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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Management of Postoperative Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Mariscal, Norma Linda, Mariscal, Norma Linda January 2017 (has links)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized by episodes of cessation of breathing (apnea) during sleep. Unfortunately, a significant number of surgical patients are unaware they are afflicted with this disorder increasing the risks of postoperative complications. The lingering effect of general anesthesia causes an increase in frequency of airway collapse, leading to longer periods of apnea. This increasingly common sleep disorder is concerning for many anesthesia providers. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anesthesia provider's knowledge and postoperative management of patients with suspected or diagnosed OSA. Setting: The study setting was a local urban hospital Mountain Vista Medical Center (MVMC) in Gilbert, AZ. The study included (N=7) participants, who were predominantly male (85%) and a majority of the participants were Master’s prepared (85%) anesthesia providers. Method: An online survey was disseminated to participants via email. The survey included questions regarding the anesthesia provider's knowledge and postoperative practice habits of patients with suspected or diagnosed OSA at MVMC. Results: The response rate was (24%). All the respondents acknowledged that OSA was a risk factor for postoperative complications. Over half of the respondents (85%) reported encountering postoperative complications such as desaturation and apnea in their patients with OSA. The main complication that was encountered was postoperative apnea (50%), followed by decreased in saturations (33.33%), and one respondent (16.67%) encountered re-intubation during the postoperative period. However, the most important finding of the study is that over half of the providers did not routinely include continued positive airway pressure (CPAP)/noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in their postoperative management of patients with suspected or known OSA due to the time needed to initiate the therapy. Conclusion: The study illustrates that a majority of anesthesia providers at MVMC agreed OSA is a significant risk factor for postoperative complications, but time constraints limited the implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) therapies. Recommended strategies would be to establish a task force to examine this barrier to therapy and develop plans to address it.
2

Reverse Atrial Electrical Remodeling Induced by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

PANG, HELEN WAI KIU 10 August 2011 (has links)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with atrial enlargement in response to high arterial and pulmonary pressures and increased sympathetic tone. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA; its impact on atrial electrical remodeling has not been investigated however. Signal-averaged p-wave (SAPW) is a non-invasive quantitative method to determine p-wave duration, an accepted marker for atrial electrical remodeling. The objective was to determine whether CPAP induces reverse atrial electrical remodeling in patients with severe OSA. Methods: Prospective study in consecutive patients attending the Sleep Clinic at Kingston General Hospital. All patients underwent full polysomnography. OSA-negative and severe OSA were defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 5 events/hour and AHI ≥ 30 events/hour, respectively. In severe OSA patients, SAPW was determined pre- and post-intervention with CPAP for 4 - 6 weeks. In OSA-negative controls, SAPW was recorded at baseline and 4 - 6 weeks thereafter without any intervention. Results: A total of 19 severe OSA patients and 10 controls were included in the analysis. Mean AHI and minimum O2 saturation were 41.4 ± 10.1 events/hour and 80.5 ± 6.5% in severe OSA patients and 2.8 ± 1.2 events/hour and 91.4 ± 2.1% in controls. Baseline BMI was different between severe OSA patients and controls (34.3 ± 5.4 vs 26.6 ± 4.6 kg/m2; p < 0.001). At baseline, severe OSA patients had a greater SAPW duration than controls (131.9 ± 10.4 vs 122.8 ± 10.5 ms; p = 0.02). After CPAP intervention, there was a significant reduction of SAPW duration in severe OSA (131.9 ± 10.4 to 126.2 ± 8.8 ms; p < 0.001). In controls, SAPW duration did not change within 4 - 6 weeks. Conclusion: CPAP induced reverse atrial electrical remodeling in patients with severe OSA as represented by a significant reduction in SAPW duration. / Thesis (Master, Physiology) -- Queen's University, 2011-07-29 12:53:09.134
3

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Quality of Life: Comparison of the SAQLI, FOSQ, and SF-36 Questionnaires.

Silva, Graciela E, Goodwin, James L, Vana, Kimberly D, Quan, Stuart F 04 September 2016 (has links)
The impact of sleep on quality of life (QoL) has been well documented; however, there is a great need for reliable QoL measures for persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We compared the QoL scores between the 36-Item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36), Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), and Functional Outcomes Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) in persons with OSA.
4

Weighted STOP-Bang and screening for sleep-disordered breathing

Nahapetian, Ryan, Silva, Graciela E, Vana, Kimberly D, Parthasarathy, Sairam, Quan, Stuart F 12 September 2015 (has links)
STOP-Bang is a tool for predicting the likelihood for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In the conventional score, all variables are dichotomous. Our aim was to identify whether modifying the STOP-Bang scoring tool by weighting the variables could improve test characteristics.
5

AHI prediction improvement by oxyhemoglobin desaturation features with new baseline definition and EEG wake information

Wang, Jen-feng 17 July 2009 (has links)
The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is overnight PSG (mutli-channel system). But it¡¦s hard to be popularized for the general population (about twenty channel signals). In recent decades, several researches were devoted to a replacement system with only one channel signal (oxyhemoglobin saturation). However, it¡¦s hard to match PSG system¡¦s report without EEG wake information. Consequently, two channels (oxyhemoglobin saturation and EEG) were used of this study to enhance the AHI (estimation index for sleep apnea) prediction performance. After surveying the most recent studies, this work proposes a new basleline removal technique for oxygen saturation signal (SpO2) by using median filter. It was proved this technique improves the diagnostic accuracy for OSA. Furthermore, it is also found that by removing the wake periods, diagnostic accuracy can be improved further. By counting the number of times that the desaturation level has dropped more than 2% for at least 3 seconds, the correlation coefficient between AHI and proposed feature is 0.9218. In addition, by removing the wake period, this correlation increases to 0.9425. By using this feature to classify patients with AHI value larger than 5, the proposed approach achieves 93.78% accuracy, 95.94% sensitivity, 78.87% specificity f. Such results demonstrate the feasibility of using single SpO2 channel system for OSA diagnosis.
6

Role of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Inducing or Aggravating Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea in Patients with Resistant Hypertension

Friedman, Oded 18 January 2010 (has links)
Accumulating evidence suggests that volume overload in drug-resistant hypertension (RH) may contribute to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH). Upon recumbency, leg fluid volume moves rostrally causing an increase in nuchal and peripharyngeal fluid content, subsequently obstructing airflow. Rostral fluid displacement following lower body positive pressure (LBPP) application and occurring spontaneously overnight were evaluated in subjects with RH (n = 25) and controlled hypertension (n = 15). In both groups, the reduction in mean upper airway cross-sectional area with LBPP strongly related to the amount of fluid displaced from the legs (R2 = 0.41; p<0.0001), although its magnitude was greater in the RH group (p=0.001; adjusted for propensity score). In both groups, the apnea-hypopnea index strongly related to the amount of fluid spontaneously displaced from the legs during sleep (R2 = 0.56; p<0.0001), although its magnitude was greater in the RH group (p=0.01; adjusted for propensity score).
7

Role of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Inducing or Aggravating Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea in Patients with Resistant Hypertension

Friedman, Oded 18 January 2010 (has links)
Accumulating evidence suggests that volume overload in drug-resistant hypertension (RH) may contribute to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH). Upon recumbency, leg fluid volume moves rostrally causing an increase in nuchal and peripharyngeal fluid content, subsequently obstructing airflow. Rostral fluid displacement following lower body positive pressure (LBPP) application and occurring spontaneously overnight were evaluated in subjects with RH (n = 25) and controlled hypertension (n = 15). In both groups, the reduction in mean upper airway cross-sectional area with LBPP strongly related to the amount of fluid displaced from the legs (R2 = 0.41; p<0.0001), although its magnitude was greater in the RH group (p=0.001; adjusted for propensity score). In both groups, the apnea-hypopnea index strongly related to the amount of fluid spontaneously displaced from the legs during sleep (R2 = 0.56; p<0.0001), although its magnitude was greater in the RH group (p=0.01; adjusted for propensity score).
8

Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea in young children:a 6-month follow-up study

Nieminen, P. (Peter) 03 May 2002 (has links)
Abstract Seventy-eight prepubertal children 3 to 10 years old (mean age 5,67 years, range 2.4 - 10.5 years), with symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were studied. Based on overnight polysomnography (PSG) results, 32 children were classified as having OSAS, whereas 46 children were considered as primary snorers (PSs'), when an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHIO) of over one was considered abnormal. Symptoms, signs and findings in these two groups were compared in a cross-sectional study. Fifty-eight of the children were retrieved for a follow-up visit, which was scheduled six months from the first visit. The children with an initial AHIO of 2 or over (n = 21) had been subjected to adenotonsillectomy swiftly after the first visit, whereas the others (n = 37) were observed without intervention. The changes in symptoms, signs and findings were analysed within and between these groups. Relative risk (RR) ratios were calculated in order to find clinical symptoms and signs predicting OSAS in snoring children. Observed apneas, restless sleep, constant snoring and tonsillar hypertrophy were significantly associated with an increased risk of OSAS. Dental arch measurements indicated that AHIO was significantly associated with the amount of overjet, suggesting that altered breathing may affect the dentofacial morphology. Nasalance measurements revealed no group differences between the OSAS children and PSs'. Adenotonsillectomy had no significant influence on the nasalence scores. Measurements of nasalance seem to contribute little to the diagnostics of OSAS in children. At the first visit the mean circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were of the same magnitude in the OSAS children, the PSs' and the age-matched control group, but both the OSAS children and the PSs' had lower IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations than the control subjects. At the second visit a significant increase of the peripheral concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, along with increases in weight for height and BMI were observed in the surgically treated children, whose respiratory parameters and symptoms had improved highly significantly, as well. These results indicate that the growth of children with obstructed nighttime breathing is potentially affected through impaired growth hormone secretion. None of the primary snorers developed OSAS during the observation period, which finding suggests a favorable prognosis for primary snoring in children.
9

Saving Lives or Saving Dollars: The Trump Administration Rescinds Plans to Require Sleep Apnea Testing in Commercial Transportation Operators

Quan, Stuart F., Barger, Laura K., Weaver, Matthew D., Czeisler, Charles A. 17 August 2017 (has links)
No description available.
10

Incidence of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Among Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

McArthur, Dedria 13 May 2016 (has links)
Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic breathing disorder that is estimated to affect 20% of the US adult population. Intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation caused by OSA likely affects cardiometabolic function. Individuals with OSA might be at risk of developing hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), with a dose-response relationship related to OSA severity. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between severity of OSA at diagnosis with 1) incidence of hypertension incidence of hypertension and 2) incidence of T2DM. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Kaiser Permanente members diagnosed with OSA during 2000-2005. Adults without baseline hypertension or T2DM were eligible. Patients were excluded if hypertension or T2DM was diagnosed within one year prior to OSA diagnosis, and right censored at the end of follow-up or at the time Kaiser Permanente membership ended. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models were used to estimate the association between OSA severity and incident hypertension and incident diabetes. Results: Overall 719 patients were diagnosed with OSA during the study periods; 614 were included as those at risk of developing either hypertension (N=265) or T2DM (N=489). Overall, 261 had severe OSA at diagnosis. Those with severe OSA were more likely to be middle aged, overweight, and have prevalent hypertension or T2DM. Among those without prevalent hypertension at OSA diagnosis, 47.4% (126/266) were subsequently diagnosed with hypertension. Among those without prevalent T2DM at OSA diagnosis, 16.3% (80/491) were subsequently diagnosed with T2DM. After adjusting for BMI and prevalent T2DM, the hazard rate of incident hypertension among patients with severe OSA was 1.35 (95%CI: 0.88-2.06) compared to the rate among patients with mild OSA. The hazard rate of incident T2DM among patients with severe OSA was 1.49 (95%CI: 0.83-2.67) compared to the rate among patients with mild OSA after adjusting for BMI and prevalent hypertension. Discussion: We found high incidence rates of hypertension and T2DM among adults diagnosed with OSA. Severe OSA at diagnosis was associated with increased risk of either incident hypertension or T2DM, but not significantly (for p≤0.05).

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