The purpose of this longitudinal, quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to explore the effects of a standardized bipartite workshop on counselor trainees’ case conceptualization competency. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship andeffects of mindfulness, anxiety, personality, and the benefits of the training. Master’s level counselor trainees (N = 121) participated in a two-part workshop (3 hours in length per workshop) designed to teach the integrative case conceptualization model (Sperry, 1989). For each workshop, pre- and post-intervention case conceptualizations were rated by at least two independent raters using the Case Conceptualization Evaluation Form 2.0 (CCEF 2.0). Mindfulness was measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire - Short Form (FFMQ-SF), whereas the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) were utilized to measure anxiety and personality, respectively. The differences between the experimental and comparison group’s case conceptualization scores were tested using Welch’s Two Sample t-tests. A significant difference was found between the first workshop’s gain scores of the experimental group (M = 28.32, SD = 10.71) and the comparison group (M = 17.88, SD = 10.54), t(66.31) = 4.17, p < 0.001, CI.95 [5.45, 17.88]; d = 0.98. A similar result was found for the second workshop, there was a significant difference between the experimental group (M = 14.07, SD = 14.29) and the comparison group (M = 6.57, SD = 13.01), t(98.39) = 2.78, p = 0.006, CI.95 [2.15, 12.86]; d = 0.55. A combined anxiety and mindfulness multiple regression provided evidence to support substantial links between anxiety, mindfulness, and case conceptualization F(8, 88) = 8.64, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.44, CI.95[.23, .52]. This model accounted for approximately 44% of the variance of the first (pre-test) case conceptualization scores. Additionally, a moderation effect was detected for anxiety and case conceptualization. There was evidence to suggest that the extraversion personality factor moderates the effect of anxiety on case conceptualization. Post-hoc analyses conducted (cluster analysis) found two significant and unique personality clusters in the data, which were consequently confirmed by discriminant analysis, achieving 90% classification accuracy. / Includes bibliography. / Dissertation (PhD)--Florida Atlantic University, 2021. / FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Living a mindful life : an hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the lived experience of secular mindfulness, compassion and insightArnold, Jane Kellock January 2018 (has links)
This research study explores the experience and effects of long-term practice by six student practitioners of secular mindfulness, compassion and insight forming the Mindfulness-Based Living model incorporated into the MSc in Mindfulness Studies at the University of Aberdeen. A review of existing literature on the topic of mindfulness highlights that research is predominantly postpositivist and quantitative in approach, only recently incorporating limited qualitative studies, and is focused chiefly on mindfulness as a treatment for a range of mental and physical disorders. However, the nature of mindfulness particularly when practised in conjunction with compassion and insight suggests that it is a more intense, complex, nuanced and pervasive experience than is reflected in the literature. An exploration of Buddhist and Western phenomenology highlights important parallels with contemporary secular mindfulness studies indicating, firstly, the value of an in-depth qualitative study capable of surfacing potentially transformative effects of the practice of mindfulness and related disciplines, and, secondly, the potential relevance of mindfulness to the praxis of phenomenological research. Towards these aims, this study utilises an hermeneutic phenomenological approach incorporating mindfulness approaches in its execution. The study takes a dialogical approach, intentionally surfacing the inherent dynamic between researcher and participant. Interview data were collected from participants on multiple occasions over durations of between seven and twelve months and are presented as rich narrative texts organised around emergent themes. Analysis indicates the occurrence of intense, embodied, authentic transcendental experiences that pervade day-to-day life and extend beyond a remedial effect. Researcher data indicate the usefulness of mindfulness to the practice of phenomenological research, supporting embodied interview and phenomenological reduction. The study highlights findings useful to the design of secular programmes and to further research, notably the incorporation of compassion and insight approaches, the centrality of embodiment, and the effects of long term practice on social cohesion.
Evaluating the Effects of Mindfulness Practices in Young Children Using Electrophysiological Measures of Attention and Salivary Measures of StressAvery, Trey January 2016 (has links)
Research from multiple fields and methodologies has aligned in recent years to support the development of biological models of mechanisms underlying effects of mindfulness practices in adults. Mindfulness-based programs for young children have proliferated in recent years but research examining the effects of these programs and practices is less conclusive, generally showing small mixed effects. Questions about age of initiation and the format, dosage and emphasis of programs represent a significant challenge that will require integrated multidisciplinary collaboration. The current study demonstrates the feasibility, sensitivity and reliability of electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of attention, and salivary measures of stress, in measuring biological changes associated with mindfulness practices in children aged five to seven years. Widely used and reliable behavioral measures showed no significant differences between groups whereas EEG measures showed significant group differences in event-related potentials associated with different attention networks elicited by the Attention Network Task for Children (ANT-C). The multiple salivary measures of stress showed mixed differences in slope by measure and group, some of which were predicted and align with previous literature, albeit not reaching statistical significance. Together, results demonstrate the value of utilizing multiple biological measures, particularly functional brain imaging, as a means to gain insights into the effects of mindfulness-based practices in young children. Additional data and more rigorous study designs are needed to directly associate observed differences with specific mindfulness programs and practices, but data suggest mindfulness practices enhance attentional and executive control which in turn could support enhanced regulation of the stress response system. Mindfulness based interventions and programs in early development have the potential to protect and enhance the development of critical biological systems that support academic achievement, health and wellbeing.
The Relationship of Attachment to Religiosity, Spirituality, and Mindfulness in Secular and Religious Populations in IsraelCobb, Eleanor Ford January 2017 (has links)
This dissertation examined the relationship of attachment to three related but separate constructs: religiosity, spirituality, and mindfulness. The sample consisted of 2020 adults living in Israel. Each participant completed a series of self-report measures online, including the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, Religious Commitment Inventory, Daily Spiritual Experiences, Spirituality Scale (including the sub-scales of Spiritual Self-Discovery, Spiritual Eco-Awareness, and Spiritual Relationships), Langer Mindfulness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses were employed to assess for significant relationships between attachment and the outcome variables. Correlational findings indicated that Spiritual Self-Discovery and the Religious Commitment Inventory were both significantly correlated with attachment, whereas mindfulness was not found to be significantly correlated with attachment. Results of the regression analysis showed that none of the outcome variables produced significant quadratic or interaction models. Overall, this study indicates that the constructs of religiosity, spirituality, and mindfulness each have distinct relationships with adult attachment. The findings provide modest support for the previous literature on the compensation model, that religiosity can serve as a compensatory strategy for insecure attachment; the findings expand on the model by indicating that at least one aspect of spirituality (Spiritual Self-Discovery) may also serve as a compensatory mechanism. Findings also provide modest support for bolstering secure attachment through increased religious and spiritual belief. However, the significant findings were sparse and modest, bringing into question the extent to which religiosity, spirituality, and mindfulness really are related to attachment in any clinically significant way.
Mindful Eating: Is There a Relationship among Gender, Age, Physical Activity, Grade Level, Focus of Academic Major and Eating Mindfulness among College StudentsBerdal, Lisa Marie January 2012 (has links)
Mindful eating is the concept of being physically and emotionally aware of what and why you are eating. Currently the research is limited, especially in a large college aged population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if age, gender, physical activity, year in school and focus of academic major made a difference in mindful eating practices in college students. In this cross-sectional study, 427 students completed a 28-item validated Mindful Eating Questionnaire. The results show that only gender played a role in the total mindful eating score. Combined effects of the factors did affect total score as well as subscale scores. These findings suggest that a combination of factors affect mindful eating more than one factor alone. More research is needed in large college aged populations in order to better determine mindful eating practices of individuals in this age group.
Emotional Self-Management and Transfer of Learning in a Conflict Resolution Course for Adults: The Role of MindfulnessFountain, Susan Helen January 2019 (has links)
Conflict resolution education tends to emphasize the analysis of conflict dynamics, and skills for communication and problem-solving. The role of emotions, and practical strategies for one’s own emotional self-management have received less attention. Emotional dysregulation in conflict may interfere with the use of learned conflict resolution skills, thus reducing transfer of learning. The study explored the possible influence of mindfulness practice on emotional self-management, and subsequent transfer of learning in interpersonal conflict. This modified qualitative case study involved 15 adult undergraduate students in the researcher’s class on “Managing Conflict.” Mindfulness practice was included in every class, and subjects kept a journal on their frequency of out-of-class practice. Subjects were interviewed before the start of the class on their ways of handling conflict, and were asked to describe a recent conflict they had been involved in. A post-class interview asked the same questions, as well as exploring subjects’ experience of mindfulness. Findings revealed that for this group of subjects, frequency of mindfulness practice had little influence on emotional self-management or transfer of learning. However, subjects’ stance toward mindfulness, a qualitative descriptor, appeared to positively influence both emotional self-management and transfer of learning. Stance toward mindfulness was described as focusing on either self-soothing or self-awareness. Subjects reporting a self-awareness stance were more likely to report managing their emotions in conflict, regardless of whether their dominant emotion in a conflict was anger or fear. They were also more likely to report transfer of learning (specifically, the ability to identify causes of conflict and the other party’s needs, to use receptive communication skills, and to incorporate mindful awareness in the negotiation process). Self-awareness appeared to be a foundational capacity that supported emotional self-management and transfer of learning for this group of subjects. Possible implications for the field of conflict resolution, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Conceptualizing the Mindful Teacher: Examining Evidence for Mindfulness Skills in Teachers' Classroom Speech and BehaviorTaylor, Cynthia Lynn 01 November 2016 (has links)
Mindfulness-based interventions can improve teachers' capacities for attention and emotion regulation, as well as their prosocial dispositions like compassion and forgiveness. The purpose of this set of research studies (including three case studies and a larger non-randomized treatment -- control group quasi-experimental study) was to examine whether or not capacities like these, learned through participation in a mindfulness training (MT) program for teachers, become embodied and show through as changes in teachers' mindful behavior in the classroom -- specifically, their ability to be calm, clear-minded and kind-hearted in their speech and behavior with students in the classroom. These studies used first-person, teacher reports and third-person, observer measures to assess potential MT-program-related impacts on changes in teachers' classroom speech and behavior over time. Results from survey and interview data showed change in teachers' perceptions of their mindful classroom behavior. The case studies showed evidence of change in teachers' calm, clear and kind classroom speech and behavior as rated by observers. Results in the larger study again showed change in treatment teachers' perception of their mindfulness in the classroom over time compared to controls, but no evidence was found for observed changes in speech or behavior in the classroom. Methodological, developmental and intervention-related interpretations and implications of the findings are presented and directions for future research are discussed.
Dauphinais, Jennifer Catherine
Mindfulness has woven through American education for decades as an enduring concept aimed at reforming teachers, students, and classrooms. Signified as a quiet revolution in media and education policy today, our youth have been rebranded and schools remarketed as A Nation at Hope, with promises of mindfulness and contemplative Social Emotional Learning (SEL) strategies. Yet, competing discourses of mindfulness incite youth across various goals and subjectivities. While the predominant global and national mindfulness discourse in education marks out students with preferred characteristics from those deemed insufficiently prepared to experience wellness, connectedness, and success, counter-narratives construct mindful students as transcending dominant social norms and movement toward collective freedom. In considering how such highly politicized discourses are mobilized in SEL curricula, this study problematized the decontextualized circulation of mindfulness discourses in the construction of a silenced and mindful subject. As a White teacher attending to the development of a critical lens that questions curriculum and policy, this study disrupts the researcher’s position as a former SEL trainer in a diverse school district. A critical whiteness studies lens established that several commonly used mindfulness-based interventions apprised a construction of students that works better for mass schooling systems rather than for distinct sociocultural identities. This inquiry provided a different lens on curricular decision- making by working from a local schooling context where stakeholders collaboratively decide on students’ social, emotional, and behavioral needs. In drawing on a conceptualization of discourse communities that recognizes how language and agency are mobilized in advocating for community goals, this interpretive case study inquired about community decision-making alongside stakeholders grappling with concepts and power relations to legitimize their work. The case was theoretically bound by critical discourse analysis, which traced the meaning-making of this community across individual andcollective texts. Thus, a collaborative study of individual and collective stakeholder discourse was read alongside the school’s curricular materials for a translocal comparison of discourse across individual and collective responses. This study may explain some ways that anti-racist discourse(s) figure in negotiating mindfulness and SEL for marginalized youth and how practitioners navigate toward humanizing, race-visible responses to mindfulness practices in their communities.
Individuals vary in the level of their mental presence during interactions; some individuals are mentally present with others, while others are mired in their thoughts and emotions. Scholarly work on this area is limited, and we know very little about why some individuals display mental presence better than others. In this dissertation, I explore the concept through a series of three essays. In the first essay, I define relational mindfulness as the ability to be mentally present with others. Further, I propose that relational mindfulness has three essential features: others' focus, thought-switching, and emotional acceptance. I operationalize the scale to measure relational mindfulness and investigate its nomological network by correlating it with different constructs. Data from four different samples provide support for the three-factor structure of relational mindfulness and provide support for the relationship of relational mindfulness with related constructs. In the second essay, I explore the relevance of relational mindfulness for front-line employees by investigating the two pathways through which relational mindfulness can reduce fatigue of front-line employees. In the first pathway, I posited that relational mindfulness would decrease the intensity of surface acting of employees when their customers mistreat them, and thus reduce fatigue of employees. In the second pathway, I posited that relational mindfulness would increase the frequency of positive interactions between employees and customers, and thereby decrease fatigue experienced by employees. I tested the model by conducting two different studies. Overall, the results provided support for the posited hypotheses. In the third essay, I tested whether relational mindfulness can be enhanced through a mindfulness meditation by conducting a quasi-experimental study. Two groups; experimental and comparison groups participated in the pre-test, post-test surveys, and weekly surveys during the experiment. The results suggested that participants in both groups increased their relational mindfulness over time and there was no evidence that individuals in the mindfulness group differed from the comparison group.
Using Relational Responding to Examine the Acquisition of Mindfulness and Meditation Material: An Analogue StudyLester, Ethan G. 12 1900 (has links)
Mindfulness meditation is a growing area of interest for both mental health professionals and the general public alike. Beneficial outcomes are associated with these practices, although the variety of measurement techniques makes research difficult to interpret. Definitions of these constructs are varied, and anecdotal accounts point to the idea that many people hold misconceptions about mindfulness and meditation, even when meanings are made clear. Still, no formal research has been published on misconceptions of mindfulness – or, if they exist, how such misinformation affects acquisition of related skills. Furthermore, mindfulness has been incorporated into therapeutic modalities without much consideration for context, including the client's learning history. The current analogue study examined how the presentation of mindfulness meditations (i.e., inaccurate rationale/meditation and accurate rationale/meditation) affects an individual's practice. Specifically, self-reported mindfulness and meditation skills, mood questionnaires, a matching-to-sample task, and qualitative measurements were used to assess acquisition. Although primary hypotheses did not yield significant findings, results from both preliminary and exploratory analyses demonstrate significant findings with regard to teaching, learning, and measurement related to mindfulness meditation. The results, future directions, and limitations are discussed.
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