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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

BIOACCUMULATION, TROPHIC MAGNIFICATION, AND MATERNAL TRANSFER OF LEGACY AND ALTERNATIVE FLAME RETARDANTS IN SHARKS OF THE NORTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN

Marler, Hillary Rose 01 May 2019 (has links) (PDF)
Flame retardants (FRs) are widely used in a variety of consumer products, including electronics, textiles, vehicles, furniture foams, and children’s toys. Many of these chemicals are halogenated compounds that are persistent in the environment over long periods of time and are known or suspected endocrine disruptors. As a result, FRs may have a variety of negative health effects on humans and wildlife. Following the discontinuation of commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures, a variety of alternative FRs have been developed and employed. In comparison with legacy FRs, relatively little is known about the ability of these emerging FRs to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in various systems. The primary objective of my dissertation was to better understand the contamination status of both legacy and emerging FR in the biota of the northwestern Atlantic Specifically my objectives were to (1) identify and quantify legacy and emerging FRs in high trophic level predator species (sharks) of the northwestern Atlantic, (2) determine Tropic Magnification Factors (TMFs) for legacy and emerging FRs within the same food web, and (3) evaluate the maternal transfer of a variety of brominated and chlorinated FRs in viviparous Atlantic sharks.
2

Mg/Ca Ratios in Crustose Coralline Algae as Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability

Gamboa, Gimy 26 July 2010 (has links)
Climate variability in the North Atlantic has been linked in part to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO influences marine ecosystems in the northwestern Atlantic and the transport variability of the cold Labrador Current (LC). Understanding historic patterns and predicting future changes in LC transport require long-term and high-resolution climate records that are not available from instrumental data sets. This thesis presents the first century-scale sea surface temperature (SST)reconstructions from the Northwestern Atlantic using Mg/Ca ratios in the long-lived crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum. which is characterized by a high Mg-calcite skeleton exhibiting annual growth increments. Results indicate strong correlations between interannual variations in Mg/Ca ratios and instrumental SST. The 131-year algal Mg/Ca record reveals NAO-type periodicities and evidence of past cold events and warming periods associated with basin-wide ecosystem shifts. Negative correlations between LC volume transport and algal Mg/Ca reflect the cooling influence of the LC on eastern Canadian shelf ecosystems.
3

Mg/Ca Ratios in Crustose Coralline Algae as Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability

Gamboa, Gimy 26 July 2010 (has links)
Climate variability in the North Atlantic has been linked in part to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO influences marine ecosystems in the northwestern Atlantic and the transport variability of the cold Labrador Current (LC). Understanding historic patterns and predicting future changes in LC transport require long-term and high-resolution climate records that are not available from instrumental data sets. This thesis presents the first century-scale sea surface temperature (SST)reconstructions from the Northwestern Atlantic using Mg/Ca ratios in the long-lived crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum. which is characterized by a high Mg-calcite skeleton exhibiting annual growth increments. Results indicate strong correlations between interannual variations in Mg/Ca ratios and instrumental SST. The 131-year algal Mg/Ca record reveals NAO-type periodicities and evidence of past cold events and warming periods associated with basin-wide ecosystem shifts. Negative correlations between LC volume transport and algal Mg/Ca reflect the cooling influence of the LC on eastern Canadian shelf ecosystems.
4

Physical forcing of zooplankton in the upper oligotrophic ocean off Bermuda (northwestern Atlantic) and New Caledonia (southwestern Pacific) from acoustics and net measurements

Smati, Hossem Edine 18 November 2015 (has links)
Les forçages physiques conditionnent la discontinuité dans l'espace et le temps (patchiness) du plancton dans l'océan. La thèse s'est basée sur deux exemples. Le premier concerne le nord-ouest des Sargasses où une série temporelle à du macrozooplankton a été analysée à partir du rétro signal acoustique (Sv) mesuré avec un ADCP 153-KHz. Trois types de tourbillons ont été identifiés: un tourbillon cyclonique productif, la périphérie d'un tourbillon "mode-water", et la périphérie d'un tourbillon anticyclonique. Les valeurs de Sv ont augmenté au cours du passage des tourbillons, avec une hausse plus marquée associée au bord des tourbillons cyclonique et anticyclonique, ce qui suggère une réponse biologique significative aux upwelling localisées dans la zone frontale de ces tourbillons. Dans le deuxième exemple, la distribution spatiale et temporelle du zooplancton a été étudiée au large de la Nouvelle-Calédonie au cours de deux campagnes multidisciplinaires en 2011. La variabilité du zooplancton a été évaluée à l'aide d'échantillonnage au filet ainsi qu'à partir de mesures acoustiques (ADCP embarqué, échosondeur scientifique et TAPS). Des amplitudes plus élevées de la migration verticale nycthémérale (DVM) du zooplancton étaient associées à une plus grande abondance de petit zooplancton et aux eaux froides du sud de la zone d'étude, tandis que des amplitudes de DVM plus faibles dans le nord étaient associés à des eaux plus chaudes et à de plus grande abondance des grands organismes. Ces mesures acoustique ont clairement mis en évidence le rôle des forçage physique, notamment des structures à méso-échelle, sur la répartition spatiale et temporelle du zooplancton. / Physical forcing drives the space and time discontinuity (patchiness) of plankton in the ocean. The thesis was focused on the role of these forcing on the zooplankton, studied using both acoustic and traditional methods with net sampling. The study was based on two examples. The first one concerns the northwestern Sargasso Sea where high resolution time-series data on 0-200m macrozooplankton abundance and distribution off Bermuda was estimated from volume backscattering strength (Sv) measured with a 153-Khz ADCP. Three types of eddies were identified: a productive cyclonic eddy, the periphery of a mode water eddy, and the periphery of an anticyclonic eddy. Sv values increased during passage of theses eddies, with a more pronounced increase associated with the edge of the cyclonic and the anticyclonic eddies, suggesting a significant biological response to localized upwelling in the high velocity boundary of these eddies. In the second example, spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton off New Caledonia was studied during two multidisciplinary cruises in 2011. Zooplankton variability was assessed using net sampling together with acoustic measurements (shipborne ADCP, scientific echosounder and TAPS). Higher amplitudes of diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton were associated with higher abundance of large zooplankton and cold waters to the south of the study area, while lower DVM amplitudes in the north were associated with warmer waters and higher abundance of small organisms. These acoustic measurements clearly evidenced the role of physical forcing, particularly mesoscale features, in shaping zooplankton space and time distribution.

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