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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Investigating the Functional Distinction Between Harm and Purity Norms

Dungan, James Alexander January 2017 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Liane Young / Many debates in moral psychology have revolved around the function of harm norms (e.g., against causing pain to others) and purity norms (e.g., against sexual deviance or consuming taboo foods). Two key pieces of this debate are 1) whether purity norms constitute a separate moral domain than harm norms, each with distinct evolved functions, and 2) if so, whether the function of purity norms is to guard people from disgusting behavior that may signal the threat of disease-causing pathogens. Paper 1 addresses the first point by examining how increasing attention to a violator’s mental states (e.g., whether they acted intentionally or accidentally) changes the way people process harm and purity violations. Using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques, it supports a growing literature demonstrating that judgments of purity violations are influenced less by information about the violator’s intent than judgments of harm violations and suggests distinct functions for harm and purity norms. Paper 2 addresses both points by examining how the relational-context of a violation (e.g., whether an action is directed at oneself or another person) impacts judgments of harm and purity violations. Three studies demonstrate that unlike moral judgments of harm violations, moral judgments of purity violations are more tied to the negative impact a violator has on themselves as opposed to others. Moreover, when a participant was the target of another person’s impure actions, their moral judgments of the action were predicted more by perceptions of harm than purity, suggesting that purity norms do not necessarily track concerns about pathogen exposure. Finally, given the evidence in Papers 1 and 2, Paper 3 tests a novel functional distinction between harm and purity norms whereby harm norms regulate the negative impact people have on each other while purity norms function to define group boundaries by setting expectations about how people conduct themselves. Together, these papers challenge current accounts of the evolutionary origins of harm and purity norms and suggest important new avenues for fully characterizing the function of distinct moral norms. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2017. / Submitted to: Boston College. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. / Discipline: Psychology.

Some results on generalized spectral radii, numerical radii and spectral norms

Li, Chi-kwong, 李志光 January 1986 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mathematics / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy

Recherche sur la détermination du droit de l'Union européenne par le droit international : l'exemple de la soft law / Research on the determination of European law by international law : the exemple of soft law

Briard, Marine 16 March 2017 (has links)
Cette thèse analyse l'impact des normes internationales volontaires, publiques comme privées, sur le droit de l'Union européenne. Dans un contexte de mondialisation et d'interdépendance économique croissante, ces normes, qui vont des recommandations et déclarations des organisations internationales aux normes et standards techniques, comme les normes ISO ou les labels de qualité, prolifèrent au niveau international et européen. Adoptés notamment dans le cadre d'un processus de co voire d'autorégulation, qui permet aux acteurs privés d'un secteur d'élaborer les règles qui leur seront appliqués, la multiplication de ces normes et standards volontaires emporte des conséquences particulièrement importantes dans la mise en œuvre des politiques publiques internationales et européennes, et invite à repenser le concept de normativité ou force contraignante / This thesis analyses the impact of international soft norms, public and private, on European law. In a context of globalisation and increasing economic interdependance, these normes, which range from recommendations and declarations from international organisations to technical norms and standards, like ISO norms or quality labels, proliferate at both international and european level. Adopted notably in the framework of co or self regulation, allowing private actors from the concerned sector to elaborate their own rules, the multiplication of these voluntary norms and standards has particularly important consequences in the implementation of international and european public policies, and prompts to rethink the concept of « normativity » and « binding force »


Nardelli, Marino 21 May 2007 (has links)
Social norms are patterns of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. Social norms can be shared belief of what is normal and acceptable shapes and enforces the actions of people in a society. In the educational classroom, they are characteristics that constitute the classroom participation structure. Sociomathematical norms are fine-grained aspects of general social norms specifically related to mathematical practices. These can include, but are not limited to, a student-centered classroom that includes the expectation that the students should present their solution methods by describing actions on mathematical objects rather than simply accounting for calculational manipulations. For this action research study, my goal was to determine if the role of the teacher would influence the social and sociomathematical norms in a mathematics classroom and in what ways are sociomathematical norms reflected in students' written work. I focused specifically on students' mathematics journal writing and taped conversations. I discovered that students tended to not justify their work. Also, I discovered that my idea of justification was not really justification. I learned from this and was able to change my idea of justification. By encouraging the students to socialize in mathematics class, I found that the quality of their dialogue improved. Students readily discussed mathematical concepts within small groups and whole class discussions. / M.Ed. / Department of Teaching and Learning Principles / Education / K-8 Math and Science MEd

Impacts of implicit normative evaluations on stereotyping and prejudice

Yoshida, Emiko January 2009 (has links)
The present research examined how other people’s evaluations towards social groups will develop and how these evaluations will affect discriminatory behaviour outside of conscious effort. By living in a society people are exposed to other people’s preferences or beliefs and these culturally shared preferences or beliefs can become automatic over time. I call this construct implicit normative evaluations. In the first series of studies I developed and validated implicit normative evaluations measures. Study 2 demonstrated that implicit normative evaluations would develop by exposure to cultural norms. Study 3 showed that those who were exposed to an audience who laughed at offensive racist jokes were more likely to have negative implicit normative evaluation towards a target group and were more likely to engage in discriminatory behaviour than those who were exposed to an audience who did not laugh at the racist jokes. Finally in Study 4, I examined the consequences of implicit normative evaluations towards Black people and found that implicit normative evaluations played a role in the shooter bias. The implications of implicit normative evaluations in developing potential interventions for prejudice reduction will be discussed.

The moral significance of social conventions

MacDonald, Christopher John 05 1900 (has links)
This Thesis is about the role which social conventions play in shaping our moral choices, and about the possibility of a normative theory that takes such conventions seriously. It also hints at the idea of looking at conventions as a kind of moral technology. If existing conventions serve a useful function, then perhaps we can take what we know about conventions and apply that knowledge in a forward-looking manner. Chapter 1 of this Thesis outlines the shape of the project, and explains its roots in methodological individualism and a relative, subjective theory of value. Chapter 2 surveys the literature on norms and conventions, and explains why it is that despite the prevalence of the former in the literature, moral theorists should focus on the latter. Chapter 3 looks at the ways in which conventions structure strategic interaction. They do so both by providing information that served as an input to rational decision making, and by providing a more direct, non-instrumental form of motivation. In Chapter 4, we look at the relevance of the literature on public goods and the problem of collective action, and argue that beginning and maintaining conventions embodies a collective action problem. In Chapter 5, we move to examine the normative force of conventions, and suggest that conventions constitute a reasonable set of constraints on self-interested behaviour. Chapter 6 addresses the fact that a convention-based approach seems capable of endorsing asymmetrical outcomes, at least some of which seem unjust. In Chapter 7, we look more generally at the adequacy of a conventionalist account, and examine the departures which such an account seems to make from everyday morality. Finally, in Chapter 8, we put theory to practice, and examine the world of professional obligation. We offer there a meta-ethics of professional obligation that suggests that such obligations are best understood as conventions between professionals. That argument serves as a challenge to existing principle-based and virtue-based theories of professional obligation, and illustrates the practical importance of this Thesis. In Chapter 9, we summarize the ground covered, and discuss how we can apply what we know about conventions to ameliorate problematic situations.

Applications of Game Theory to Social Norm Establishment

Andrews, Michael 08 January 2013 (has links)
We create pure strategy versions of Robert Axelrod's well known norms and metanorms games. To analyze the evolutionary behaviour of these games, we utilize replicator dynamics complemented with agent based model simulations. Our findings show that the only evolutionarily stable strategy in the norms game is one in which a player defects and is lenient. The metanorms game, however, has two evolutionarily stable strategies. The first is a repeat from the norms game, that is, a player defects and is always lenient. The other is one in which a player follows the norm and punishes those who are lenient and those who defect. We also introduce the concept of providing an incentive for players to play a certain strategy in our controlled norms game. This particular game has two evolutionarily stable strategies. In the first, a player follows the norm, while in the second, a player does not. We wish to transition the population of players from a state in which the majority of players initially do not follow the norm to one in which the majority of players do. During this transition, we look to minimize the total use of our incentive. We also utilize agent based model simulations to explore the effect of imposing simple network connections and heterogeneity onto a population of agents playing these games.

The Influence of Implicit Norms on Cognition and Behaviour

Yoshida, Emiko January 2007 (has links)
Recent development of implicit measures has enabled researchers to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes and automatic behaviours. Among these measures, the implicit association test (IAT: Greenwald, McGhee Schwartz, 1998) is one of the most widely used measures of implicit attitudes. However, recently, Olson and Fazio (2004) demonstrated that the IAT is contaminated by ???extrapersonal associations??? and suggested that the personalized version of the IAT is less influenced by these associations. In this paper, we demonstrated that the extrapersonal associations reflect cultural norms and predict meaningful behaviour. In Study 1, we found that the traditional IAT is predicted by both the personalized IAT and our cultural norm IAT. In Study 2, we found the cross-cultural differences in the implicit cultural norms. Finally, in Study 3, we demonstrated that the personalized IAT and normative IAT both predict behaviours among European-Canadians and Asian-Canadians. Thus, our studies provide evidence of predictive validity for the cultural norm IAT.

Normative Influence on Athletes' Intentions to Intervene in Sport

2015 August 1900 (has links)
Previous research in the activity area has found that descriptive norms can influence individual activity (Crozier, 2014; Priebe & Spink, 2014; 2015). While important, studies examining other important outcomes in the activity area have not been conducted. For example, no research has examined whether normative information can be used to influence athletes' intentions to intervene with other teammates. In an effort to address this gap in the literature, the purpose of the current experiment was to examine whether descriptive norms, that were either supported by a coach or not, would influence a player’s intentions to intervene when teammates made technical errors or did not exert enough effort. Canadian adult soccer players (N = 106) were recruited to participate in this online experimental study. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions: normative (teammates intervene)/coach support, normative (teammates intervene)/coach not support, or attention control. Participants in both of the normative conditions read two short vignettes describing how the players and coach on a hypothetical soccer team responded to a teammate’s technical mistakes and lack of effort, respectively. While imagining themselves as a member of this hypothetical team, participants then rated their intentions to intervene with other members of this team. Results from ANCOVAs (controlling for previous intervening behaviour) revealed different results for intentions to intervene following technical mistakes versus lack of effort. Results for technical mistakes revealed a significant main effect for condition F(2, 102) = 4.98, p < 0.01. Post hoc results revealed that those in the normative condition that was supported by the coach reported greater intentions to intervene in the future than those in the control condition (p < 0.05, adj Cohen's d = 0.71). Conversely, intention to intervene did not differ between those in the normative condition that was not supported by the coach and those in the control group (p > 0.05, adj Cohen’s d = 0.13). There was no significant main effect for condition with respect to teammates exhibiting a lack of effort F(2, 95) = 1.82, p > 0.1). Results from this experiment provide initial evidence that descriptive norms supported by a coach may influence players' intentions to intervene when a teammate makes a mistake.

Obesity among Kuwaiti women : an exploratory study

Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Nasser January 1989 (has links)
No description available.

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