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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

MIMO-aware Medium Access Control in IEEE 802.11 Networks

Ashtaiwi, ABDULADHIM 27 January 2009 (has links)
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are dynamically self-organized and self-configured, where the nodes in the network automatically establish an ad hoc network and maintain mesh connectivity. These properties make WMNs a key technology for next generation wireless networking. However, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) to enable multimedia services is still one of the major issues in next-generation WMNs. In distributed systems like WMNs, the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer is considered very important in the IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks, as it supports many crucial operational functions. Hence, QoS support in WMNs can be enhanced through the efficient cross-layer design of MAC protocols that utilizes advanced physical layer technologies viz Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) with its multiple spatial channels that are capable of simultaneous receive or transmit streams. MIMO has become a very attractive technology in providing support for different QoS requirements. In this thesis we propose a novel QoS MIMO-aware MAC Protocol (QMMP). QMMP is a MAC protocol framework that exploits the MIMO system gains to boost QoS support. The proposed MAC framework includes the following components. The first component enables concurrent sharing of the increased MIMO bandwidth, i.e., instead of allocating all the spatial channels to one connection, connections can concurrently share the increase bandwidth via splitting the spatial channels. The second component reduces the medium access collisions problem. In distributed systems like WMNs, medium access collisions have a noticeably negative impact on resource (bandwidth) utilization as they leave the bandwidth unutilized for a long time. To address this problem, we propose a spatial channels sharing scheme during medium contention period. The third component boosts the bandwidth utilization during data transmission. We propose resource management schemes that adapt the physical data rate and the aggregation frame length according to the instantaneous channel quality. Then we propose a QoS-aware bandwidth provisioning mechanism that performs effective bandwidth distribution to further boost QoS support. / Thesis (Ph.D, Electrical & Computer Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2009-01-26 10:11:16.729
2

An Information-theoretical Fairness metric for IEEE802.11 Wireless LAN

Yen, Shin-Jung 27 July 2004 (has links)
In this paper, we propose a novel information-theoretical fairness metric to evaluate the fairness of bandwidth allocation to distributed nodes in local area network. When the source traffic pattern is fixed, the proposed metric is a mapping from the set of all medium access control (MAC) protocols to the interval [0,1] in the real line such that a larger value corresponds to a MAC protocol that allocates bandwidth more fairly. The metric is applicable for a wide range of medium access control schemes including those in which the packet lengths are not identical and/or multipacket reception (MPR) capability is available. To verify the correctness of the novel metric, we use it to evaluate the fairness levels of an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN composed of homogeneous or heterogeneous nodes. Our simulations indicate that for the IEEE 802.11 protocol, the short-term fairness level is low while the long-term fairness level is high. The information-theoretical fairness metric leads to a conclusion that is consistent to the previous finding in the lecture.
3

Performance Study on a Dual Prohibition Multiple Access Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc and Wireless Mesh Networks

Wu, Qian 04 October 2007 (has links)
Thesis (Master, Electrical & Computer Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2007-09-27 21:48:20.594 / Wireless networks are less reliable than wired networks because channels are “exposed” to the surrounding environment that is susceptible to interference and noise. To minimize losses of data due to collisions, wireless networks need a mechanism to regulate the access on the transmission medium. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols control access to the shared communication medium so that it can be used efficiently. In this thesis, we first describe the collision-controlled Dual Prohibition Multiple Access (DPMA) protocol [45]. The main mechanisms implemented in DPMA, such as binary dual prohibition, power control, interference control, and support for differentiated services (DiffServ), are presented in detail. We conducted a thorough simulation study on DPMA protocol from several aspects. First, we conduct simulations to observe the effects of binary competition number (BCN), unit slot length and safe margin on the performance of DPMA. Secondly, the DiffServ capability of DPMA is demonstrated through simulation results. Finally, we compare the DPMA protocol with the CSMA/CA protocol and find that DPMA with optimal configuration has better performance than CSMA/CA under both low and high network density. / Master
4

Design and Analysis of Medium Access Control Protocols for Broadband Wireless Networks

Cai, Lin 17 December 2009 (has links)
The next-generation wireless networks are expected to integrate diverse network architectures and various wireless access technologies to provide a robust solution for ubiquitous broadband wireless access, such as wireless local area networks (WLANs), Ultra-Wideband (UWB), and millimeter-wave (mmWave) based wireless personal area networks (WPANs), etc. To enhance the spectral efficiency and link reliability, smart antenna systems have been proposed as a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. To effectively exploit the increased capabilities of the emerging wireless networks, the different network characteristics and the underlying physical layer features need to be considered in the medium access control (MAC) design, which plays a critical role in providing efficient and fair resource sharing among multiple users. In this thesis, we comprehensively investigate the MAC design in both single- and multi-hop broadband wireless networks, with and without infrastructure support. We first develop mathematical models to identify the performance bottlenecks and constraints in the design and operation of existing MAC. We then use a cross-layer approach to mitigate the identified bottleneck problems. Finally, by evaluating the performance of the proposed protocols with analytical models and extensive simulations, we determine the optimal protocol parameters to maximize the network performance. In specific, a generic analytical framework is developed for capacity study of an IEEE 802.11 WLAN in support of non-persistent asymmetric traffic flows. The analysis can be applied for effective admission control to guarantee the quality of service (QoS) performance of multimedia applications. As the access point (AP) becomes the bottleneck in an infrastructure based WLAN, we explore the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capability in the future IEEE 802.11n WLANs and propose a MIMO-aware multi-user (MU) MAC. By exploiting the multi-user degree of freedom in a MIMO system to allow the AP to communicate with multiple users in the downlink simultaneously, the proposed MU MAC can minimize the AP-bottleneck effect and significantly improve the network capacity. Other enhanced MAC mechanisms, e.g., frame aggregation and bidirectional transmissions, are also studied. Furthermore, different from a narrowband system where simultaneous transmissions by nearby neighbors collide with each other, wideband system can support multiple concurrent transmissions if the multi-user interference can be properly managed. Taking advantage of the salient features of UWB and mmWave communications, we propose an exclusive region (ER) based MAC protocol to exploit the spatial multiplexing gain of centralized UWB and mmWave based wireless networks. Moreover, instead of studying the asymptotic capacity bounds of arbitrary networks which may be too loose to be useful in realistic networks, we derive the expected capacity or transport capacity of UWB and mmWave based networks with random topology. The analysis reveals the main factors affecting the network (transport) capacity, and how to determine the best protocol parameters to maximize the network capacity. In addition, due to limited transmission range, multi-hop relay is necessary to extend the communication coverage of UWB networks. A simple, scalable, and distributed UWB MAC protocol is crucial for efficiently utilizing the large bandwidth of UWB channels and enabling numerous new applications cost-effectively. To address this issue, we further design a distributed asynchronous ER based MAC for multi-hop UWB networks and derive the optimal ER size towards the maximum network throughput. The proposed MAC can significantly improve both network throughput and fairness performance, while the throughput and fairness are usually treated as a tradeoff in other MAC protocols.
5

Wireless sensor network development for urban environments

Boers, Nicholas M. Unknown Date
No description available.
6

Cross-layer adaptive transmission scheduling in wireless networks

Ngo, Minh Hanh 05 1900 (has links)
A new promising approach for wireless network optimization is from a cross-layer perspective. This thesis focuses on exploiting channel state information (CSI) from the physical layer for optimal transmission scheduling at the medium access control (MAC) layer. The first part of the thesis considers exploiting CSI via a distributed channel-aware MAC protocol. The MAC protocol is analysed using a centralized design approach and a non-cooperative game theoretic approach. Structural results are obtained and provably convergent stochastic approximation algorithms that can estimate the optimal transmission policies are proposed. Especially, in the game theoretic MAC formulation, it is proved that the best response transmission policies are threshold in the channel state and there exists a Nash equilibrium at which every user deploys a threshold transmission policy. This threshold result leads to a particularly efficient stochastic-approximation-based adaptive learning algorithm and a simple distributed implementation of the MAC protocol. Simulations show that the channel-aware MAC protocols result in system throughputs that increase with the number of users. The thesis also considers opportunistic transmission scheduling from the perspective of a single user using Markov Decision Process (MDP) approaches. Both channel state in-formation and channel memory are exploited for opportunistic transmission. First, a finite horizon MDP transmission scheduling problem is considered. The finite horizon formulation is suitable for short-term delay constraints. It is proved for the finite horizon opportunistic transmission scheduling problem that the optimal transmission policy is threshold in the buffer occupancy state and the transmission time. This two-dimensional threshold structure substantially reduces the computational complexity required to compute and implement the optimal policy. Second, the opportunistic transmission scheduling problem is formulated as an infinite horizon average cost MDP with a constraint on the average waiting cost. An advantage of the infinite horizon formulation is that the optimal policy is stationary. Using the Lagrange dynamic programming theory and the super modularity method, it is proved that the stationary optimal transmission scheduling policy is a randomized mixture of two policies that are threshold in the buffer occupancy state. A stochastic approximation algorithm and a Q-learning based algorithm that can adaptively estimate the optimal transmission scheduling policies are then proposed.
7

Design and Analysis of Medium Access Control Protocols for Broadband Wireless Networks

Cai, Lin 17 December 2009 (has links)
The next-generation wireless networks are expected to integrate diverse network architectures and various wireless access technologies to provide a robust solution for ubiquitous broadband wireless access, such as wireless local area networks (WLANs), Ultra-Wideband (UWB), and millimeter-wave (mmWave) based wireless personal area networks (WPANs), etc. To enhance the spectral efficiency and link reliability, smart antenna systems have been proposed as a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. To effectively exploit the increased capabilities of the emerging wireless networks, the different network characteristics and the underlying physical layer features need to be considered in the medium access control (MAC) design, which plays a critical role in providing efficient and fair resource sharing among multiple users. In this thesis, we comprehensively investigate the MAC design in both single- and multi-hop broadband wireless networks, with and without infrastructure support. We first develop mathematical models to identify the performance bottlenecks and constraints in the design and operation of existing MAC. We then use a cross-layer approach to mitigate the identified bottleneck problems. Finally, by evaluating the performance of the proposed protocols with analytical models and extensive simulations, we determine the optimal protocol parameters to maximize the network performance. In specific, a generic analytical framework is developed for capacity study of an IEEE 802.11 WLAN in support of non-persistent asymmetric traffic flows. The analysis can be applied for effective admission control to guarantee the quality of service (QoS) performance of multimedia applications. As the access point (AP) becomes the bottleneck in an infrastructure based WLAN, we explore the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capability in the future IEEE 802.11n WLANs and propose a MIMO-aware multi-user (MU) MAC. By exploiting the multi-user degree of freedom in a MIMO system to allow the AP to communicate with multiple users in the downlink simultaneously, the proposed MU MAC can minimize the AP-bottleneck effect and significantly improve the network capacity. Other enhanced MAC mechanisms, e.g., frame aggregation and bidirectional transmissions, are also studied. Furthermore, different from a narrowband system where simultaneous transmissions by nearby neighbors collide with each other, wideband system can support multiple concurrent transmissions if the multi-user interference can be properly managed. Taking advantage of the salient features of UWB and mmWave communications, we propose an exclusive region (ER) based MAC protocol to exploit the spatial multiplexing gain of centralized UWB and mmWave based wireless networks. Moreover, instead of studying the asymptotic capacity bounds of arbitrary networks which may be too loose to be useful in realistic networks, we derive the expected capacity or transport capacity of UWB and mmWave based networks with random topology. The analysis reveals the main factors affecting the network (transport) capacity, and how to determine the best protocol parameters to maximize the network capacity. In addition, due to limited transmission range, multi-hop relay is necessary to extend the communication coverage of UWB networks. A simple, scalable, and distributed UWB MAC protocol is crucial for efficiently utilizing the large bandwidth of UWB channels and enabling numerous new applications cost-effectively. To address this issue, we further design a distributed asynchronous ER based MAC for multi-hop UWB networks and derive the optimal ER size towards the maximum network throughput. The proposed MAC can significantly improve both network throughput and fairness performance, while the throughput and fairness are usually treated as a tradeoff in other MAC protocols.
8

Effective Power Consumption in MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

Augustin, Angelika January 2006 (has links)
Wireless sensor networks offer easy implementation, flexibility and mobility of hand held devices. Sensors consist of an internal power source, which is the great limitation for the life time and the usage of sensor networks. To increase the life time, sensors should stay in energy saving sleep mode as long as possible, because in sleep mode the radio is either shut down or working with less energy. Better energy handling is implemented in different power saving mechanism of common Medium Access Control protocols, which are evaluated and analyzed and further extensions and ideas to improve the energy efficiency are presented. Slotted PSM is simulated with the NS2 and compared to the WLAN 802.11 PSM technology and the results show that energy efficiency and power consumption are much better implemented and life time increases with the use of Slotted PSM.
9

Evaluating medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

Haapola, J. (Jussi) 09 February 2010 (has links)
Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer us a potential for greater awareness of our surroundings, collecting, measuring, and aggregating parameters beyond our current abilities, and provide an opportunity to enrich our experience through context-awareness. As a typical sensor node is small with limited processing power, memory, and energy resources, in particular, these WSNs must be very energy-efficient for practical deployment. Medium access control (MAC) protocols are central to the energy-efficiency objective of WSNs, as they directly control the most energy consuming part of a sensor node: communications over the shared medium. This thesis focuses on evaluating MAC protocols within the WSN domain by, firstly, surveying a representative number of MAC protocols and their features. Secondly, three novel MAC protocols are proposed, one for layered contention-based access, one for layered scheduled access, and one for cross-layer contention-based access. Thirdly, a novel energy consumption model is proposed, and fourthly, a holistic MAC protocol evaluation model is proposed that takes into account application emphasis on performance metrics. The MAC protocols are evaluated analytically. In addition, the layered contention-based MAC protocol has been implemented and measured, and the cross-layer contention-based protocol operating over an impulse radio-ultra wideband (IR-UWB) physical layer has been verified by simulations with relevant physical layer characteristics. The energy consumption evaluation model proposed is straightforward to modify for evaluating delay, and it can reuse state transition probabilities derived from throughput analysis. The holistic application-driven MAC protocol evaluation model uses a novel single compound metric that represents a MAC protocol's relative performance in a given application scenario. The evaluations have revealed several significant flaws in sensor MAC protocols that are adapted to sensor networking from ad hoc networks. Furthermore, it has been shown that, when taking sufficient details into account, single hop communications can outperform multi-hop communications in the energy perspective within the feasible transmission ranges provided by sensor nodes. The impulse radio physical layer introduces characteristics to MAC protocols that invalidate traditional techniques which model the physical layer in terms of simple collisions. Hence, these physical layer characteristics have been modelled and included in the analysis, which improves the level of agreements with simulated results.
10

Energy-efficient Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocol

Brownfield, Michael I. 17 April 2006 (has links)
With the progression of computer networks extending boundaries and joining distant locations, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) emerge as the new frontier in developing opportunities to collect and process data from remote locations. WSNs rely on hardware simplicity to make sensor field deployments both affordable and long-lasting without maintenance support. WSN designers strive to extend network lifetimes while meeting application-specific throughput and latency requirements. Effective power management places sensor nodes into one of the available energy-saving modes based upon the sleep period duration and the current state of the radio. This research investigates energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) protocols designed to extend both the lifetime and range of wireless sensor networks. These networks are deployed in remote locations with limited processor capabilities, memory capacities, and battery supplies. The purpose of this research is to develop a new medium access control protocol which performs both cluster management and inter-network gateway functions in an energy-efficient manner. This new protocol, Gateway MAC (GMAC), improves on existing sensor MAC protocols by not only creating additional opportunities to place the sensor platforms into lower power-saving modes, but also by establishing a traffic rhythm which extends the sleep duration to minimize power mode transition costs. Additionally, this research develops a radio power management (RPM) algorithm to provide a new mechanism for all WSN MAC protocols to optimize sleep transition decisions based upon the power and response characteristics of the sensor platform's transceiver. Finally, to extend access to sensor data in remote locations, this research also validates an innovative wireless distribution system which integrates wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), and the Internet. This research makes two significant contributions to the state-of-the-art wireless sensor networks. First, GMAC's centralized network management function offers significant energy savings and network lifetime extensions over existing wireless sensor network protocols. The second contribution is the introduction of a wireless sensor radio power management algorithm designed to exploit additional power-saving opportunities introduced with the newest generation of faster sensor platform transceivers. / Ph. D.

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