This study investigated the photo-excitation and thermoluminescence properties of diamonds which were synthesised primarily for thermoluminescence dosimetry. For investigations of thermally stimulated processes occurring in these crystals an analysis of the thermoluminiscence & low spectra and the temperature dependent isothermal decay spectra was undertaken [Abbreviated abstract. Open document to view full version] / GR2016
Studium polovodičů metodami časově rozlišené laserové spektroskopie: Luminiscenční spektroskopie nanokrystalického diamantu / Study of semiconductors by methods of laser spectroscopyDzurňák, Branislav January 2012 (has links)
Title: Study of semiconductors by methods of time resolved laser spectroscopy: Luminescence spectroscopy of nanocrystalline diamond Author: Branislav Dzurňák Department: Department of Chemical Physics and Optics Supervisor: doc. RNDr. František Trojánek, Ph.D. Abstract: The PhD thesis is focused on optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond prepared by chemical vapour deposition method. Photoluminescence of nanocrystalline diamond samples and effects of ambient temperature, pressure, pH and UV irradiation on it are studied by laser spectroscopy. Results suggest the keyrole of water and air adsorbates which affect the energy states in the sub-bandgap region of diamond. Photoluminescence decay of samples of different surface termination and structure and its dependency on ambient pressure and temperature is studied by methods of ultrafast (picosecond and nanosecond scale) laser spectroscopy. Results are analysed by power-law decay function which fits well the luminescence decay curves and also describes the dynamics of charge carriers in states localised within the bandgap. The model of interaction of nanocrystalline diamond with air adsorbates is proposed. Non-linear optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond are also studied, namely the generation of second and third harmonic frequency. The thesis...
Laserová spektroskopie polovodičových kvantových bodů / Laser spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dotsPokorný, Martin January 2012 (has links)
This work is focused on examining photoluminescent properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs substrate covered by GaAs1-xSbx strain reducing capping layer (SRL) prepared by Stranski-Krastanow method. We measured luminescence decay time of two samples with different concentration of Sb in this layer. We investigated the influence of temperature, intensity and wavelength of the excitation pulse on the luminescent decay time. We also compared the properties of the samples after excitation by 760 nm pulse and 850 nm pulse - the former one is energetically above the substrate band gap; in the second case we excited only the QDs and the wetting layer (WL). We consequently derived recombination and relaxation processes occurring inside InAs QDs and also the transport of charge carriers from the substrate and the WL into QDs. One part of this diploma thesis was to learn about the methods of measuring ultrafast photoluminescence and build the experimental set-up.
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Chapter 1: Introduction to the luminescent properties of lanthanides Luminescence properties of trivalent lanthanides have been explored extensively over the past few decades owing to their unique properties. Lanthanides emission is known to be due to intra-configurational f-f transitions. Because the partially filled 4f shell is well shielded from its 26 environment by the closed 5sand 5pshells, the ligands in the first and second coordination sphere perturb the electronic configurations of the trivalent lanthanide ions only to a very limited extent. This leads to interesting properties such as long lifetimes, sharp line-like emissions etc. which in turn make lanthanides very attractive choice for commercial optical applications. Despite this, the scope of applications remained limited because of the low molar extinction coefficient values of the forbidden lanthanide f-f transitions. However, this problem has been successfully addressed by complexing the lanthanide ion with suitable ligands which can sensitize it resulting in a significant increase in the emission intensity (so called “antenna effect”). The strategy worked very well and resulted in widespread applications of lanthanides form biology to optoelectronics. This chapter discusses elementary ideas regarding the mechanism of sensitization and relevant examples that traces various applications of such lanthanide complexes from the current literature. Chapter 2: A self-assembled Europium Cholate hydrogel: a novel approach towards lanthanide sensitization Luminescent lanthanides can be of great value in a number of possible applications but their scope is limited by their intrinsic low molar absorptivities. Though this problem can be circumvented by complexing the lanthanide ion with suitable chelating ligands to improve the luminescence properties drastically, the design of such systems often involves meticulous planning and laborious synthetic steps to obtain a ligand suitable for the job. It is therefore desirable to have a simpler version of a sensitizing system that does not require the complexities of a chelating ligand but can sensitize trivalent lanthanides with comparable efficiency. It was observed in our group that divalent metal ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Coetc.) form hydrogels on addition of sodium cholate. We extended to obtain hydrogels of trivalent lanthanides. Furthermore, when the gel was doped with pyrene, a ten-fold increase in the intensity of Eu(III) emission was observed (Fig 2). Thus we established a unique way to sensitize lanthanides in a hydrogel media by non-coordinating chromophores. The approach was completely modular in nature and avoids any laborious synthesis. We also tried other derivatives of pyrene as sensitizers and found that 1-pyreneboronic acid also caused similar sensitization of Eu(III). Fig 2. (a) Schematic representation of the sensitization process (the arrangement of molecules in the gel fiber is arbitrary). Eu-cholate (5 mM/15 mM) gel (a) normal light and (b) 354 nm UV excitation in the presence of 6 μM pyrene Further studies revealed, that 2,3-dihydroxynapthalene (DHN) can sensitize Tb(III) in a similar hydrogel. We also demonstrated Tb(III) to Eu(III) energy transfer process occurring in the gel when doped with DHN. This allowed us to achieve a hydrogel system with tunable luminescence properties (by varying relative ratios of Tb(III) and Eu(III) ). When the effect of divalent metal ions on such energy transfer processes were explored, it was observed that the luminescence from the composite gel of Tb(III)/ Eu(III) is tunable by Zn(II) and through proper manipulation of concentrations one can obtain white light emitting gel (Fig 3). Fig 3. Effect of Zn(II) (from left to right 0 mM, 2.8 mM, 11.3 mM) on Tb3+ (4.5 mM)/Eu3+ (0.11mM)/ sodium cholate (13.6 mM) gels. b) Tb/Eu/Zn-cholate gel (Tb3+ (4.4 mM), Eu3+ (0.11 mM), Zn2+ (7.4 mM), NaC (13.6 mM, DHN 0.2 mM) under 365 nm UV lamp (c) CIE 1931 diagram depicting the luminescence as white (black spot). Chapter 3. A “Pro-Sensitizer” based Sensing of Enzymes using Tb(III) Luminescence in a Hydrogel matrix This chapter descirbes design and realisation of a sensor system based on Tb(III) luminescnece for the detection of enzymes. The idea involved synthesizing a covalently modified DHN molecule by attaching appropriate enzyme cleavable units. We coined the term “pro-sensitizer”to describe the modified molecule which would not sensitize Tb(III) in the gel matrix but when proper enzymes are applied the free form of DHN would be released triggering a luminescence response from Tb(III). This would enable us to monitor the acitivities of the particular enzyme by examining the luminescence intensity enhancement with time (Fig 4) Fig 4. A “pro-sensitizer” based approach to detect different types of enzymes in a hydrogel matrix through Tb(III) luminescence. We applied the idea to develop a novel luminogenic gel probe for inexpensive and rapid detection of three different hydrolases, lipase, β–glucosidase and α-chymotrypsin. The corresponding “pro-sensitizer”for each enzyme were synthesized (Fig 5).The sensing technique depends on the gel matrix to provide the nessesary platform for lanthanide sensitization. Thereofore, it enjoys an edge over the contemporary techniques that typically involve specially designed and synthesized multidentate chelating ligands for this purpose. We also determined important kinetic parameters of all the enzymes, thus enabling us to have a better insight into the activity of the enzymes in the hydrogel matrix. Fig 4. Pro-sensitizers molecules for (1) lipase, (2) β-glucosidase and (3)α-chymotrypsin Chapter 4. A novel approach towards templated synthesis of lanthanide trifluoride nanoparticles Nanomaterials with excellent optical properties have been of special interest. Lanthanide derived nanoparticles, owing to their unique physical properties, provide an excellent choice for applications such as biolabels, lasers, optical amplifiers, and optical-display phosphors. Several types of lanthanide nanoparticles or nanocrystals are reported in the literature such as Nd2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Tb2O3, and Y2O3. Among them lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles have emerged as the best choice because of their low phonon energy, and thus minimum quenching of emissive Lnions thereby allowing maximum efficiency for several optical applications. In previous literature precedence, LnF3 nanoparticles were typically synthesized following conventional approaches which necessitate use of high temperatures, high pressures (hydrothermal techniques) and capping ligands. In this chapter, we demonstrated a simpler synthesis of LnF3 nanoparticles at ambient temperatures without the requirement of added capping agents. The room temperature synthesis of LnF3 was unprecedented and was achieved simply by diffusing NaF solution through the hydrogels of corresponding Ln-cholate gels. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by powder XRD analysis which established the presence of very small (3-4 nm) nanoparticles mono-dispersed uniformly over the the gel matrix (Fig 6). The LnF3 containing xerogels of Tb(III) and Eu(III) cholate gels were also shown to be highly emissive. Fig 6. HRTEM images of a) TbF3, b) GdF3, c) NdF3 and d) DyF3 in their corresponding gel media.
Studium vlivu IgY na interakce bakterií a plicních buněk v podmínkách ex vivo / The effect of IgY on bacterial adhesion on epithelial cells ex vivoVašková, Lucie January 2016 (has links)
0 Abstract Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation in CFTR gene coding for a chloride channel in apical membrane of epithelial cells. This disorder leads to the change in ion transport causing the increase in mucus viscosity in airways as well as changes in glycosylation of saccharide structures on the cells. Because of that these cells are the target for bacterial adhesion. Chronic bacterial infections, which lead to gradual decline of lung function and damage of lung tissue, are the major cause of death of patients suffering with cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main pathogen causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. This bacterium produces a biofilm protecting them from host immune system and antibiotics. Once the colonization with PA occurs, it is difficult to get rid of this pathogen. The prophylactic treatment with orally administered hen antibodies against the PA virulence structures could be a prevention of chronic PA infections. In this work we tested the antibody against the bacterial lectin PA-IIL, which is suggested to be involved in the adhesion of the pathogen on epithelial cells. First, it was verified that the prepared antibody from egg yolks of a hen immunized with the bacterial lectin PA-IIL recognizes this antigen expressed...
Methods for measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, luminescence and photosynthesis in intact plantsSundbom, Erik January 1981 (has links)
Methods were developed to study delayed light emission (luminiscence) and fluorescence changes in intact leaves of plants. Delayed light emission, detected from plants in darkness, was used to produce images of the plant leaves. The procedure was termed "phytoluminography". The use of the method is suggested for dia- nostic purposes at early stages of disturbances of the leaf tissues, not detectable with the naked eye. The delayed light emission is associated with the photochemistry of photosystem II and the light induced conversion and storage of energy in the thylakoid membrane system of chloroplasts. Fluorescence yield changes were induced by lowering temperature between 20 C and -20 C. The temperature induced fluorescence changes in leaves parallel the temperature induced changes in isolated chloroplasts in reaction preparations mediating photosynthetic electron transport from endogenous water splitting to added NADP. At above freezing temperatures, lowering the temperature at a constant rate of 1 C per minute caused supressed electron transport and increased fluorescence yield which were linearely dependent on the temperature change in frost resistent plants. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles between 20 °C and -20 °C induced variable fluorescence yield changes which were gradually depleated to F0 or Fm when the electron transport was injuried on the oxidizing or on the reduzing side of photosystem II, respectively. The temperature induced fluorescence changes were used to characterize plants with different ability to withstand freezing temperatures. The method also discriminates between plants of different frost resistance, and the method was used in screening for frost tolerance. / <p>Diss. (sammanfattning) Umeå : Umeå universitet, 1981, härtill 5 uppsatser.</p> / digitalisering@umu
Title: Photoluminescence of CdTe crystals Author: Jan Procházka Department: Institute of Physics of Charles University in Prague Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Pavel Hlídek, CSc. Abstract: Energy levels connected with defects in nominally undoped crystals CdTe, indium- doped crystals and chlorine-doped crystals were studied using low-temperature photoluminescence. The crystals are intended for X- and gamma- ray detectors operated at room temperature. An effect of annealing in cadmium or tellurium vapor on luminescence spectra was investigated. Some changes were interpreted by filling of vacancies not only by atoms coming from gaseous phase but also by impurities from defects like interstitials, precipitates, inclusions, grain boundaries etc. The luminescence bands assigned to defects important for compensation mechanism were examined, namely A-centers (complexes of vacancy in cadmium sublattice and impurity shallow donor) and complexes of two donors bound to a vacancy. It was shown, that temperature dependence of the luminescence bands results from more complicated processes than a simple thermal escape of bound excitons or thermal excitation of electrons (holes) from defects to bands. We observed expressive "selective pair luminescence" bands (SPL) on partially compensated In-doped samples during sub-gap...
Title: Copper(I) complexes with phosphinonitrile donors Author: Bc. Filip Horký Department: Department of Inorganic chemistry Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Petr Štěpnička, Ph.D. Abstract: Although coordination compounds with phosphinonitrile ligands are already well known, in the vast majority of these complexes these ligands coordinate as simple P-donors with their cyano groups acting as auxiliary substituents. This led us to synthesize and study a series of Cu(I) complexes with two isomeric phosphinonitrile donors, namely 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzonitrile (Lo ) and 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzonitrile (Lp ), with different ligand-to-metal ratios and possibly characterize further coordination modes offered by these hybrid donors. This work describes the preparation of phosphinonitrile complexes from the aforementioned ligands and simple copper(I) halides (CuX, X = Cl, Br, I), pseudohalides (X = CN) and from [Cu(MeCN)4][BF4]. The products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and their solid-state structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. In addition, luminescent properties of the Cu(I) complexes were studied and catalytic activity of selected complexes was tested in copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition...
Příprava grafenových kvantových teček a studium jejich vlastností / Preparation of graphene quantum dots and study of their propertiesZdražil, Lukáš January 2018 (has links)
Current methods for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) rely on oxidation and reducing agents or require energy-intensive and technologically demanding preconditions. Applying microwave expansion and liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) in a sample of graphite powder enabled us to prepare GQDs that exhibit strong luminescence in the blue region of the visible spectrum. The proposed technique for synthesizing GQDs is energetically undemanding and does not necessitate additional chemical components.
Diagnostic of photovoltaic cells defects is one of the key step in production. This dissertation thesis deals about diagnosis of photovoltaic cells by radiative recombination of electron - hole pairs. This radiative recombination is known as luminescence. Diagnostic methods using this local light emission in infrared region have innovative potential. The method of electroluminescence is one of the most widely used luminescence methods whose modifications are applied across the industry, especially in semiconductors. The main area of this thesis research is focused on non-destructive analysis of radiated infrared radiation of monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells in various modifications of standard electroluminescence method. In this research there are used two types of CCD cameras are used as luminescent radiation detectors. Method of photon emission microscopy is used for magnification element. Local light emission inspection by microscopy should have benefit to qualitative evaluation of solar cells defects. Radiation emitted by the solar cell has a wave character. This fact brings the potential of using some of the characteristics of the waves. We are talking about the intensity and mainly about new characterization by polarization during the detection of defects in the solar cell surface. Innovation of the measuring workplace of the standard electroluminescence method to use polarization analysis is one of the goals of this dissertation thesis.
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