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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Complementary Coded OFDMA Systems

Huang, Wei-Chen 10 September 2007 (has links)
none
2

Performance Comparison of OFDMA and Complementary Code Based CDMA Systems

Wang, Kuo-bin 03 September 2006 (has links)
In this thesis, the performance comparison of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and complete complementary code based CDMA system is studied. The complete complementary code is composed of several sets of auto-complementary codes, any two of which are cross-complementary codes. The perfect correlation between code sets is the distinguishing feature of complete complementary code. OFDMA is used in the 4th. generation Mobile Communication systems. The OFDMA architecture can offer an MAI-free operation in both down-link (synchronous channel) and up-link (asynchronous channel) transmission under the AWGN channel.
3

Aspectos de sincronización en frecuencia para sistemas multiportadora

González, Gustavo José 16 March 2012 (has links)
En esta tesis se tratan diversos aspectos que contribuyen a incrementar el desempeño de los sistemas de comunicaciones modernos. Entre los desafíos más importantes están la compen sación de los efectos del canal de comunicaciones, la sincroni-zación en frecuencia y las limitaciones en el ancho de banda de transmisión. Los estándares modernos son capaces de proveer a los usuarios diferentes tipos de calidad de servicio. Esto exige gran flexibilidad en el manejo de los recursos de radio y alta robustez frente a las interferencias. El multiplexa-do por división en frecuencias ortogonales (OFDM), es el es-quema de modulación multiportadora que se esta adoptando en la mayoría de los estándares para lograr dichas exigencias. Entre las desventajas de la implementación práctica de OFDM están la sensibilidad a errores de sincronismo en frecuencia y el alto consumo de potencia en la amplificación. El error de sincronismo en frecuencia destruye la ortogonalidad entre las subportadoras de OFDM lo que disminuye notablemente el desempeño del sistema, por ese motivo es necesario estimar y compensar dicho error. Para tal fin se propuso una familia de algoritmos de estimación de errores de sincronismo basados en una aproximación más exacta de la estadística de la señal de entrenamiento. En consecuencia, los estimadores obte-nidos tienen mejor desempeño que los propuestos anterior-mente. Considerando una incipiente línea de investigación, se propuso un estimador de frecuencia basado en filtrado notch que es útil para la estimación de errores de sincronismo en sistemas multiportadora. El algoritmo funciona de manera itera-tiva procesando la información en bloques, lo que resulta ade-cuado para estimaciones basadas en una secuencia de entre-namiento. El acceso mútiple por división de frecuencias ortogonales (OFDMA) está basado en OFDM y utiliza conjun-tos de subportadoras para trasmitir la información de cada usuario. En este caso también es necesario estimar y compen-sar los errores de sincronismo, operaciones que requieren una elevada carga computacional. En esta tesis se propone un esquema de compensación de errores de sincronismo que permite reducir notoriamente la complejidad del sistema sin degradar considerablemente el desempeño. La modulación multiportadora basada en banco de filtros (FBMC) se ha pro-puesto recientemente como alternativa a OFDMA ya que es menos sensible a errores de sincronismo en frecuencia. Con el fin de determinar cual sistema es el más adecuado, se pre-senta una comparación entre OFDMA y FBMC en un contexto realista, teniendo en cuenta tanto el desempeño como la complejidad de implementación. Además de las temáticas principales antes mencionadas, en esta tesis se tratan de manera complementaria cuestiones relacionadas con nuevos sistemas de comunicaciones en estado de desarrollo, que permiten abordar los problemas de escasez espectral y de amplificación de una señal de amplio rango dinámico. Estu-dios recientes demuestran que el espectro es un recurso escaso pero muchas veces desperdiciado. La solución para este problema puede ser la asignación dinámica de ancho de banda, lo que permite que varios sistemas o redes compartan la misma banda de frecuencias. Estos sistemas están compuestos por dispositivos llamados radios cognitivas que tienen que realizar tareas de sensado espectral a fin de determinar si alguna banda de interés está o no disponible. Se supone que las señales involucradas en el proceso de sen-sado son OFDM, debido a que este esquema es ampliamente utilizado en la actualidad. Por consiguiente, en esta tesis se estudian técnicas de detección y diferenciación de señales basadas en características estadísticas de dicha modulación. El alto rango dinámico de las señales OFDM produce un alto consumo de potencia que puede ser inaceptable, sobretodo en dispositivos móviles. Para evitar el problema es posible concebir un sistema híbrido en el cual se utilice OFDM en el enlace de bajada y modulacion de portadora simple en el enlace de subida. En este sistema la ecualización en el enlace de subida no es trivial como en el caso de OFDM. Se ha propuesto entonces, un ecualizador con realimentación de decisión en el dominio frecuencia y adaptación de mínimos cuadrados recursiva, que permite mejorar el desempeño tanto en la velocidad de convergencia de los coeficientes del filtro, como en el seguimiento de las variaciones del canal de comunicaciones. / In this thesis are discussed several aspects that contribute to increase the performance of modern communication systems. Among the most important challenges are the compensation of communication channel effects, frequency synchronization and transmission bandwidth limitations. Modern standards are able to provide different quality of services to the users. This requires a high flexibility in the management of radio resources and high robustness against channel interference. The ortho-gonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), is the multi-carrier modulation scheme that is being adopted in most of modern standards to achieve the required specifications. Among the disadvantages of OFDM practical implementation are the sensitivity to frequency synchronization errors and the high consumption of the power amplifier. The frequency synchronization error destroys the orthogonality of OFDM subcarriers which decreases the system performance signi-ficantly, for this reason it is necessary to estimate and compensate this error. To that end, it is proposed a new family of algorithms for carrier frequency offset estimation, based on a more accurate approximation of the training signal statistics. As a consequence, obtained estimators have better performance that previous proposals. Considering an emerging line of research, it is also proposed a frequency estimator based on notch filtering that is useful for estimation of frequency synchronization errors in multicarrier systems. The algorithm is iterative and process the information in a bock basis, which results appropriate for estimations based on a training sequence. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is based on OFDM and employs a set of subcarriers to transmit the information of each user. In this case also it is necessary to estimate and compensate syn-chronization errors, operations that require a high computa-tional load. In this thesis is proposed a compensation scheme for frequency synchronization errors that allows to reduce significantly the system complexity without degrading noto-riously the performance. The filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation has been recently proposed as an alter-native to OFDMA since it is less sensitive to frequency syn-chronization errors. In order to establish which system is the more appropriate, it is presented a comparison between OFDMA and FBMC in a realistic context, taking into account performance and implementation complexity. In addition to the key issues mentioned above, in this thesis are discussed in a complementary manner topics related to new commu-nications systems in early development stages, that address the problems of spectral scarcity and high dynamic range power amplification. Recent studies show that the spectrum is a scarce resource but often wasted. The solution to this pro-blem may be the dynamic bandwidth allocation, allowing multiple systems or networks to share the same frequency band. These systems consist of devices called cognitive radios, that have to sense the spectrum to determine if the frequency band of interest is available or not.It is supposed that signals involved in the sensing process are OFDM, since this scheme is currently wide adopted. In conclusion, in this thesis are studied signal detection and differentiation tech-niques based on statistical features of this modulation. The high dynamic range of OFDM leads to a high power consump-tion that could be unacceptable, mainly in mobile devices. To avoid the problem is possible to conceive an hybrid system that employ OFDM in the downlink and single carrier modula-tion in the uplink. In this system the equalization in the uplink is not trivial as for the OFDM case. Then, it is proposed a frequency domain decision feedback equalizer and recursive least squares adaptation, that improves the performance both in convergence speed and tracking of communication channel variations.
4

Busy burst technology applied to OFDMA-TDD systems

Ghimire, Birendra January 2010 (has links)
The most significant bottleneck in wireless communication systems is an ever-increasing disproportion between the bandwidth demand and the available spectrum. A major challenge in the field of wireless communications is to maximise the spatial reuse of resources whilst avoiding detrimental co-channel interference (CCI). To this end, frequency planning and centralised coordination approaches are widely used in wireless networks. However, the networks for the next generation of wireless communications are often envisioned to be decentralised, randomly distributed in space, hierarchical and support heterogeneous traffic and service types. Fixed frequency allocation would not cater for the heterogeneous demands and centralised resource allocation would be cumbersome and require a lot of signalling. Decentralised radio resource allocation based on locally available information is considered the key. In this context, the busy burst (BB) signalling concept is identified as a potential mechanism for decentralised interference management in future generation networks. Interference aware allocation of time-frequency slots (chunks) is accomplished by letting receivers transmit a BB in a time-multiplexed mini-slot, upon successful reception of data. Exploiting channel reciprocity of the time division duplex (TDD) mode, the transmitters avoid reusing the chunks where the received BB power is above a pre-determined threshold so as to limit the CCI caused towards the reserved chunks to a threshold value. In this thesis, the performance of BB signalling mechanism in orthogonal frequency division multiple access - time division duplexing (OFDMA-TDD) systems is evaluated by means of system level simulations in networks operating in ad hoc and cellular scenarios. Comparisons are made against the state-of-the-art centralised CCI avoidance and mitigation methods, viz. frequency planning, fractional frequency reuse, and antenna array with switched grid of beams, as well as decentralised methods such as the carrier sense multiple access method that attempt to avoid CCI by avoiding transmission on chunks deemed busy. The results demonstrate that with an appropriate choice of threshold parameter, BB-based techniques outperform all of the above state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, it is demonstrated that by adjusting the BB-specific threshold parameter, the system throughput can be traded off for improving throughput for links with worse channel condition, both in the ad hoc and cellular scenario. Moreover, by utilising a variable BB power that allows a receiver to signal the maximum CCI it can tolerate, it is shown that a more favourable trade-off between total system throughput and link throughput can be made. Furthermore, by performing link adaptation, it is demonstrated that the spatial reuse and the energy efficiency can be traded off by adjusting the threshold parameter. Although the BB signalling mechanism is shown to be effective in avoiding detrimental CCI, it cannot mitigate CCI by itself. On the other hand, multiple antenna techniques such as adaptive beamforming or switched beam approaches allow CCI to be mitigated but suffer from hidden node problems. The final contribution of this thesis is that by combining the BB signalling mechanism with multiple antenna techniques, it is demonstrated that the hybrid approach enhances spatial reusability of resources whilst avoiding detrimental CCI. In summary, this thesis has demonstrated that BB provides a flexible radio resource mechanism that is suitable for future generation networks.
5

Realization of a Cognitive Radio-Mesh Network Based on OFDMA Technology

Jiang, Lili 05 1900 (has links)
The goal of this thesis is to realize some critical techniques required in the cognitive radio mesh network. Cognitive radio (CR) is a new technology introduced to improve the frequency efficiency of current wireless systems. A mesh network, which leverages the advantages of an infrastructure network and a pure ad-hoc network, is a network topology highly suitable for the CR networks. CR users need to adapt to their ambient wireless environment and automatically select their own effective transceiver mode. The thesis focuses on the realization of a physical layer protocol, dynamic frequency-selection algorithm, mesh network signalling method, and transmit-power control algorithm in CR mesh networks. A new dynamic frequency selection algorithm is introduced in CR network, including estimation of the primary users' traffic statistics as well as adaptation to the local background noise interference. Through continuous observation, analysis, and adaptation to the time-varying environment, CR is able to select the candidate frequency bands to satisfy a user's rate and power requirements without causing collision to the primary users in those bands. As a generic model, a Gaussian mixture model, is selected for characterizing the statistics of the traffic environment. The transmit-power control in the CR mesh network is based on an iterative water-filling algorithm, rooted in information theory. The iterative water-filling algorithm is modified to suit the requirement of CR mesh networks. It works well for setting a suitable transmit-power level, sub-channels, and sub-carriers for the nodes in a CR mesh network. To support current systems, experiments are presented on the wireless mesh network, which are based on the orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) mode of the High-speed Unlicensed Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (Wireless HUMAN). In the mesh network, the multiple access control(MAC) layer signals including the distributed network configuration, network entry, and network scheduling signals, are introduced. They are transmitted through a control channel in a cooperative mechanism. The physical layer(PHY) of OFDMA is also discussed in the thesis. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc)
6

Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks

Mehrjoo, Mehri January 2008 (has links)
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is becoming a widely deployed mechanism in broadband wireless networks due to its capability to combat the channel impairments and support high data rate. Besides, dealing with small units of spectrum, named sub-carriers, instead of whole spectrum, results in enhanced flexibility and efficiency of the resource allocation for OFDMA networks. Resource allocation and scheduling in the downlink of OFDMA networks supporting heterogeneous traffic will be considered in this thesis. The purpose of resource allocation is to allocate sub-carriers and power to users to meet their service requirements while maintaining fairness among users and maximizes resource utilization. To achieve these objectives, utility-based resource allocation schemes along with some state-of-the-art resource allocation paradigms such as power control, adaptive modulation and coding, sub-carrier assignment, and scheduling are adopted. On one hand, a utility-based resource allocation scheme improves resource utilization by allocating enough resources based on users' quality of service (QoS) satisfaction. On the other hand, resource allocation based on utilities is not trivial when users demand different traffic types with convex and nonconvex utilities. The first contribution of the thesis is the proposing of a framework, based on joint physical (PHY) and medium access (MAC) layer optimization, for utility-based resource allocation in OFDMA networks with heterogeneous traffic types. The framework considers the network resources limitations while attempting to improve resources utilization and heterogeneous users' satisfaction of service. The resource allocation problem is formulated by continuous optimization techniques, and an algorithm based on interior point and penalty methods is suggested to solve the problem. The numerical results show that the framework is very efficient in treating the nonconvexity problem and the allocation is accurate comparing with the ones obtained by a genetic search algorithm. The second contribution of the thesis is the proposing of an opportunistic fair scheduling scheme for OFDMA networks. The contribution is twofold. First, a vector of fair weights is proposed, which can be used in any scheduling scheme for OFDMA networks to maintain fairness. Second, the fair weights are deployed in an opportunistic scheduling scheme to compensate the unfairness of the scheduling. The proposed scheme efficiently schedules users by exploiting multiuser diversity gain, OFDMA resource allocation flexibility, and utility fair service discipline. It is expected that the research in the thesis contributes to developing practical schemes with low complexity for the MAC layer of OFDMA networks.
7

Modeling and Performance Analysis of Relay-based Cooperative OFDMA Networks

Alam, Md Shamsul 07 October 2014 (has links)
Next generation wireless communication networks are expected to provide ubiquitous high data rate coverage and support heterogeneous wireless services with diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. This translates into a heavy demand for the spectral resources. In order to meet these requirements, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been regarded as a promising air-interface for the emerging fourth generation (4G) networks due to its capability to combat the channel impairments and support high data rate. In addition, OFDMA offers flexibility in radio resource allocation and provides multiuser diversity by allowing subcarriers to be shared among multiple users. One of the main challenges for the 4G networks is to achieve high throughput throughout the entire cell. Cooperative relaying is a very promising solution to tackle this problem as it provides throughput gains as well as coverage extension. The combination of OFDMA and cooperative relaying assures high throughput requirements, particularly for users at the cell edge. However, to fully exploit the benefits of relaying, efficient relay selection as well as resource allocation are critical in such kind of network when multiple users and multiple relays are considered. Moreover, the consideration of heterogeneous QoS requirements further complicate the optimal allocation of resources in a relay enhanced OFDMA network. Furthermore, the computational complexity and signalling overhead are also needed to be considered in the design of practical resource allocation schemes. In this dissertation, we conduct a comprehensive research study on the topic of radio resource management for relay-based cooperative OFDMA networks supporting heterogeneous QoS requirements. Specifically, this dissertation investigates how to effectively and efficiently allocate resources to satisfy QoS requirements of 4G users, improve spectrum utilization and reduce computational complexity at the base station. The problems and our research achievements are briefly outlined as follows. Firstly, a QoS aware optimal joint relay selection, power allocation and subcarrier assignment scheme for uplink OFDMA system considering heterogeneous services under a total power constraint is proposed. The relay selection, power allocation and subcarrier assignment problem is formulated as a joint optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the system throughput, which is solved by means of a two level dual decomposition and subgradient method. The computational complexity is finally reduced via the introduction of two suboptimal schemes. The performance of the proposed schemes is demonstrated through computer simulations based on OFDMA network. Numerical results show that our schemes support heterogeneous services while guaranteeing each user's QoS requirements with slight total system throughput degradation. Secondly, we investigate the resource allocation problem subject to the satisfaction of user QoS requirements and individual total power constraints of the users and relays. The throughput of each end-to-end link is modeled considering both the direct and relay links. Due to non-convex nature of the original resource allocation problem, the optimal solution is obtained by solving a relaxed problem via two level dual decomposition. Numerical results reveal that the proposed scheme is effective in provisioning QoS of each user's over the conventional resource allocation counterpart under individual total power constraints of the users and relays . Lastly, decentralized resource allocation schemes are proposed to reduce the computational complexity and CSI feedback overhead at the BS. A user centric distributed (UCD) scheme and a relay centric distributed (RCD) scheme are proposed, where the computation of the centralized scheme is distributed among the users and relays, respectively. We also proposed suboptimal schemes based on simplified relay selection. The suboptimal schemes can be combined with the distributed schemes to further reduce of signalling overhead and computational complexity. Numerical results show that our schemes guarantee user's satisfaction with low computational complexity and signalling overhead, leading to preferred candidates for practical implementation. The research results obtained in this dissertation can improve the resource utilization and QoS assurance of the emerging OFDMA networks.
8

Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks

Mehrjoo, Mehri January 2008 (has links)
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is becoming a widely deployed mechanism in broadband wireless networks due to its capability to combat the channel impairments and support high data rate. Besides, dealing with small units of spectrum, named sub-carriers, instead of whole spectrum, results in enhanced flexibility and efficiency of the resource allocation for OFDMA networks. Resource allocation and scheduling in the downlink of OFDMA networks supporting heterogeneous traffic will be considered in this thesis. The purpose of resource allocation is to allocate sub-carriers and power to users to meet their service requirements while maintaining fairness among users and maximizes resource utilization. To achieve these objectives, utility-based resource allocation schemes along with some state-of-the-art resource allocation paradigms such as power control, adaptive modulation and coding, sub-carrier assignment, and scheduling are adopted. On one hand, a utility-based resource allocation scheme improves resource utilization by allocating enough resources based on users' quality of service (QoS) satisfaction. On the other hand, resource allocation based on utilities is not trivial when users demand different traffic types with convex and nonconvex utilities. The first contribution of the thesis is the proposing of a framework, based on joint physical (PHY) and medium access (MAC) layer optimization, for utility-based resource allocation in OFDMA networks with heterogeneous traffic types. The framework considers the network resources limitations while attempting to improve resources utilization and heterogeneous users' satisfaction of service. The resource allocation problem is formulated by continuous optimization techniques, and an algorithm based on interior point and penalty methods is suggested to solve the problem. The numerical results show that the framework is very efficient in treating the nonconvexity problem and the allocation is accurate comparing with the ones obtained by a genetic search algorithm. The second contribution of the thesis is the proposing of an opportunistic fair scheduling scheme for OFDMA networks. The contribution is twofold. First, a vector of fair weights is proposed, which can be used in any scheduling scheme for OFDMA networks to maintain fairness. Second, the fair weights are deployed in an opportunistic scheduling scheme to compensate the unfairness of the scheduling. The proposed scheme efficiently schedules users by exploiting multiuser diversity gain, OFDMA resource allocation flexibility, and utility fair service discipline. It is expected that the research in the thesis contributes to developing practical schemes with low complexity for the MAC layer of OFDMA networks.
9

Timing and frequency synchronization for orthogonal frequency division multiple-access systems

Gul, Malik Muhammad Usman 27 August 2014 (has links)
Reliable timing and frequency synchronization is a major requirement in orthogonal frequency division multiple-access (OFDMA) systems as synchronization errors can result in inter-symbol-interference (ISI) and inter-carrier-interference (ICI) in the received signal, which severely degrade system performance. Thus, the objective of the proposed research is to develop, analyze, and prototype timing and frequency synchronization techniques for downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) OFDMA transmissions. For synchronization in DL OFDMA transmissions, we have developed conditions to select appropriate Zadoff-Chu sequences as training symbols that allow timing synchronization in the presence of large carrier frequency offsets (CFO). Using the proposed training block, we have designed training signal detection, timing synchronization, and integer CFO estimation algorithms. We have further proposed the training signal design for frequency synchronization in DL coordinated multi-point (COMP) transmissions, in which a user has to synchronize to multiple base-stations at the same time. In this respect, a frequency synchronization algorithm for DL COMP receiver has been designed using the proposed training signal along with its hardware implementation to analyze real-time performance. For frequency synchronization in UL OFDMA transmissions, we have proposed a null sub-carrier-based CFO estimation algorithm, and carried out its identifiability and acquisition range analysis. The proposed algorithm supports both sub-band and generalized sub-carrier allocations. We have also designed a CFO estimation and compensation algorithm for UL single-carrier frequency division multiple-access (SC-FDMA) transmissions. The proposed algorithm is based on parallel factor analysis and supports interleaved sub-carrier allocation. In addition, it guarantees the identifiability of CFO estimation and allows the system to operate on full load. Detailed simulations results have been provided along with discussions on computational requirements, which reveal that the proposed algorithms provide significant improvements in performance and efficiency compared to state of the art schemes in the literature.
10

A low complexity algorithm for dynamic fair resource allocation in OFDMA systems

Moreira, André Luis Cavalcanti 31 January 2008 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-12T15:50:41Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 license.txt: 1748 bytes, checksum: 8a4605be74aa9ea9d79846c1fba20a33 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008 / A popularização da Internet e a demanda por acesso de alta velocidade levou ao desenvolvimento da Broadband Wireless Access. Apesar do seu grande potencial, a comunicação via rádio impõe alguns desafios. Uma grande limitação é o próprio meio de transmissão devido a efeitos inerentes à propagação de radio como o path loss, frequency selective fading, espalhamento Doppler e multipath delay-spread. Nesse contexto, o OFDM é uma tecnologia promissora por causa de sua tolerância a problemas de perdas e multi-caminho. Devido à combinação de canais independentes, é possível usar diferentes modulações em cada sub-carrier, de acordo com as condições do canal. Esta técnica é conhecida como adaptive modulation and coding. Além disso, em uma arquitetura ponto a multi-ponto, múltiplos usuários podem compartilhar o espectro ao se atribuir diferentes conjuntos de sub-carriers, tirando vantagem do um efeito conhecido como diversidade multi-usuário. Em comparação com outras técnicas de múltiplo acesso, o OFDMA permite um melhor aproveitamento da diversidade multi-usuário com a possibilidade de uma alocação com alta granularidade. Muitas pesquisas têm investigado técnicas adaptativas capazes de melhorar a eficiência espectral em sistemas multi-usuário. Essas técnicas são normalmente formuladas como constraint optimization problems, conhecidos por serem NP-hard. Neste trabalho, adotamos uma abordagem heurística para lidar com esse tipo de problema. O objetivo principal é desenvolver uma estratégia de alocação fazendo uso eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e maximizando a eficiência espectral total. Entretanto, um estratégia que apenas procura maximizar a eficiência espectral pode gerar um problema relacionado à justiça no compartilhamento de recursos. Outrossim, com a popularização das redes sem fio, é esperado que elas sejam capazes de prover uma maior variedade de serviços com diferentes requisites de QoS e largura de banda. Portanto, procuramos desenvolver um algoritmo que permita ao operador da rede definir esses requisitos. De acordo com eles, o algoritmo deve fornecer o maior throughput possível dentro dos limites estabelecidos por essas restrições

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