The pyroclastic deposits and eruption history of Ascension Island : a palaeomagnetic and volcanological studyHobson, Kate Elizabeth January 2001 (has links)
In this study, palaeomagnetic methods have been combined with field and volcanological techniques to identify, classify and correlate the pyroclastic deposits found on Ascension Island, South Atlantic, allowing them to be placed into a temporal and geographic framework. Pyroclastic material is abundant on the island and, in general, wellpreserved, making Ascension an ideal site to study the nature and distribution of the pyroclastic products of this type of composite volcano or stratovolcano. A better understanding of the nature and distribution of the products of past pyroclastic eruptions on Ascension should enhance our ability to assess volcanic hazard around stratovolcanoes world-wide. Field mapping and stratigraphic logging have revealed the presence of several major pyroclastic sequences on Ascension. These comprise extensive felsic (pumice) and mafic (scoria) lapilli deposits, two major and several minor exposures of welded material and numerous breccia deposits that exhibit great variation in juvenile/lithic content, matrix type and content and internal structure. Preliminary interpretations of the deposits were made in the field, based on features such as welding, grain shape and internal structures. However many of the deposits - particularly the breccia deposits - display ambiguous field characteristics that could be attributed to pyroclastic or epiclastic processes and their origins could not therefore be determined from field characteristics alone. [See pdf for continuation of abstract].
Silva-Sandoval, Nelson R.
04 August 1977
Graduation date: 1978
A Call Above Duty: The Portrayal of the South Pacific Missionary in Children's Literature 1800 – 1935Nolan, John, firstname.lastname@example.org January 2000 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is to examine the portrayal of the South Pacific missionary in children's literature published between 1800 and 1935. It examines how hagiographic literature was used to suggest to young readers that the missionary was both an emissary of Western civilisation and the incarnation of Gospel values. It seeks to document the nexus between contemporary anthropologica1 thought, colonialism and religious beliefs which underpinned the views and values presented to the child reader.The thesis examines the years 1800 to 1935 as this period was characterised by intense public interest in the exploration of the region and gave rise to the greatest volume of publications for children featuring the South Pacific missionary. The thesis analyses biographies published for children of the more famous missionaries, including John Williams, James Chalmers, John Paton and Coleridge Patteson. Attention is also given to the missionary in fictional literature and adventure stories, in particular the popular writings of R. M. Ballantyne (most notably The Coral Island). Comparisons arc made with the depiction of the missionary in children's literature using other locations, specifically Africa and China. The thesis also examines how women were portrayed, the connections between trade and missionary activity and the cultural bias evident in the portrayal of indigenous people and their societies. The thesis concludes that the portrayal of the South Pacific missionary between 1800 - 1935 was designed to enhance the status of the missionary by depicting them as being superior to secular heroes such as Captain Cook. By drawing on the imagery of the medieval knight and through the trope of 'Muscular Christianity' the missionary was depicted as having the courage of the explorer, the wisdom of a leader, the nature of a gentleman and the faith of a martyr. The indigenous people were infantilized and the trope of cannibalism was utilised to dehumanise them. Western style housing, clothing, literacy, work ethics and technology were advocated as indicators of the superiority of Europeans, while their adoption by indigenous converts separated them from the 'heathen' of their race. This 'superiority' of Western culture was attributed to the influence of Christianity and the Bible in particular, The missionary was shown as not only redeeming the indigenous people from sin through the revelation of the Gospel, but also as being their friend and protector who gave them the benefits of European living. In particular the 'medicine man' or spiritual leader of the indigenous reIigion was demonised and his influence and position assumed by the missionary who often formed a political alliance with the social leader, or Chief. The presence of the missionary was often further legitimised through the enthusiastic testimony of converts and indigenous teachers' pleading for more missionaries to come to the region. Other Europeans, such as traders and beachcombers, were denigrated as exploiting the islanders and their actions were often condemned as being worse than the 'savages. ' The publications sourced and studied were all Protestant in origin, suggesting a lack of children's Catholic material on missionary endeavour in the region. Similar to the traders, the Catholics were also denounced as interfering with and complicating the task of conversion and redemption. The role of the European female as wife of the missionary was minimised and they were usually relegated to the minor role of passive assistant to the ever-adventurous male. The publications were a vehicle for inculcating the religious and social beliefs of a triumphant Western society and for encouraging children to support the missions. either through their own vocation or through the giving and collecting of money. While they ostensibly promoted Christianity and the activities of Missionary Societies by paying homage to the faith and valour of the missionary, undoubtedly they also justified to the young reader the European cultural dominance and colonialism of the era.
Henry, David, n/a
The aim of this thesis is to develop approaches that aid agencies could use in the appraisal and/or development of basic education programs in South Pacific countries which address aspects of poverty. It is set in the context of wider international concern that aid programs need to have a more direct impact on the conditions of the poor than they have had in the recent past. Concepts of poverty, basic education and literacy appropriate to South Pacific countries are developed and relationships among them are examined as preliminary steps to data collection and analysis. The data for the thesis comes from programs of aid to basic education that were running in or have commenced since 1985 and consists of formal evaluations and reviews, the opinion of expert panels and anecdotal evidence from individuals. Analysis of the data is conducted in two stages; first, criteria by which to judge the success of programs are developed and applied to the data, and second, the common components of successful programs are identified. The 'components of success' are then used to develop approaches that aid agencies could employ in analysing program proposals and/or in developing programs in basic education that have a poverty focus. Examples of how these approaches could be applied to particular programs are given.
"The Camera Cannot Lie": Photography and the Pacific Non-Fiction of Robert Louis Stevenson (1888-1894)Manfredi, CARLA 07 April 2014 (has links)
This archivally-based dissertation re-contextualizes Robert Louis Stevenson’s South Pacific photographic collection (1888-1894), situating it in relation to his incomplete and posthumously published anthropological study of the Pacific, In the South Seas (1896); his unpublished pamphlet about Samoan colonial conflict, “A Samoan Scrapbook”; and his wife Fanny Stevenson’s diary The Cruise of the ‘Janet Nichol.’ Despite the recent and ample scholarship on Stevenson, few critics have engaged significantly with his photography. These (usually) anonymous photographs, taken by different members of the Stevenson family, were intended as illustrations for a projected book entitled The South Seas. Although this literary project was never completed, a dense photographic archive remains and discloses the many functions of photography during Stevenson’s Pacific career. In this truly interdisciplinary dissertation, I recognize the interdependent relationship between Stevenson’s Pacific non-fiction and his family’s photographic practice and stress that the photographic project was more important to Stevenson’s Pacific writing than has been acknowledged previously. This dissertation addresses the relationship between Stevenson’s photography and non-fiction writing, and demonstrates the important and underlying ways in which Stevenson’s photographs are related to his written accounts of Pacific Islanders and their societies. Furthermore, I contribute a series of close readings of individual (and previously unpublished) photographs, which I contextualize in their appropriate literary, cultural, and historical milieu. This dissertation contributes to a limited body of work that addresses the intersections of Pacific photography, anthropology, and Stevenson’s non-fiction. / Thesis (Ph.D, English) -- Queen's University, 2014-04-03 14:57:53.217
Air-sea heat exchange along the northern sea surface temperature front in the eastern tropical PacificThum, Nicolai 22 February 2001 (has links)
The atmospheric response to the oceanic forcing in the eastern Pacific along the northern equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) front is investigated in terms of sensible and latent heat flux during the 6-month period 28 July 1999 through 27 January 2000. Of particular interest is the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) response to oceanic Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) that distort the SST front during May through January in normal years. In previous studies, time series of boundary layer properties clearly show the influence of TIWs but the relationship to spatial patterns of SST and wind stress has been inferred only from sparse in situ data. In this study, satellite observations are used to composite in situ data from moorings to compensate for the lack of a spatially dense mooring array. The variability in the position of the SST front caused by propagating TIWs enables fixed mooring locations to measure the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) response from a large range of locations relative to the front. The satellite data enable determination of the precise location of the mooring relative to the front. The advantage of this strategy is the recurring measurement of the ABL response to the SST front over the six month period considered here. The results indicate that the TIW-induced perturbations of sensible and latent heat flux are spatially shifted in phase towards the east relative to the perturbations of SST. The maximum fluxes are not centered directly over the warmest water, but are shifted towards the portion of the frontal region where a disequilibrium boundary layer is expected due to the advection of colder air from the equatorial region. The changes of sensible and latent heat fluxes across the SST front have magnitudes of about 11 Wm⁻² and 126 Wm⁻², respectively. The sensible and latent heat flux patterns are interpreted in two complementary ways: (1) as an atmospheric response to the change of oceanic forcing as air flows across the SST front; and (2) as the atmospheric response to westward propagating TIWs along the SST front. / Graduation date: 2001
The ecology of patch reef fishes in a subtropical Pacific atoll: recruitment variability, community structure and effects of fishing predatorsSchroeder, Robert E 05 1900 (has links)
The ecology of patch reef fishes was studied to quantify the main factors that affect the natural variability of the fish community and to determine the effects produced on the community by experimental removal of predators. Initially, a year-long baseline description was completed of the physical, biological and ecological characteristics of 8 pristine patch reefs at Midway lagoon. For over 3 subsequent years, piscivorous predators were spearfished at least monthly, often for days at a time, on 4 of the 8 reefs. Fish populations were visually censused throughout the experiment. In all seasons and years of the project, daily recruitment rate of postlarval fishes to natural patch reefs was compared to that measured on standardized, artificial reefs of various sizes and degrees of inter-reef isolation. Finally, all baseline measurements were replicated and complete collections were made of all fishes, to validate the visual census method. Visual censusing was found to be of adequate precision and accuracy for most resident, non-cryptic species (highest for small patch reefs). Fishes could be assigned to size classes underwater by visual estimate with high accuracy. Rotenone collections were highly effective in quantifying many species commonly missed or underestimated in visual censuses. Only a few species composed the bulk of all recruits, while most species were rare or not seen at all. Variation between species was related to life history strategies or behavioral requirements. High temporal variability was found at the following scales: 1) Annuallywhere variability increased with the magnitude of recruitment, and different species recruited heavily in different years, suggesting that species specific factors in the plankton are more important than general oceanographic conditions; 2) Seasonally- pulsing strongly in summer, and occasionally late fall, when favorable environmental conditions may maximize growth and survival; and 3) Daily- with 1 or 2 strong peaks (each only a few days long) over a period of several weeks of low, variable recruitment. Small-scale spatial variability between replicate attractors (standardized artificial reefs) and between attractor types (coral and wire) were both high for a few species recruiting abundantly, although most recruits are probably substrate generalists. Rigorous visual fish censuses can adequately document moderate- to long-term temporal variation in the abundances of recently recruited juveniles on patch reefs (i.e., based on similar temporal patterns assessed by daily attractors). Daily total recruitment rate increased, although at diminishing densities, with (attractor) reef size, and with degree of inter-reef isolation. Abundances of recently recruited fish censused on neighboring, natural patch reefs (much larger than attractors) increased with reef size. The effect of isolation on these natural reefs was confounded by the stronger effect of reef size. These results suggest that if optimum size and spacing of reefs is provided, either by proper design of artificial reefs or selection of marine reserves, managers may enhance fish recruitment and ultimately improve local fisheries: Of the 135 fishes censused on the patch reefs studied, only 6 species together accounted for 70% of the total number of all fish, mainly due to heavy seasonal recruitment pulses. Strong seasonal and annual variability in recruitment was responsible for most of the temporal variation in fish abundance. The structure of patch reef fish communities at Midway was characterized by high unpredictability (e.g., great seasonal and/or annual variability in recruitment by common species, recruitment limitation for most species, and a high turnover rate detected by frequent sampling). Some predictions of the theory of island biogeography were also met by these fish communities (e.g., species richness correlated strongly with patch reef area, volume and relief). and total fish abundance. Some populations also exhibited a degree of long-term stability. Species diversity [H'] was similar among different size reefs. The experimental fishing on piscivores produced a catch composed mainly of lizardfish, due largely to immigration following the removal of other, competitively superior, highly resident piscivores. Scorpionfish and moray eels were also dominant predators. The expected decreases in catch-per-unit-effort were not realized, except for a quantitatively insignificant family (hawkfish). Conversely, the catch of the highly migratory lizardfish actually increased as fishing progressed. Changes in the catch composition for other piscivores related mainly to major changes in reef size or to patterns of large, inter-year recruitment fluctuations. Census data confirmed the major trends indicted by catch results. Sharks and jacks were attracted to the experimental reefs by spearfishing; the study was unable to determine whether their piscivorous effect was different between reef treatments. Patch reef fish communities at Midway were relatively resilient to long-term, intense fishing pressure on piscivores. However, enhanced survival of a large, annual, summer recruitment pulse of a common cardinalfish, synchronized with a temporary but significant reduction of lizardfish (the most prevalent piscivore) by fishing, suggested that an effect of predation on reef fish populations is experimentally detectable and considerable. However, temporal and spatial variability in recruitment, and reef size differences and changes in size were the primary factors responsible for the observed temporal patterns in fish abundance. COlnmunity analysis involves numerous confounding effects and requires the most careful interpretation for valid conclusions. / xvi, 321 leaves, bound : ill. ; 29 cm.
Three-dimensional gravity analysis of the Pacific-Antarctic east Pacific rise at 36.5°S, 49.8°S and 54.2°SEnriquez, Kelly D. 23 May 1994 (has links)
Three-dimensional gravity analysis is the process of removing the predictable components from the free-air gravity anomalies and has proven to be useful for interpreting the subsurface structures and active processes at mid-ocean ridges. The three-dimensional effects of the seafloor and Moho topography, assuming a constant crustal thickness and constant crust and upper mantle densities, are subtracted from the free-air anomalies, yielding the mantle Bouguer anomalies. Mantle Bouguer anomalies at mid-ocean ridges are believed to be largely due to the three-dimensional thermal structure, which can be predicted using a simple passive flow model. When the gravity contribution from the predicted thermal structure is removed from the mantle Bouguer anomalies, the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies are created, which represent lateral variations in the crustal thickness and/or density variations from the assumed model. Three-dimensional gravity analysis has been carried out over three areas along the Pacific-Antarctic East Pacific Rise (EPR): (1) the eastern intersection of the Menard transform with the EPR, (2) the overlapping spreading center (OSC) at 36.5°S and, (3) the western intersection of the Raitt transform with the EPR. This geophysical analysis provides an essential tool for understanding the subsurface crustal/upper mantle structure of the fast spreading EPR, and more specifically at transform and nontransform offsets along the EPR. Several interesting features were observed at the eastern intersection between the Menard transform and the EPR. The continuous nature of the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies along the ridge axis suggests that the 60 km of ridge axis surveyed here has a fairly uniform crustal/upper mantle structure. Significant features are not observed in the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies at the ridge-transform intersection or along the eastern 75 km of the Menard transform. At the ridge-transform intersection, fresh lavas from the observed overshot ridge have filled in the transform valley and have subsequently thickened the crust, eliminating any crustal thinning that is occurring there. The large OSC at 36.5°S has a left-stepping offset of approximately 34 km. The most significant feature in the gravity data from this study area is the observed low in the mantle Bouguer anomalies which extends from the northern ridge segment, eastward to the "inactive" rift and continued along the southern ridge segment. This gravity low suggests that this region is underlain by thicker crust and/or hotter, less dense material. No significant features are observed in the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies associated with the overlap basin or the two smaller basins that border the "inactive" rift. The western ridge-transform intersection (RTI) between the Raitt transform and the EPR significantly differs from the Menard transform study area. A transform valley is not observed at this RYE and neither is an overshot ridge. Instead, a transformparallel median ridge is observed east of the RTI, and a fossil transform valley is observed north of the RTI. A low in the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies is associated with the fossil transform valley and the median ridge, suggesting that these areas are underlain by thicker crust and/or less dense material. Positive residual mantle Bouguer anomalies observed at the inside corner of the RYE suggest that this area is underlain by thinner crust and/or colder, more dense material; while at the outside corner of the ridge-transform intersection, a residual anomaly low is observed which suggests that the outside corner is underlain with thicker crust and/or hotter, less dense material. / Graduation date: 1995 / Figures in original document are black and white photocopies. Best scan available.
28 June 2005
The South Pacific Ocean is an area easily to be disregarded, although it possesses a very significant value of the military strategy.Contemporary,the South Pacific arena has become an important part of Chinese maritime Strategy.The reform and opening up in China bring the growth of economics and trade and the extension of national power for about twenty years, meanwhile, the state suffers from the demands of energy,the dispute of sovereignty,and the problems of the defensive screen of the American Containment Policy in East.Under such circumstances, China formulates a concrete and distinct military strategy in order to strive for the interests of the sea.On this purpose, China chooses the South Pacific area to be a part of Chinese strategic arrangements.According to the strategy, as soon as China invades the defensive screen of the American Containment Policy in east, an American military will be presence. Therefore, China can depend on its base and military power in the South Pacific area to prevent from the presence of an American military and delay it for the strategic purpose of the sea denial.
Nichols, Matthew David
This thesis investigates the impact of France on conflict and stability in the South Pacific from 1985-2006, with a primary focus on France's two largest regional dependencies: New Caledonia and French Polynesia. It is demonstrated that France had a largely destabilising influence prior to 1988, due to its controversial nuclear testing programme in French Polynesia, its repression of the independence movement in New Caledonia, and its failure to act on the pronounced social and economic imbalances between the local indigenous populations and the settler communities. However, France has played a more positive stabilising role since 1988, by factoring local and indigenous concerns into peace agreements in New Caledonia, disestablishing the French Polynesian nuclear testing programme in 1996, and allowing for greater integration of its dependencies into the region by granting increased autonomy to the territorial governments. Nonetheless, France's determination to retain sovereignty of its South Pacific dependencies continues to pose a latent threat to stability. The negotiated peace achieved in New Caledonia through the Noumea Accord's deferred referendum on self-determination contrasts starkly with current political instability in French Polynesia, where the power struggle between Independentist and Loyalist parties has again brought into question the impartiality of the French State. While not a theoretical study, the developed hierarchy of variables helps explain France's reluctance to grant sovereignty to its dependencies, and emphasises the importance of 'emotional interest' in the French approach. It is concluded that France's trend towards playing an increasingly stabilising role in its dependencies will be sustained only through an enduring commitment to rebalance territorial inequalities, tolerate pro-independence sentiment, and mediate impartially in local political disputes. Under these circumstances, the stability provided by France and its dependencies in the region would be preferable to the resource and funding vacuums that would be generated by a French withdrawal.
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