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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Topically applied leptin accumulates in the eye and hypothalamus but does not influence food intake in rats /

Mayo, Paul Raymond II. January 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.S.)--New England College of Optometry, 2008. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 47-55).
2

Intrauterine programming of leptin / Jason Elliot Ekert.

Ekert, Jason Elliot January 2000 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. / xxiii, 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. / Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library. / The guinea pig and pig were evaluated as experimental animal models in which to investigate mechanisms of in utero leptin programming in humans. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--Adelaide University, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2001
3

Effects of insulin on murine Lep expression in adipocytes

Bankhead, Katherine Ruth January 2002 (has links)
No description available.
4

Regulation of gene expression in the hypothalamus for energy homeostasis

Nilaweera, Niloo Kanishka January 2002 (has links)
The objectives of the present study were: firstly, to determine whether leptin could influence the melanocortin receptor (MC-R) associated signalling; and secondly, to obtain further evidence of a role in energy balance for the transcription factors, neurological helix-loop-helix-2 (Nhlh-2), neurogenic differentiation-1 (NeuroD-1), and single minded-1 (Sim-1) as well as the precursor-protein convertase (PC) proteins, PC1, PC2, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) and PC2 associated neuroendocrine protein 7B2. To investigate the role of leptin in the MC-R associated signalling cascade, the pancreatic cell line CRI-G1 was stably transfected with the human MC4-R DNA. The stimulation of the cells with a receptor agonist caused an increase in cAMP level and c-fos gene expression, which were unaffected by leptin stimulation. The data suggest that the leptin signalling, through its receptor, does not influence either the cAMP level or the c-fos gene expression induced by MC4-R in CRI-G1 cells. To obtain evidence of the involvement of the transcription factors, PCs and 7B2 in the regulation of energy balance, the gene expressions of these factors were analysed by <i>in situ</i> hybridisation in the adult mouse hypothalamus in relation to <i>obese </i>(<i>ob</i>) or <i>diabetes </i>(<i>db</i>) gene mutation, energy deficit and administration of leptin. The results demonstrate that Nhlh-2 and NeuroD-1 are involved in energy balance regulation, since both genes appeared to be indirectly regulated by leptin and since a potential functional relationship was obtained between Nhlh-2 and pro-opiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus. Although PC1 gene expression, by contrast to other related candidates, was differentially altered in distinct hypothalamic nuclei by the experimental manipulations, there was no strong and consistent link between PC1 gene expression and energy balance, suggesting that PC1 gene expression is not regulated for energy homeostasis. A potential functional relationship between PC1 and prepro-orexin in the lateral hypothalamus was also demonstrated.
5

Leptin action on ovulation and leptin receptors across the rat oestrous cycle /

Duggal, Priya S. January 2001 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2001. / Bibliography: leaves [124-153].
6

Etablierung des Luciferase-Reportergenassays zur Quantifizierung der Bioaktivität von Leptin in menschlichem Serum

Hildebrandt, Stefanie 15 May 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Vor dem Hintergrund der zunehmenden Prävalenz von Adipositas ist die Erforschung der zugrunde liegenden Pathomechanismen, unter anderem der Leptinresistenz, von großer Bedeutung. Der Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit lag in der Etablierung und Validierung einer Methode zur Bestimmung der Bioaktivität von Leptin in Serum. Aufgrund des Vorhandenseins von Leptinbindungsproteinen erscheint nur der Teil des Serumleptins funktionell entscheiden, der tatsächlich den Leptinrezeptor erreicht und eine Bioantwort im Sinne einer Gewichtsreduktion auszulösen vermag. Der Bioassay basiert auf der Nutzung von Luciferase als Reportergen im HEK-293-Zellkulturmodell. Während der Validierung konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Test ein sensitives und spezifisches Verfahren zur Messung von Leptin im Serum darstellt. Problematisch blieb die Reproduzierbarkeit der Messergebnisse, so dass deren Interpretation im Vergleich mit Ergebnissen anderer Verfahren zum Nachweis von Leptin (Radioimmunoassay) sinnvoll erscheint. Der Luciferase-Bioassay wurde zur Bestimmung des Leptins im Serum adipöser Kinder eingesetzt, wobei eine statistisch signifikante Korrelation zwischen deren Bioaktivität und klinischen Markern der Adipositas gefunden wurde.
7

LEPTIN RECEPTORS IN CAVEOLAE: REGULATION OF LIPOLYSIS IN 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTES

Chikani, Gentle P. 01 January 2004 (has links)
The present study has tested the hypothesis that leptin receptors are localized in caveolae and that caveolae are involved in the leptin-induced stimulation of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Leptin, a peptide hormone, is secreted primarily by adipocytes and has been postulated to regulate food intake and energy expenditure via hypothalamic-mediated effects. Exposure to leptin increases the lipolytic activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We isolated caveolae from 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a detergent free sucrose gradient centrifugation method. Leptin receptors were localized in the same gradient fraction as caveolin-1. Confocal microscopic studies demonstrated the colocalization of leptin receptors with caveolin-1 in the plasma membrane, indicating distribution of leptin receptors in the caveolae. We disrupted caveolae by treating cells with methyl--cyclodextrin and found that leptin induced lipolytic activity was reduced after caveolae disruption, indicating an important role of caveolae in the signaling mechanism of leptin.
8

The Hormonal Contol of Neuropeptide Y and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Hypothalamic Neurons

Dhillon, Sandeep S. 14 February 2011 (has links)
The physiological mechanisms that control energy homeostasis are reciprocally linked to reproduction. However, the neuroendocrine circuitry that registers endocrine cues to direct homeostatic responses in energy balance and reproduction remain unknown. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons have emerged as a key central target of estrogen and leptin that are capable of modulating both reproduction and energy balance. The hypothesis was generated that NPY neuronal subpopulations act as an integration centre to regulate the effects of estrogen and leptin on these important physiological processes through specific signaling pathways. Using hypothalamic cell lines that express the leptin receptor (Ob-R), estrogen receptor (ER) and NPY, this hypothesis was tested in three aims. 17β-estradiol (E2) was previously demonstrated to biphasically regulate NPY mRNA in the mHypoE-38 neuronal cell line; where 24 h E2 exposure induced NPY gene expression that our group proposed may be involved in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preovulatory surge. E2 also acts as an anorexigenic hormone through unknown hypothalamic targets. E2 directly decreased NPY secretion in the mHypoE-42 and mHypoA-2/12 neuronal cell lines through ER-α. The anorexigenic action of E2 was mediated through the energy sensing 5’ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. NPY secretion was also decreased by leptin in mHypoA-59 and NPY-GFP cell models through AMPK- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to leptin in NPY-GFP cell lines prevented AMPK signaling and the leptin-mediated reduction in NPY secretion, indicating NPY neuronal resistance with prolonged leptin exposure. Leptin also stimulated NPY secretion in mHypoE-38 neurons, which was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Importantly, conditioned medium from the mHypoE-38 NPY neuronal cells induced GnRH transcripts in GT1-7 neurons, which was inhibited by Y1-receptor antagonists. Pharmacological inhibitors of the MAPK and PKA signal transduction pathways attenuated the NPY-mediated increase in GnRH transcription. Based upon these findings, I propose NPY neurons in the hypothalamus consist of a heterogeneous population of neurons, and provide the first evidence of intrinsically different responses to function as physiological integrators for two different systems: NPY secretion can be suppressed to decrease food intake and induced to stimulate GnRH neurons.
9

Exploring the role of genetic variation at the leptin and leptin receptor genes (LEP and LEPR) in obesity and hypertension in a black South African cohort

Ngcungcu, Thandiswa 04 April 2014 (has links)
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Medicine) in Human Genetics,2013 / Obesity and hypertension often occur together and are risk factors for cardio-metabolic disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been shown to be associated with obesity and hypertension, but have not been well explored in African populations. The aims of this study were to determine the heritability estimates of anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measures and leptin levels; to identify additional informative SNPs in and around the LEP and LEPR genes; and to examine the potential relationships between these SNPs and measures of obesity, hypertension and leptin levels in a black South African cohort. Participants from the African Programme on Genes in Hypertension (APOGH) with various anthropometric and BP measurements were genotyped for LEP and LEPR SNPs using the BeadXpress platform. Heritability estimates were determined using Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology (S.A.G.E.) software and relationships between LEP or LEPR SNPs and obesity, leptin levels and hypertension were assessed using SAS 9.3 and gPLINK vs2.050, taking into account family relationships, various confounders and correcting for multiple testing. The Bonferroni method was used to correct for multiple testing and P≤0.00076 was considered as statistically significant for SNP association tests. Seven-hundred-and-thirteen individuals were successfully genotyped and there were more women (66%) than men. The prevalence of obesity (42%) and hypertension (46%) were high in the sample. Significant heritability (h2 %, P<0.05) was noted for body weight (38%), body mass index (26%), waist (35%) and hip circumference (42%), waist-to-hip ratio (46%), skinfold thickness (44%), systolic (34%), diastolic (27%) and central systolic (33%) BP; but leptin levels were not significantly heritable (h2 %=15%, P=0.228). LEP rs17151914 (P=0.0002) and LEPR rs6690661 (P=0.0007) were significantly associated with leptin levels and diastolic BP, respectively, in women. The LEP rs17151913T-rs6956510G haplotype was associated with an increase in central systolic BP in women (P=0.012 with Bonferroni correction) whereas the LEPR rs2154381C-rs1171261T haplotype was associated with lower systolic BP in men (P=0.0359 with Bonferroni correction). LEP gene variants were significantly correlated with effects on leptin levels in women and the LEPR gene variants were significantly correlated with effects on diastolic BP also in women. These results indicate that further exploration of the role of genetic variation in the LEP and LEPR genes in obesity and hypertension in individuals of African ancestry is warranted.
10

Leptin and the development of obesity.

Walder, Ken, mikewood@deakin.edu.au January 1997 (has links)
The focus of this thesis was leptin and its role in the development of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Studies in Psammomys obesus, a polygenic animal model of obesity and NIDDM, showed that ob gene expression and plasma leptin concentration correlated significantly with body weight, percentage body fat and plasma insulin concentration. In addition, plasma leptin concentrations were significantly elevated in insulin resistant Psammomys obesus independent of body weight. Dietary energy restriction from weaning in Psammomys obesus prevented excessive body weight gain, hyperleptinemia and hyperglycemia compared with ad libitum fed animals. Interestingly, 19% of the energy-restricted animals still developed hyperinsulinemia and tended to have increased plasma leplin compared with normoinsulinemic energy-restricted Psammomys obesus. Fasting for 24 hours significantly reduced plasma leptin concentration in lean, insulin-sensitive but not obese, insulin-resistant P. obesus, suggesting a dysregulation in the response of leptin to acute caloric deprivation in these animals. The effects of leptin administration to P. obesus were also investigated. Single daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg leptin/kg body weight for 14 days had no significant effect in lean or obese P. obesus. This dose had previously been shown to rapidly and significantly reduce food intake and body weight in ob/ob and wild-type mice, suggesting relative leptin resistance in P. obesus. Acute (8 hour) effects of administration of 5 mg leptin/kg body weight were also investigated. No significant effects on food intake or plasma insulin were detected, however blood glucose concentrations were significantly elevated in obese, glucose intolerant P. obexus, suggesting an exacerbation of insulin resistance in susceptible animals. Treatment of lean, healthy P. obesus with 45 mg leptin/kg body weight/day for 7 days resulted in significant decreases in food intake and percentage body fat, showing that the leptin resistance observed in this species could be overcome by the administration of very large doses of leptin. In another study, leplin was shown to significantly inhibit maximal insulin binding to isolated adipocytes, suggesting that leptin may respresent an important link between obesity and NIDDM. Links between aspects of obesity and NIDDM and polymorphisms in the ob and p3-adrencrgic receptor genes were also investigated in two human populations.

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