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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Perfectionism, failure and self-conscious emotions : a role for self-compassion?

Almond, Natalie R. January 2015 (has links)
Objectives: This study investigated: (1) whether maladaptive perfectionism predicted the experience of self-conscious emotions such as shame, guilt and pride following an imagined failure and (2) whether self-compassionate writing could reduce shame and guilt and increase pride relative to a control and self-esteem writing task. Design: The study used a correlational design to assess the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and self-conscious emotions. The study also used an experimental between-subjects design to investigate the effect of writing task on self-conscious emotions controlling for initial levels of self-conscious emotion using ANCOVA. Methods: Ninety-five University of Surrey students completed an online study that manipulated imagined failure on an academic assignment, and measured maladaptive perfectionism and shame, guilt and pride. Participants were then randomly allocated to either a self-compassionate, self-esteem or a control writing task. Self-conscious emotions were then measured again. Results: Following imagining failure maladaptive perfectionism was positively associated with state shame and guilt and negatively associated with state pride. When measured after the writing tasks, the means for shame and guilt were lowered and the mean for pride was increased. However, contrary to predictions, shame was not predicted by writing condition, guilt remained highest following completion of a self-compassionate writing task and pride was highest following the completion of the control-writing task. Conclusions: Maladaptive perfectionism is correlated with self-conscious emotions following imagined failure. Self-compassionate writing tasks do not appear to be more effective at improving self-conscious emotion than other writing tasks.

The impact of media literacy and self-affirmation interventions on body dissatisfaction in women : an eye tracking study

Peck, Katy E. January 2015 (has links)
Objective : The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of an airbrushing and self-affirmation interventions which were theorised to inhibit social comparison and internalisation processes in order to reduce body dissatisfaction in women. Changes were also anticipated in eye movement data after either intervention when participants viewed normal, underweight and overweight media images. Participants: Fifty-eight women (74.1% white) completed self-report measures of body dissatisfaction, social comparison and internalisation of the thin-ideal at three time points. Design: Participants were randomly assigned to the airbrushing, self-affirmation interventions or control condition. Eye movement data assessed the extent to which participants viewed the media images of normal, underweight and overweight images pre and post-intervention and 4-6 weeks later. Findings: Results indicated that body dissatisfaction and internalisation were significantly reduced as an immediate effect of the airbrushing and self-affirmation intervention however this effect was not maintained at follow-up. Receiving either the airbrushing or self-affirmation intervention had no impact on social comparison scores, and glance duration towards underweight media images compared to the control group. Implications: Together, these findings suggest that the airbrushing and self-affirmation interventions were successful at immediately blocking the effects of the media which provides an evidence base for using a brief intervention to reduce body dissatisfaction in women. However, more exploration needs to be addressed in future research to ascertain how the benefits of utilising eye movement data can be reliably incorporated into a design and how the benefits of these interventions can be maintained beyond follow-up.

Living with contradictions of love and violence : a grounded theory study of women's understanding of their childhood experiences of domestic violence

Sammut Scerri, C. January 2015 (has links)
Compared to the quantitative studies that have looked at the impact of domestic violence on children, few quantitative studies have looked at the continuing impact of domestic violence exposure on adult children and still fewer qualitative studies have explored this topic from the perspective of adult women reflecting on their exposure to domestic violence over time. None to date have taken a systemic, relational perspective to illuminate the complex family dynamics in a domestic violence context. To address this gap, a constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006) design, using a systemic lens, was used to illuminate the understanding of adult women’s experiences of childhood domestic violence in the family that they grew up in. In depth interviews were undertaken with a sample of 15 women who were recruited through health and social care professional colleagues. Data collection and data analysis happened concurrently and theoretical sampling, constant comparative method, memo writing guided the research process. The category “Living with contradictions, double binds and dilemmas” was presented as the core category that sought to throw light on the continual contradictions of love and abuse that the women had to struggle with, in making sense of their experiences. The three key categories that made up the core category were: a)“Being triangulated in the parental conflict and parentification, as a related and relational process”; b) “The traumatogenic effect of the violence on the child and adult development” and c) “Turning points/ Developmental processes that foster change and resilience, including reconciliation, reconnection and redemption”. The research participants’ childhood experiences and cultural contexts such as gendered beliefs, beliefs about religion, the limited professional responses and issues of secrecy and shame were presented as the contexts to understand their adult experiences, and these in turn gave meaning to their childhood experiences in an iterative process. The results highlighted a number of implications for practice, research, supervision, policy and service development, such as the need for practitioners to understand and manage intense contradictions and hold complex dilemmas when working with violence. One way that this can be done is by embracing an integrative theoretical framework including using systemic psychotherapy both as a meta-theory and as an intervention, with adult survivors and child witnesses of interpersonal violence.

Situations and their influence on the measurement of latent traits

Burnett, George M. January 2015 (has links)
The overall aim of this research is to expand our understanding of the theoretical constructs that apply when people deal with situations. The specific context of this investigation is the use of simulation-based assessment techniques, primarily assessment centres and situation judgement tests. Simulation-based techniques in applied psychology are widely used, are perceived to be fair, are proven less biased, and predict future performance. However, these techniques suffer from construct validity problems and it is not clear what they actually measure. Furthermore, when combined with more efficient psychometric tests of individual differences they do not appear to offer substantial incremental predictive power. Four studies were completed to identify the nature of the constructs that can be applied to explain how people deal with situations. First I examined the fit of different theoretical models to explain performance in assessment centres and concluded that an interactionist model is most appropriate but existing constructs do not reveal its nature. I then developed and applied several methodological innovations using a series of low fidelity simulation paradigms. First I systematically varied content across situations and identified how individual differences affect performance. Then I extended both the range of measures used and situation complexity, and identified how cognitive situation models offer an alternative explanation as to how people deal with simulations. Finally, I measured the nature of the cognitive situation models that participants develop and make use of when transferring performance to new situations. I conclude by discussing how our theories in this area can be extended to incorporate cognitive situation models to help explain individual differences in conjunction with existing psychometric constructs. I argue that an improved understanding of the constructs explaining how people deal with situations offers a potential route to improve assessment practice and the prediction of future potential.

Perfectionism, health and preventive health behaviours

Williams, Charlotte J. January 2015 (has links)
The perfectionism and health literature suggests that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with a plethora of negative health outcomes and adaptive perfectionism with both favourable and unfavourable health outcomes. Additionally, a small amount of research has proposed maladaptive perfectionists may refrain from engaging in preventive health behaviours whilst adaptive perfectionists may engage more readily. This thesis explored the differences between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in relation to engagement in preventive health behaviours as well as addressing possible intervening variables in the perfectionism, engagement relationship (e.g. self-presentation, perceived stress, self-efficacy and affect). Four studies were carried out. In study 1, (N=370), using a sample of university students, results identified maladaptive perfectionism to be associated with decreased engagement in preventive health behaviours and adaptive perfectionism with increased engagement. Self-concealment (a self-presentational strategy) was found to partially mediate the perfectionism, engagement relationship for maladaptive perfectionists. In study 2, (N= 875), again with university students, (using a different conceptualisation of perfectionism), results showed that although ‘type’ of perfectionism did not interact with perceived stress to influence engagement, significant differences were identified between type of perfectionism and a number of health related variables. In study 3, results from a qualitative study involving university students showed that factors inherent in the university environment as well as factors characteristic of perfectionism prohibited engagement in preventive health behaviours. In study 4, using a general population sample, adaptive perfectionism was associated with greater engagement but no relationship was found for maladaptive perfectionism. Various factors were found to moderate and mediate the perfectionism, engagement relationship for adaptive perfectionism and adaptive perfectionism was associated with more benefits to engagement and maladaptive perfectionism with more barriers to engagement in preventive health behaviours. In summary, the results from this thesis suggest there are differences between the two perfectionism dimensions in relation to engagement and other health variables, although this may be dependent on the population/context being studied. More research is warranted to explore the perfectionism, engagement relationship specifically looking at different populations to establish whether maladaptive perfectionists in a university environment represent a particularly vulnerable group.

A randomised controlled trial of a brief online self-help mindfulness-based intervention : effects on rumination and worry

Skerrett, Kim L. January 2015 (has links)
Objective: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to be effective for reducing worry and rumination. Recently, brief MBIs have also been found to be beneficial for psychological wellbeing, and this includes some preliminary evidence for the use of brief, self-help MBIs delivered online. The current study aimed to assess the effect of a brief, online self-help MBI on worry and rumination, and assess the extent to which this effect was specific to MBIs. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 172 participants in a self-selected sample. Recruitment took place at a University campus and online via social networking websites. Participants were randomised to one of three groups (MBI, guided visual imagery (GVI) or wait-list control). Self-report measures of mindfulness, worry and rumination were completed at three time points (pre, post and one-week follow-up). Mediation analyses were performed using bootstrapping sampling procedures. Results and conclusions: Both MBI and GVI groups brought about significant improvements in mindfulness skills, worry and rumination when compared to a wait-list control, and improvements in worry and rumination were mediated by mindfulness skills. There were no significant differences between the MBI and GVI groups on improvements in mindfulness, worry or rumination, although this may have been due to low power. Improvements in mindfulness skills consistently predicted reductions in rumination and worry. The lack of significant difference between MBI and GVI might be explained by a lack of power, expectancy effects, or unforeseen overlaps in mechanisms between GVI and mindfulness.

A portfolio of academic, therapeutic practice and research work : including an investigation of spending time in nature : restorative effects of mood amongst depressed individuals

Eko, Michael January 2015 (has links)
This portfolio contains a collection of work written and submitted for the Practitioner Doctorate in Psychotherapeutic and Counselling Psychology at the University of Surrey. It consist the research dossier, all of which have been reworked and amended according to the feedback that was received at the time. The research dossier includes my literature review, one qualitative study and a quantitative study. The literature explores the relationship between ecopsychology and mental health problems such as depression, stress and psychological trauma. This is then followed by a study which explores depressed individuals’ relationship with nature. The final piece of research investigates the restorative effects of spending time in nature on the mood of depressed individuals.

Impulsivity and addictive behaviours in prisoners

Kitchenham, Nathan Sean January 2014 (has links)
Background: Addiction presents a significant problem for many in prison, yet this group remains relatively understudied in research exploring associated psychological phenomena. Impulsivity has been established as one important psychological factor associate with addiction in the general population and it is of interest to broaden the scope of such investigation to relevant groups. Aims and Objectives: The current study primarily aimed to study the relationship between impulsivity and addictive behaviours in a sample of prisoners, including use of a range of substances and problem gambling. A further objective was to support ongoing developments in the field of impulsivity research, which consider the importance of conceptualising impulsivity as a multifaceted construct. Method: Seventy-two prisoners were recruited from a male prison in south London. Associations between their engagement with addictive behaviours and level of impulsivity were explored both for a trait measure of impulsivity and behavioural measures of two specific facets of impulsivity; all previously associated with addiction in the wider literature. Results: High rates of engagement with addictive behaviours were found, consistent with previous research of prisoners. However associations between impulsivity and addictive behaviours were highly varied depending on the variables under study. Of note lifetime frequent use of only two substances (crack/cocaine and opiates) were found to strongly associate with either elevated trait or behavioural impulsivity. In particular one subscale of trait impulsivity was found to be significantly predictive of frequent crack/cocaine use in the sample. Conclusion: The variance in findings suggests a need for more thorough and selective investigation of how different types of impulsivity may or may not relate to different addictive behaviours in the prisoner population. This would help support firmer conclusions being drawn on the nature of these relationships. The current findings should be considered in the context of limited and inconsistent related research of prisoners to date; however do highlight important areas of prisoner need and potential areas of research interest to consider in future large-scale investigations.

Let's talk about psychosis

Steele, Ann January 2014 (has links)
Background: Recent advances in the psychological understanding of psychosis are supplementing the traditional medical model approach to schizophrenia. Furthermore, a patient-centred model of care is being introduced throughout healthcare promoting collaborative care inline with patients’ values and preferences. Research suggests that patients with schizophrenia wish to talk about their psychotic symptoms. In contrast psychiatrists may be reluctant to engage in discussion of psychotic symptoms leading to potential difficulties in delivering truly collaborative care. Aims: The current study aims to explore the aspects of psychotic experiences patients wish to discuss in psychiatric consultations, as well as the features on which psychiatrists focus by applying thematic analysis to extracts of naturally occurring, routine outpatient psychiatric consultations between patients with psychosis and their psychiatrists. Results: Sixty-five consultations from a total of 143 contained at least one discussion about a present positive psychotic symptom. Patients with higher clinical levels of positive psychotic symptoms were more likely to discuss psychotic symptoms during the consultation. Both psychiatrists and patients initiated discussions of symptoms, but psychiatrists were more likely to end the discussion. Conclusions: The focus of psychiatrists during discussion of positive psychotic symptoms in consultations does not correspond to the features of psychosis most salient to patients. In order to be more patient-centred the focus and aims of the psychiatric consultation may need to be adjusted to more closely target the concerns of patients.

Positive imagery for negative symptoms : an experimental study and a case study

Cox, Charlotte Isobel Alexandra January 2014 (has links)
Background: Psychological models propose that amotivational negative symptoms are affected by two types of cognition: anticipatory success (believing one can achieve something) and anticipatory pleasure (mentally pre-creating potential future experiences of enjoyment). Mental imagery manipulations have been shown to effect cognitive change, and may therefore enhance psychological interventions for negative symptoms. This thesis considers the role of positive imagery in people with negative symptoms. Study 1 aimed firstly to investigate the relationship between anticipatory success, anticipatory pleasure and negative symptoms. It then looked at the impact of a positive guided imagery manipulation on these hypothesised mediating factors. Finally, the effects of anticipatory success, anticipatory pleasure and the imagery intervention on a behavioural measure of motivation were explored. Study 2 built on the findings of Study 1 to investigate the potential of guided mental imagery as an intervention to improve functioning. Method: For Study 1, 42 participants with psychosis and negative symptoms completed measures of negative symptoms and imaging ability, before random allocation to either a positive or neutral imagery manipulation. Anticipatory success and anticipatory pleasure towards a dart-throwing task were measured before and after the manipulation. A behavioural measure of motivation was included at the end of the procedure. Study 2 used a pilot case study design to evaluate a therapeutic intervention for negative symptoms using guided imagery. Results: Study 1 showed that negative symptoms were associated with anticipatory success, irrespective of controlling for ability, and with change in anticipatory pleasure. Anticipatory success improved during both imagery manipulations, with an effect of imagery type when the analysis was restricted to those imaging as instructed. Anticipatory pleasure, but not anticipatory success or imagery type, predicted motivated behaviour in relation to the task. In Study 2, a pilot case study of guided imagery focused on recovery goals showed improvements in anticipatory success and goal-directed behaviour. Conclusion: Guided imagery interventions are feasible and acceptable for people with negative symptoms of psychosis, and may improve functioning through cognitive mechanisms.

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