailed explanation on precoagulation by RFA has been given. Our group developed a novel bipolar multi-array RFA device ??? InLine (ILRFA). In this thesis, we have investigated the performance in a variety of fields. In the study of ILRFA-assisted laparoscopic liver resection, ILRFA was easily employed through a hand port and achieved significant decrease of blood loss compared to control group (p < 0.05). In the liver trauma study, ILRFA produced a 63.88% reduction of blood loss in peripheral injury and 53.57% in central injury respectively. In postoperative evaluation of ILRFA-assisted liver resection, animals underwent an uneventful recovery, no complications occurred. Histological examination revealed a typical post RFA evolution. In ILRFA-assisted partial nephrectomy, the mean intraoperative blood loss 35 ?? 7 ml in the ILRFA and 152 ?? 94 ml in the control, a 77.0% reduction (P = 0.024). The mean blood loss per centimetre resection area was 2.09 ?? 1.41 ml/cm2 in the ILRFA compared with 12.79 ?? 1.68 ml/cm2 in controls, the reduction was 79.0% (P = 0.019). In ILRFAassisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, the mean intraoperative blood loss was 32 ?? 15 ml in the ILRFA and 187 ?? 69 ml in the control group, a 77.0% reduction (P = 0.043). The mean blood loss per centimetre resection area was 2.27 ?? 0.95 ml/cm2 in the ILRFA compared with 26.46 ?? 8.81 ml/cm2 in controls, the reduction was 79.0% (P = 0.047). In the renal trauma experiment, ILRFA also achieved promising results in haemostasis. We believe that ILRFA is a useful device which may help in the treatment of patients with liver and kidney illness.
5

Relaxation training and social support in the treatment of hypertension in patients with renal disease.

Jaschinski, Joerg 16 April 2014 (has links)
M.A. (Clinical Psychology) / This study concerns itself with relaxation training and social support as alternative forms of treatment for hypertension in renal patients. following the success of these in the treatment of essential hypertension (Lagrone et al 1986). Three groups of renal dialysis patients were chased for the study. The first group underwent relaxation training, the second group participated in group therapy sessions whieh emphasized social support. and the last group acted as a control group. The following hypotheses were made: I. Renal dialysis patients that receive progressive muscle relaxation training will show a significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure rate. 2. Renal dialysis patients that participated in a number of group therapy sessions will show significant decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
6

Modeling and Estimation for the Renal System

Czerwin, Benjamin James January 2021 (has links)
Understanding how a therapy will impact the injured kidney before being administered would be an asset to the clinical world. The work in this thesis advances the field of mathematical modeling of the kidneys to aid in this cause. The objectives of this work are threefold: 1) to develop and personalize a model to specific patients in different diseased states, via parameter estimation, in order to test therapeutic trajectories, 2) to use parameter estimation to understand the cause of different kidney diseases, differentiate between potential kidney diseases, and facilitate targeted therapies, and 3) to push forward the understanding of kidney physiology via physiology-based mathematical modeling techniques. To accomplish these objectives, we have developed two models of the kidneys: 1) a broad, steady-state, closed-loop model of the entire kidney with human physiologic parameters, and 2) a detailed, dynamic model of the proximal tubule, an important part of kidney, with rat physiologic parameters. To readily aid physicians, a human model would easily fit into the clinical workflow. Since there is a lack of invasive human renal data for validation and parameter estimation, we employ a minimal modeling approach. However, to aid in deeper understanding of renal function for future applications, targeted therapy testing, and potentially replace invasive measures, we develop a more detailed model. The development of such a model requires invasive data for validation and parameter estimation, and hence we model for rodents, where such invasive data are more readily available. The kidneys are composed of approximately one million functional units known as nephrons. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the rate at which the kidney filters blood at the start of the nephron. This filtration rate is highly regulated via several control mechanisms and needs to be maintained within a small range in order to maintain a proper water and electrolyte balance. Hence, fluctuations of GFR are indicative of overall kidney health. In developing the human kidney model, we also sought to understand the relationship between blood pressure and GFR since many therapies affect blood pressure and subsequently GFR. This model describes steady-state conditions of the entire kidney, including renal autoregulation. Model validation is performed with experimental data from healthy subjects and severely hypertensive patients. The baseline model’s GFR simulation for normotensive and the manually tuned model’s GFR simulation for hypertensive intensive care unit patients had low root mean squared errors (RMSE) of 13.5 mL/min and 5 mL/min, respectively. These values are both lower than the error of 18 mL/min in GFR estimates, reported in previous studies. It has been shown that vascular resistance and renal autoregulation parameters are altered in severely hypertensive stages, and hence, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate how changes in these parameters affect GFR. The results of the sensitivity analysis reinforce the fact that vascular resistance is inversely related to GFR and show that changes to either vascular resistance or renal autoregulation cause a significant change in sodium concentration in the descending limb of Henle. This is an important conclusion as it quantifies the mapping between hypertension parameters and two important kidney states, GFR and sodium urine levels. Glomerulonephritis is one of the two major intra-renal kidney diseases, characterized as a breakdown at the site of the glomerulus that affects GFR and subsequently other portions of the nephron. This disease accounts for 15% of all kidney injuries and one-fourth of end-stage renal disease patients. The human kidney model is used to estimate renal parameters of patients with glomerulonephritis. The model is an implicit system and in developing an optimization algorithm to use for parameter estimation, we modify in a novel way, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization using the implicit function theorem in order to calculate the Jacobian and Hessian matrices needed. We further adapt the optimization algorithm to work for constrained optimization since our parameter values must be physiologically feasible within a certain range. The parameter estimation method we use is a three-step process: 1) manually adjusting parameters for the hypertension comorbidity, 2) iteratively estimating parameters that vary from person to person using no-kidney- injury (NKI) data, and 3) iteratively estimating parameters that are affected by glomerulonephritis using labeled diseased data. Such a process generates a model that is personalized to each given patient. This patient-specific model can then be used to simulate and evaluate outcomes of potential therapies (e.g., vasodilators) on the model in lieu of the patient, and observe how alterations in blood pressure or sodium level affect renal function. Parameter estimation in the presence of glomerulonephritis is a challenging task due to the complexity of the kidney physiology and the number of parameters to estimate. This is further complicated by comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiac arrythmia, and valvular disease, because they alter kidney physiology and hence, increase the number of parameters to estimate. We chose to focus on hypertension since it is very prevalent in hospitals and intensive care units. It was found that over all patients, average model estimates of GFR and urine output rate (UO) were within 9.2 mL/min and 0.71 mL/min for NKI data. These results are expectedly better than those achieved from the non-personalized model since the parameters are now specific to each patient. The results also demonstrate our ability to non-invasively estimate GFR with less error than the 18 mL/min currently possible. The estimations were validated by ensuring that the estimated parameter values were physiologically sound and matched the literature in terms of expected values for different demographic groups. It is vital for a properly functioning kidney to maintain solute transport throughout the nephron. Kidney diseases in the nephron can manifest themselves via the solute transport mechanisms. To understand how these diseases affect the kidney and to simulate transporter- targeting therapies, we have developed a detailed model, starting from the human model previously developed, of one portion of the kidneys, the proximal tubule. The proximal tubule is the site of the most active transport within the nephron and the target for several therapies. Our goal is to study and understand the dynamic behavior of the proximal tubule when solute transporters breakdown and to investigate treatment therapies targeting certain solute transporters. The proposed model is dynamic and includes several solutes’ transport mechanisms, with parameters for rats. We chose to investigate diabetic nephropathy and the associated sodium-transporter alteration (knockout) therapy. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized as kidney damage due to diabetes and affects 30% of diabetics. In terms of reducing hyperfiltration, a potential cause of diabetic nephropathy where an overabundance of solutes and fluid are filtered at the glomerulus, the model demonstrates that knockout of this transporter results in a reduction in sodium and chloride reabsorptions in the proximal tubule, thereby preventing hyperfiltration. Further, we conclude that vital flows for maintaining kidney homeostasis, fluid and ammonium reabsorptions, are corrected to healthy values by a 50% knockout (impairment) of the sodium-hydrogen transporter. Next, we use the dynamic model to detect different diseased states of the proximal tubule transporters. We have accomplished this task by using Bayesian estimation to estimate transporter density parameters (a metric for kidney health) using measured signals from the proximal tubule. This approach is validated with experimental rat data, while further investigations are conducted into the performance of the estimation in the presence of varied input signals, signal resolutions, and noise levels. Estimation accuracy within 20% of true transporter density and within 4% of true fluid and solute reabsorption was achieved for all combinations of diseased transporters. We concluded that including chloride and bicarbonate concentrations improved estimation accuracy, whereas including formic acid did not. This is an important conclusion as it can help physicians determine which blood tests to order for diagnosing kidney disease; to our knowledge, this is a first. It was also found that sodium and glucose proximal tubule concentrations are most affected by changes in the sodium-hydrogen and sodium-bicarbonate transporters. This conclusion provides insight into the interplay between solute transporter density and sodium and glucose concentrations in the proximal tubule. Such knowledge paves the way for new transporter targeted therapies.
7

COMPARISON OF BODY IMAGE IN THREE GROUPS OF RENAL DISEASE PATIENTS.

Stevens, Violet Bernice. January 1984 (has links)
No description available.
8

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor alone or in combination with angiotensin II type I receptor blocker in patients with chronicproteinuric nephropathies: a systemic reviewof clinical trials

Ho, Kwun-wai., 何冠威. January 2005 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Medical Sciences / Master / Master of Medical Sciences
9

The effect of tenofovir on renal function and immunological response in HIV-positive patients in Lesotho

Mugomeri, Eltony January 2013 (has links)
Thesis (M. Tech. (Biomedical technology)) - Central University of technology, Free State, 2013 / INTRODUCTION: The renal effects of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes remain under-reported in African settings. The study sought to assess immunological outcomes and to compare renal function outcomes between patients exposed to TDF and unexposed patient group. METHODS: Phase 1 of the study was a retrospective case control analysis of serum creatinine data for 312 ART naïve adult patients exposed to TDF and 173 unexposed patients enrolled on ART between Dec 2006 and Jan 2011 at Roma Health Service Area in Lesotho. Sub-optimal renal function outcomes were serum creatinine clearance values <50 ml/min calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Phase 2 was based on re-sampling of the study population and analysis of CD4 counts of 516 adult naïve HIV-positive patients. Univariate logistic regression (p<0.1) and multivariate analyses (p<0.05) were performed using STATA® version 11 software. RESULTS: Overall, 153 (31.5%) patients had moderate baseline (30-60 ml/min) renal insufficiency. Renal function improved by +2 ml/min at 24 months. Almost 18% (n=312) of the patients on TDF were erroneously put on TDF. The use of TDF was a marginally significant factor (p=0.054) associated with CrCl<50 ml/min outcomes in univariate analysis but was insignificant (p=0.122) in multivariate analysis. Female gender (p=0.016), high blood pressure (p=0.009), ages over 60 (p=0.004), and underweight (p<0.001) were significantly associated with CrCl<50 ml/min outcomes. The proportion of patients who developed immunological failure in this study was low (6.8%, n=516). The mean CD4 count increased significantly after treatment (p<0.001). Baseline CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 (p=0.049) and male gender (p=0.005) were significantly associated with sub-optimal immunological outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: TDF is a weak contributing factor associated with renal impairment outcomes compared to other variables such as hypertension, older age, underweight and female gender. More research on long term effects of TDF is recommended. Baseline renal function screening should be improved to minimise leakages of patients contraindicated of TDF. Although the patients’ immunological status generally improved, males and patients with low baseline CD4 counts should be monitored closely while on ART.
10

Seeking certainty in an uncertain world : psychosocial aspects of renal replacement therapies in children and adolescents

Pruefe, Jenny Maria January 2013 (has links)
No description available.

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