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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The efficacy of sodium phosphate D6 in delaying the onset of muscle fatigue during short duration, high intensity exercise

Beukes, Stéfan 29 July 2009 (has links)
M.Tech.
2

Peripheral excitatory and contractile mechanisms underlying fatigue resistance of human skeletal muscle

Gibson, H. January 1988 (has links)
Experiments have been designed to investigate the physiological factors influencing the interrelationship between excitation and force generation that may counteractt he processesle ading to a decline in force (fatigue) during stimulatedi sometric contractions of the human adductor pollicis in vivo. Indices of isometric force, relaxation and contraction rates and evoked compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were measured during defined patterns of stimulated activity (via the motor nerve). A computerized stimulator controller for precise generation of trains of electrical impulses was developed for this purpose. Forces generated at different frequencies were reproducible on separate occasions. Using an ascending frequency stimulation protocol (1-100Hz) the relationship between force decline and excitation (measured as the amplitude of the surface evoked CMAP) appeared to be dependent on stimulation frequency during ischaemic and nonoccluded activity. At high frequencies (50-100Hz), a `safety factor' was apparent, allowing preservation of force despite a marked fall in excitation, whereas at low frequencies (1-10Hz) force initially potentiated and then declined in excess of excitation. Maximum relaxation rate was reduced at all stimulation frequencies and was independent of stimulation frequency. Contractile activity performed was shown to be linearly related to maximum relaxation rate over a frequency range of 20-100Hz for up to 30max. seconds. Contractile activity performed was therefore used as a measure of the metabolic cost of a contraction. Force failure appeared to depend upon the numbers of stimuli delivered, independent of frequency, rather than on contractile activity performed, suggesting that electrophysiological factors are of importance in contributing to fatigue. Further studieso n CMAP characteristicsd emonstrateda broadeningo f the action potential, reflecting a slowing of conduction velocity, which is thought to lead to `runin' of action potentials, and hencet he reduction of CMAP amplitude associatedw ith the high-frequency `safety factor'. The broadening of the action potential recovered immediately during ischaemic conditions at 100Hz following 2400 stimuli but did not recover following prolonged activity at 20Hz until circulation was restored, whereas CMAP amplitude recovered immediately at both frequencies, suggesting that slowing of conduction velocity may be dependent on metabolic factors at low stimulation frequencies which in turn may depend on the contractile history of the muscle. Patients with myophosphorylase deficiency (and thus unable to utilize glycogen), were studied to investigate the importance of energy supply. A failure of ischaemic recovery of the CMAP amplitude and no broadening of the CMAP after stimulated activity at 20Hz was observed, suggesting a failure of excitation of individual muscle cells occurs resulting in force failure in these individuals. Reversing the pattern of stimulation resulted in an initial enhancement of low frequency (10Hz) force and a prolonged maintenance of this force throughout the period of contraction studied. This was independent of slowing of relaxation or excitation. The initial force enhancement may result from the increased slowing of relaxation, and in addition, a form of post-tetanic twitch potentiation operates to counteract the decline in force despite a loss in excitation. In conclusion, during stimulated contractile activity of the adductor pollicis, mechanisms act to maintain or increase force generated per action potential distal to the sarcolemmal membrane, at both high and low frequencies of stimulation, thereby counteracting mechanisms that lead to fatigue. It is postulated that the alterations in intramuscular processes may allow voluntary isometrically contracting muscle to optimize force production at the onset of a contraction where high motor unit discharge rates are initially developed, delaying or eliminating the influence of excitation failure which would lead to contractile failure once maximal force is achieved, and subsequently to optimize contractile activation in the light of possible excitation failure as motor unit discharge rates decline. These findings may have important functional implications and may form the basis of physiological strategies for optimizing force production in the development of stimulation regimes for `functional electrical stimulation' or to any area of skeletal muscle research in which fatigue resistance is of importance.
3

The Effect of Muscle Fatigue of the Non-Paretic Limb on Postural Control of Stroke Patients

McEwen, Daniel W. D. 16 May 2011 (has links)
Since a significantly greater percentage of body weight is supported by the non-paretic limb following stroke, a greater amount of fatigue may be present during daily activities. This may affect the ability of these individuals to maintain a stable upright posture. The presence of falls following a stroke has been attributed in part to this asymmetrical stance post-stroke. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of quadriceps muscle fatigue on bi-pedal posture in individuals who had a stroke and an age-matched control group. Although individuals after stroke displayed greater postural sway under the paretic limb than the non-paretic limb or control subjects, results of this study show that sustaining an isometric knee extension of the non-paretic limb induces changes in postural control for individuals after stroke, but that these changes do not markedly differ from those of healthy age-matched controls.
4

The Effect of Muscle Fatigue of the Non-Paretic Limb on Postural Control of Stroke Patients

McEwen, Daniel W. D. 16 May 2011 (has links)
Since a significantly greater percentage of body weight is supported by the non-paretic limb following stroke, a greater amount of fatigue may be present during daily activities. This may affect the ability of these individuals to maintain a stable upright posture. The presence of falls following a stroke has been attributed in part to this asymmetrical stance post-stroke. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of quadriceps muscle fatigue on bi-pedal posture in individuals who had a stroke and an age-matched control group. Although individuals after stroke displayed greater postural sway under the paretic limb than the non-paretic limb or control subjects, results of this study show that sustaining an isometric knee extension of the non-paretic limb induces changes in postural control for individuals after stroke, but that these changes do not markedly differ from those of healthy age-matched controls.
5

The Effect of Muscle Fatigue of the Non-Paretic Limb on Postural Control of Stroke Patients

McEwen, Daniel W. D. 16 May 2011 (has links)
Since a significantly greater percentage of body weight is supported by the non-paretic limb following stroke, a greater amount of fatigue may be present during daily activities. This may affect the ability of these individuals to maintain a stable upright posture. The presence of falls following a stroke has been attributed in part to this asymmetrical stance post-stroke. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of quadriceps muscle fatigue on bi-pedal posture in individuals who had a stroke and an age-matched control group. Although individuals after stroke displayed greater postural sway under the paretic limb than the non-paretic limb or control subjects, results of this study show that sustaining an isometric knee extension of the non-paretic limb induces changes in postural control for individuals after stroke, but that these changes do not markedly differ from those of healthy age-matched controls.
6

Muscle physiology instrumentation

Whitlock, T. L. January 1990 (has links)
No description available.
7

The Effect of Muscle Fatigue of the Non-Paretic Limb on Postural Control of Stroke Patients

McEwen, Daniel W. D. January 2011 (has links)
Since a significantly greater percentage of body weight is supported by the non-paretic limb following stroke, a greater amount of fatigue may be present during daily activities. This may affect the ability of these individuals to maintain a stable upright posture. The presence of falls following a stroke has been attributed in part to this asymmetrical stance post-stroke. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of quadriceps muscle fatigue on bi-pedal posture in individuals who had a stroke and an age-matched control group. Although individuals after stroke displayed greater postural sway under the paretic limb than the non-paretic limb or control subjects, results of this study show that sustaining an isometric knee extension of the non-paretic limb induces changes in postural control for individuals after stroke, but that these changes do not markedly differ from those of healthy age-matched controls.
8

The Effects of Remote Post-Exercise Ischemic Conditioning on Recovery from Strenuous Exercise

Lillquist, Thomas Jonathan January 2020 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Strategic limb occlusion applied after exercise (PEIC) may expedite recovery, not just in directly affected tissue, but over the entire body via circulating factors. METHODS: Twenty active college-age males took part in a single-blind randomized crossover design. Participants underwent intervention and SHAM treatments after strenuous exercise sessions. Peak Torque production and soreness measures were gathered directly before and 24-hours after two exercise sessions. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: A 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of variance with sidak corrections (significance of p<0.05) was used to analyze peak torque and VAS scores. RESULTS: Significance was not observed between any associated pre- and post-peak torque test (p > 0.05). Post-treatment VAS scores were statistically higher than pre-treatment for all conditions except pre-and post-intervention in the direct leg (P = 0.096). DISCUSSION: The application of PEIC was not associated with any significant differences in peak torque production or soreness measures.
9

An analysis of muscle fatigue due to complex tasks and its relation to the strain index

Stephens, John-Paul 02 June 2009 (has links)
The Strain Index was originally designed to analyze mono-task jobs. An experiment using a grip dynamometer was used to simulate six multiple task jobs to study the effect of complex tasks on localized muscle fatigue and to evaluate six different models used to calcula te a Complex Strain Index score. These models included average Strain Index score, unadjusted summation, duration adjusted summation, complex equation, minimum intensity, and peak intensity. Two methods of calculating a continuous Strain Index score were also analyzed. Ratings of perceived exertion, hand and forearm fatigue and discomfort, Difficulty Rating, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and percent strength loss were recorded for each of the six treatments. Electromyography (EMG) was also recorded for the 24 subjects (12 males and females) who completed the experiment. The EMG signal was analyzed using root mean square (RMS), initial mean power frequency (IMnPF), and slope of the mean power frequency (MnPF). Each treatment, lasting one hour each, contained a primary exertion (Task 1) of either 10% or 40% MVC for three seconds and a secondary exertion (Task 2) of either 10% or 40% MVC for one or three seconds. Subjective variables linearly increased (R2 > 0.88) over the duration of the treatments and significantly differed between treatments (p < 0.05). Percent strength loss was the only variable with a gender effect (p < 0.05). RMS values did not indicate fatigue and were constant over each treatment, but were highly correlated with percent MVC. A significant difference was not found in IMnPF between pre and post treatment values or between treatments (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found for MnPF slope pre and post treatment, but no treatment effect was found (p > 0.05). The complex equation method of calculating a Strain Index score was the only model of the six evaluated that met all criteria for being an acceptable method of calculating a Complex Strain Index score. The two continuous methods presented for calculating a Strain Index score should not be used for job analysis until further research evaluates their reliability, validity, and critical scores for Hazard Classification.
10

Muscle Fatigue during Isometric and Dynamic Efforts in Shoulder Abduction and Torso Extension: Age Effects and Alternative Electromyographic Measures

Yassierli, Yassierli 18 November 2005 (has links)
Aging has been associated with numerous changes in the neuromuscular system. Age effects on muscular performance, however, have been addressed only in limited contexts in earlier research. The present work was conducted primarily to investigate age-related effects on muscle capacity (fatigue and endurance) during isometric and dynamic efforts. This work was also motivated by current theories on muscle fatigue as a potential risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders and recent demographic projections indicating a substantial increase of older adults in the working population. Four main experiments were conducted to investigate development of muscle fatigue during isometric and intermittent efforts in shoulder abduction and torso extension at different contraction levels. Two age groups were involved (n=24 in each), representing the beginning and end of working life. Findings from this study demonstrated that the older group exhibited slower progressions of fatigue, though the age effect was more consistent for the shoulder than the torso muscles. This implied a muscle dependency of the influence of age on fatigue. Several interaction effects of age and effort level were also observed, suggesting that both task and individual factors should be considered simultaneously in job design. The present investigation also sought to develop alternative electromyography (EMG)-based fatigue parameters for low-level isometric and dynamic contractions, two areas in which improvements are needed in the sensitivity and reliability of existing EMG indices. Several alternative EMG indices were introduced, derived from logarithmic transformation of EMG power spectra, fractal analysis, and parameter estimation based on a Poisson distribution. Potential utility of several of these alternative measures was demonstrated for assessment of muscle fatigue. / Ph. D.

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