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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Differentiating anxiety, defence and work-related functioning in the psychodynamics of social systems : observing the unconscious cultures of psychiatric organisations

Vonofakos, Dimitris January 2009 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is the theoretical and empirical study of anxiety, defence and realityoriented functioning in social defence systems. The psychoanalytic background of the 'Tavistock approach' fonns the conceptual framework of this project. Thus the first chapter of the thesis discusses an overview of Freud's description of unconscious anxiety and defence, the positions of early psychic development as developed by Melanie Klein and Bion's extended view of projective identification as an early, non-verbal channel of emotional communication. An examination of group dynamics as studied by Freud and, in particular, Bion presents two major influences on the early work of the Tavistock group in the psychoanalytic study of organisations. In the second chapter, the emergence and establishment of the 'Tavistock approach' to the study of organisations is explored from a historical perspective. This serves to contextualise theoretical and professional shifts in this body of work, as well as illustrating the limited scope of its later application within the social defence systems paradigm. The following chapters present a re-worked, three-level view of social defence systems which incorporates co-existing defence-related and work-related states. This is an attempt to explore further the multiplicity of dynamics in social defence systems, utilising a wider range of psychoanalytic concepts. In order to test these theoretical constructs, an empirical study is carried out in two in-patient psychiatric wards. Using a psychoanalytically-influenced observational methodology, the empirical research focuses on the study of the institutions' cultures of work, hence connecting unconscious phantasy to work practices. The final chapter examines the main findings in a wider theoretical and professional framework. This thesis is a pilot study that attempts to illuminate the inner-workings of social defence systems through a psychoanalytic framework similar to the early Tavistock work in this area.
2

Psychotherapy as mutual encounter : a study of therapeutic conditions

Murphy, David January 2010 (has links)
Rogers (1957; 1959) claim that the client's minimal perception of therapist empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence as necessary and sufficient for constructive personality change has been supported equivocally. This necessary and sufficient hypothesis implies the therapeutic relationship is unilaterally therapist created via the provision of a set of specific therapeutic attitudes and delivered to the client. Recent research from the psychotherapy literature has pointed towards the role of reciprocal positive interaction between client and therapist. However, despite the common view of the therapeutic relationship as unilateral, Rogers (1959) referred to the reciprocal nature of the therapeutic conditions, therefore, suggesting the therapeutic relationship is a bidirectional process. The current study explores the mutual and reciprocal experiencing of the therapeutic conditions, their development over the early stages of the therapeutic relationship and subsequent association with an objective measure of outcome. The study analysed data relating to the quality of the mutual affective therapeutic environment from sixty two bona fide counselling/psychotherapy dyads in a naturalistic longitudinal design. Levels of the therapeutic conditions as provided and perceived by both clients and therapists were assessed using a shortened version of the B-L RI after the first and third session and clients also completed the CORE-OM at the first and third session. The results showed that the psychotherapy was generally effective and that client s views of the quality of the therapeutic relationship were a better predictor of outcome than therapists. Test of the effect of mutual experiencing of the therapeutic conditions were carried out using hierarchical linear multiple regression. The results showed a significant interaction between client and therapist views of the quality of the therapeutic relationship at session three with outcome at session three. This suggested that the association between the client view of the relationship and outcome was stronger when both clients and therapists rated mutually high levels of the therapeutic relationship conditions provided by the therapist. This result was also present when considering the mutual levels of the therapeutic conditions that client and therapist perceived in the other. These findings suggest that the perception of mutually high levels of the therapeutic conditions is able to predict outcome and supports the view that the mutual and reciprocal affective environment is associated with positive therapeutic change. The implications for practice are that clients must be considered as the central change agent in their own therapy. In effect, the study has shown that it is the client's own feelings towards the therapist and their interaction with how the therapist feels towards the client that is an important factor in predicting outcome. It would seem that even when clients have experienced significant psychological distress, the client's organismic striving for relationship remains and the extent this is perceived and received by the therapist is related to a positive outcome for the client. As a result of this, psychotherapy practitioners could benefit their clients by considering themselves as part of a bi-directional relational dyad. Further research is required as a result of the current findings and suggests the need to explore the nature, form and experience of mutuality within the therapeutic relationship.
3

The experience of chronic pain : how communicative trigger decoding reveals new insights into the unconscious experience of pain

Gunton, Gabrielle January 2001 (has links)
This dissertation explores the conscious and unconscious experience of chronic pain. The study undertaken by Vrancken (1989) is used as a basis for discussion upon the medical approach to chronic pain and five different schools of thought into which the many approaches and models for chronic pain can be placed are reviewed. Documented research shows that chronic pain has significant psychological and emotional impact upon the patient, the effect of which disrupts the patient's cognitive state and conscious functioning. However literature documenting the patient's experience of chronic pain is a poorly researched and neglected area. It is asserted that the experience of chronic pain and an unconscious perception of chronic pain might add further insight into the complex subject of chronic pain. The communicative approach to psychotherapy claims a framework and methodology whereby unconscious mental functioning can be accessed and the work of Robert Langs and the theory and methodology of the communicative approach is detailed. The psychotherapy sessions of a patient suffering with chronic pain are used to test this claim and gain insight into the unconscious perception of chronic pain. The session material is examined in detail according to the communicative framework and all observations confined entirely to communicative principles. Conclusions are drawn which show that communicative adaptive listening, and trigger decoding in the light of therapist interventions and frame related issues offers insight into the unconscious perception of pain and is an area worthy of further research. These findings suggest that communicative psychotherapy may have a role in gaining greater insight into the unconscious perception of chronic pain but further evaluation of this approach is clearly necessary, involving larger numbers of patients, before a more definitive conclusion can be reached. Although this is a very small particular study, there is a broader implication concerning the role that death anxiety plays in psychotherapy in general and in particular in the role that death anxiety plays in working therapeutically with patients who suffer from chronic pain. These areas are worthy of further research.
4

Disciplinary understandings of anorexia nervosa : art therapy and psychiatric research from a feminist perspective

Rehavia-Hanauer, Dafna January 2011 (has links)
This dissertation explores the constructed nature of the concept of anorexia nervosa in the disciplines of art therapy and psychiatry and considers the ramifications of this on the way women are constructed. This dissertation consisted of three new studies of the construction of anorexia nervosa within disciplinary discourse: 1) a corpus of research articles in psychiatry in 2009; 2) an analysis of the DSM IV and proposed revisions to this document for the future DSM V; and 3) a comprehensive, analysis of the construction of anorexia in all the published research with the field of art therapy. This study offers the first poststructuralist genealogy of the construction of anorexia nervosa in the field of art therapy and the way disciplinary discourse works in that field. Furthermore, this research extended existing poststructuralist studies of anorexia nervosa into the 2ln century by carefully considering psychiatric literature in 2009 and the proposals for the revision of the DSM V. The main findings of this dissertation reaffirm the concept that anorexia nervosa is a constructed term resulting from discursive, disciplinary forces. As found here, the discourse of psychiatry was found to be in a power struggle with other disciplines and have asserted its power through adherence to Neo-Kraepilianian guidelines and the reinvention of the DSM. There was a preference for the medicalization of anorexia nervosa and to see it as natural disease and genetic predisposition as well as an increase in the usage of the categories of cognitive dysfunction and body image distortion. The art therapy literature moved from psychodynamic disturbance and familial pathology to cognitive dysfunction and body image distortion explanations. In addition, for art therapy at the end of the 20th century and into the 21st century there was some exploration of socio-cultural context and spiritual explanations of anorexia nervosa. Overall the construction of women in the art therapy literature on anorexia nervosa moved from explicitly negative characterizations of women built upon accusatory narratives and personal flaws to more subtly hidden negative descriptions. In the psychiatric literature of the 21 " century and the proposed revisions of the influential DSM V there is a preferencef or biological and behaviouralu nderstandingso f anorexia that neutralize gender and distance socio-cultural explanations. The gendered and socio-cultural understandingso f anorexia nervosaa re being actively distancedf rom the explanation of anorexia nervosa. This is highly problematic as there is quite obvious and empirically validated evidence positioning anorexia nervosa as a gendered, socio-cultural phenomenon and this way of understanding allows new options for treatment
5

Rationality in an uncertain world : essays on the cognitive science of human reasoning

Oaksford, M. R. January 2001 (has links)
In the psychology of reasoning there has been a longstanding assumption that people ought to be able to reason locally. However, <i>prima facie</i> this "logicist" position is called into doubt by the many results in the psychology of deductive reasoning showing that people do not give logical responses on tasks that have straightforward logical solutions. These results notwithstanding, some theorists have continued to insist that people ought to behave logically on these tasks. It is claimed that people's psychological procedures, although capable of logical inference in principle, fall into error in practice because of cognitive limitations of such working memory capacity. In this book it is argued that a more radical response is required especially when one considers that in some tasks this strategy writing off up to 96% of participants responding as "performance error". It is argued that logic has always provided a poor model of everyday human reasoning that people must do to survive in their uncertain world. Part 1 of the book concentrates on arguments against Logicism that indicate that a key issue is dealing with the "defeasibility" of every day inference. That is, the fact that inferences, such as <i>if I turn the key the car starts </i>and <i>I turn the key, </i>therefore <i>the car starts </i>can be defeated when the car does not start. The problems that have arisen in Artificial Intelligence in attempting to capture such inferences over everyday world knowledge are introduced and their implications for the psychology of reasoning are made clear. Part 2 of the book introduces a tentative probabilistic solution to these problems. It is argued that people's performance on deductive reasoning tasks results from generalising their everyday probabilistic reasoning strategies, that are generally adaptive in their normal environment, to the laboratory. These strategies, although normally adaptive and rational compared to a probabilistic standard, create the semblance of biased and irrational reasoning when compared to the standard provided by formal logic.
6

Towards a New Psychoanalytic Theory of Abandonment : A Feminist Intervention via Myth

Gamboa Solis, Flor De Maria January 2009 (has links)
No description available.
7

Envy revisited : a contribution to the concept of envy

Polledri, Patricia January 2009 (has links)
No description available.
8

Relationship between self-esteem and psychological health

Gebauer, Jochen E. January 2008 (has links)
This thesis examines the relationship between self-esteem and psychological health. In Chapter 1, I define self-esteem and psychological health, illustrate the prominence of these two psychological constructs, and review the literature on the relation between self-esteem and psychological health. As we will see, self-esteem can be defined as one's overall evaluation as a person, and psychological health can be defined as the absence of depression, anxiety, and negative affect together with the presence of life satisfaction and positive affect. Further, we will see that self-esteem and psychological health are among the most frequently researched psychological constructs. Thus, the corpus of research on the relationship between self-esteem and psychological health is massive. Nonetheless, the nature and dynamics of this relationship are complex and far from being fully understood. The empirical research presented in this thesis helps to better understand this relationship. To this end, I have conducted three empirical lines of research. The three lines of research approach the same overarching goal from three very different angles. In the first empirical chapter (Chapter 2), I report a line of research in which my collaborators and I studied the impact of one facet of psychological health - i.e., chronic mood - on self-esteem when recalling positive and negative past selves. In four studies, we found that chronically happy people assimilated towards a recalled positive self and contrasted away from a recalled negative self, which in both cases lead to a relative increase in self-esteem. Chronically sad people, on the other hand, assimilated towards a recalled negative self and contrasted away from a recalled positive self, which in both cases lead to a relative decrease in self-esteem. Thus, this research shows that psychological health in the form of chronic mood can impact self-esteem via the medium of recalling past selves. The research reported in the second empirical chapter (Chapter 3) was motivated by the conviction that a full understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and psychological health can be obtained only by placing this relationship in a larger context involving other psychological variables. Past research suggests that belongingness is the one psychological construct that is particularly relevant in this respect. Thus, Chapter 3 reports a line of research studying the relations between belongingness, self-esteem, and psychological health. In three studies, we developed and validated a novel two-dimensional measure of people's perceptions of the belongingness they experience from other people. The measure assesses the amount of belongingness experienced and the degree to which people perceive this belongingness as being unconditional or conditional on their achievements and contributions. We extended past social psychological research by demonstrating that the unconditionally of belongingness explains variance in psychological health independent of the amount of belongingness. More importantly, the data showed that self-esteem plays a central role in these relationships. Specifically, the amount of self-esteem (e.g., global self-esteem) mediated the relationship between the amount of belongingness and psychological health, whereas the conditionally of self-esteem (i.e., global contingent self-esteem) mediates the relationship between the unconditionally of belongingness and psychological health. In the final empirical chapter (Chapter 4), we wanted to elucidate why past empirical research failed to find a relationship between implicit measures of self-esteem and self-reported psychological health when controlling for explicit measures of self-esteem. One reason for this puzzling but consistent null result may be that existent implicit measures of self-esteem assess domain-specific self-esteem, but not global self-esteem. Thus, Chapter 4 reports a line of research studying the relation between psychological health and a novel implicit measure of global self-esteem. Six studies developed and validated this new implicit measure, finding that our newly developed measure predicts higher psychological health even when controlling for explicitly measured self-esteem. Finally, Chapter 5 reviews the contribution of the research presented in this thesis to our understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and psychological health. Overall, the research emphasises the complexity of the multi-faceted processes that underlie this relationship. Directions for future research are discussed.
9

Movement as a psychophysical process : the interrelationships between the psyche and the body

Bloom, Kayta January 2004 (has links)
This thesis examines the interrelationships between the body and its movement and psychic and emotional states by bringing together two disciplines - movement analysis and psychoanalysis - for comparison and synthesis. The groundwork is laid by presenting theory from both disciplines - Laban Movement Analysis, particularly Effort theory, is a key resource and is brought into contact with relevant themes from psychoanalytic object relations. A synthesis of the theoretical frameworks is applied to the analysis of data from four psychoanalytic observational studies of infants and young children, in order to recognize and describe emergent themes over time. The potential benefits of this blending of languages is further tested by applying It to clinical work with three adult patients in Individual movement based and psychoanalytically Informed psychotherapy. In exploring how this synthesis works in practice, particular attention Is paid to the ways In which unconscious primitive psychophysical patterns, of the kind described in the Infant and child observations, are drawn out my work with adults. The following questions are considered: What can relevant aspects of psychoanalytic theory contribute to the perception and understanding of emotional and psychological processes, which may help to underpin dance movement therapists' theoretical understanding? Conversely, can close attention to movement, supported by the analysis and experiential practice of movement, offer an added dimension of insight into the perception of emotional and psychic processes which could be of use to psychotherapists?
10

Mcdougall's hormic theory and its influence on subsequent psychological thought

Jusmani, A. A. January 1969 (has links)
The purpose of this study has been to investigate as fully as possible the background and the developments ofthe hormic theory and its effective influence upon present day psychology. II. Historically, the hormic principle is traceableback to Plato and mainly to Aristotle. Philosophically, its roots cannot be isolated from Hobbes's and Locke's principleof Empirical Associationism, a principle based largely upon the premise that there are psychological laws which describewhat man would think, what he could know, and what he might do. Such a trend of thinking was to some extent confoundedwith Descartes mechanism which later McDougall decried on the ground that it does not account for the individual's freewill. III. With the advent of Darwin's theory of evolution (1859) the climate of thought in Britain was propitious f orthe new outlook and Psychology m particular profited tremendously from its novel interpretations. Seizing upon newconcepts implied in the evolutionary creed, McDougall efficiently introduced the hormically, motivational Psychology. IV, Unlike the mechanistic contentions, the dynamic hormic theory emphasises the nature of the organism's behaviour; i,e, nature endows the individual with a remarkable constitution which purposively produces or attempts to produce the right kind of behaviour and the appropriate type of mental attitude. Motivation therefore emerges from within and brain is the source of the intellect, of thinking, of ideas as well as it is the organ of motivation, Ethological and biological observations as well as modern Psychological techniques have favourably endorsed McDougall's hormic position, V, What gives the hormic theory supremacy over the rival ones is that it maintains a kaleidoscopic, voluntary explanation of behaviour and retains in its philosophy spirituality, rationality and the purposefulness of life. It has been found, besides other major characteristics, that in its present implications and psychological applications, the hormic theory has now experimental support, is viable and highly influential.

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