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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Study of auxiliary power systemsfor offshore wind turbines : an extended analysis of a diesel gen-setsolution

Berggren, Joakim January 2013 (has links)
Until today the offshore wind power has grown in a steady pace and many new wind farms are being constructed around the globe. An important factor that is investigated today in the industry are the security of power supply to the equipment needed for controlling the offshore system during emergency situations. When a offshore wind farm is disconnected from the external grid and an emergency case occur the wind turbine generators lose their ability to transfer power and they are forced to be taken out of operation. As there are a number of loads in the wind turbines (navigation lights, sensor- and communication-apparatus, ventilation- and heating equipment etc.) they have a load demand which must be supplied in emergency mode. The German Transmission System operator (TSO) TenneT GmbH has set a requirement that the wind turbines is to be supplied by an auxiliary power supply (APS) in 12 hours and therefore there is need for a long-term auxiliary power supply system. This master thesis was assigned to investigate the most feasible APS-system. From the study of a number of different APS's one concept was chosen. This was the diesel gen-set solution placed on an offshore substation at sea. The system was modeled in the software DIgSILENT PowerFactory where a load flow analysis validated the calculated data and a study of the impact of  transients in the system was performed.
2

OFFSHORE WIND POWER INVESTMENT MODEL USING A REFERENCECLASS FORECASTING APPROACH TO ESTIMATE THE REQUIRED COSTCONTINGENCY BUDGET

Boquist, Pär January 2015 (has links)
Forecasting capital expenditures in early stages of an offshore wind power project is aproblematic process. The process can be affected by optimism bias and strategicmisrepresentation which may result in cost overruns. This thesis is a response to issuesregarding cost overruns in offshore wind power projects. The aim of this thesis is tocreate a cost forecasting method which can estimate the necessary capital budget in awind power project. The author presents a two-step model which both applies the inside view and outsideview. The inside view contains equations related to investment and installation costs.The outside view applies reference class forecasting in order to adjust the necessary costcontingency budget. The combined model will therefore forecast capital expenditures fora specific site and adjust the cost calculations with regard to previous similar projects. The results illustrate that the model is well correlated with normalized cost estimationsin other projects. A hypothetical 150MW offshore wind farm is estimated to costbetween 2.9 million €/MW and 3.5 million €/MW depending on the location of the windfarm.
3

Offshore power production and marine stakeholders : from understanding conflict to impact mitigation

Alexander, Karen January 2012 (has links)
Little is known about the impact of marine renewable energy installations upon the marine environment and those who use it. Harnessing marine energy will involve the offshore siting of energy extraction devices and their associated infrastructure. This will alter the local environment and substantially modify use and access for a variety of marine stakeholders, potentially leading to conflict. Using the Ecosystem Approach (EA) as a conceptual framework, this thesis aimed to answer the question: What is the potential for conflict between the marine renewable energy industry and marine stakeholders, and how can this be mitigated? The research consisted of three components which used a variety of methods: i) stakeholder identification through a review of the literature and use of a novel interactive mapping method; ii) an investigation of the potential consequences for the priority stakeholder which used a mail survey and in-depth interviews; and iii) an exploration of potential mitigation which used ecosystem modelling. The stakeholder most likely to be affected by marine renewable energy device (MRED) deployment was the fishing industry. Potential consequences included: navigation and safety hazards, loss of access and alternative employment. Further exploration revealed that a loss of livelihood was the all-encompassing concern for fishers, and that skills shortages (transferable skills) may mean that should a loss of livelihood occur there may not be acceptable alternative employment. The modelling exercise indicated that it is not currently possible to definitively predict whether any opportunities which may be created by MRED installation will mitigate any negative effects, and that exclusion zones may actually decrease catches for most fleets. The findings of this study have implications for ‘conflict-free’ development of the marine renewable energy industry. To address this, several policy recommendations were offered as regards to operationalising the EA in terms of marine renewable energy.
4

Tidal park within offshore wind parks : An analysis for the potential use of tidal kites within the Aberdeen offshore wind farm

Merkai, Christina January 2018 (has links)
Offshore wind has proved to be one of the most reliable and clean energy sources over the last few years. The industry has experienced a significant growth, with an increase of 101% only in 2017 compared to 2016. This raises the importance of the need for more secure power supply systems, which can be used for controlling the offshore farms during disconnections from the main grid. Nowadays, diesel generators are being used to feed auxiliary services of the offshore wind turbines in situations of emergency. However, as the marine renewable energy industry evolves, tidal energy parks have the potential to replace diesel generators and provide a more sustainable and eco-friendly solution for a long-term auxiliary power system. Moreover, they have the potential to produce extra power, which can be either stored for future use or linked directly to distribution. This report demonstrates a technical, financial and environmental assessment of a potential tidal park within an offshore wind park. Comparison with alternative sources for emergency power supply is also performed. Three alternative locations with high wind speeds and large tidal resource around the UK coast and four different groups of tidal devices are evaluated and compared for the implementation of this solution with the use of ArcGIS maps and other accessible marine data. The Aberdeen wind farm and the tidal kites are selected for further investigation and cost analysis. Seven tidal kites with average power 700 kW and rated power 3.5 MW can provide adequate power to the offshore wind farm for three months without grid connection, whereas they can also provide excess of energy on daily basis when grid disconnection does not occur. The total cost for the project would be approximately 301.6 MSEK. Due to the current renewable energy market, the project is not feasible without high investment risks. However, this study should be evaluated again in the near future when the cost of the tidal device will be further decreased. / Havsbaserad vind har visat sig vara en av de mest tillförlitliga och rena energikällorna under senare år. Inom denna industri har en betydande tillväxt skett, med en ökning med 101% år 2017 jämfört med 2016. Detta relaterar till behovet av säkra elförsörjningssystem, som kan användas för att styra havsbaserade vindraftverksparker under urkoppling från huvudnätet. Numera används dieselgeneratorer som reservkälla till havsvindkraftverk i nödsituationer. Men när den marina förnybara energiindustrin utvecklas, har tidvattenkraftverk potential att ersätta dieselgeneratorer och ge ett mer hållbar och miljövänlig långtidslösning. Dessutom har de potential att producera extra el, som antingen kan lagras för framtida användning eller kopplas direkt till distributionsnätet. Denna rapport erbjuder en teknisk, finansiell och miljömässig bedömning av en potentiell tidvattenkraftverkspark kopplad till en havsvindpark. Jämförelse med alternativa källor för strömförsörjning genomförs också. Tre alternativa platser med hög vindstyrka och stora tidvattenresurser längs Storbritanniens kust och fyra olika grupper av tidvattenanordningar utvärderas och jämförs med hjälp av kartor och andra tillgängliga marina data. Aberdeen vindkraftpark och tidvattendrakar väljs för ytterligare undersökning och kostnadsanalys. Sju tidvattendrakar med genomsnittlig effekt på 700 kW och nominell effekt 3,5 MW kan ge tillräckligt med el till havsvindkraftverk i tre månader utan nätförbindelse, medan de också kan ge överflöd av energi dagligen när strömavbrott inte förekommer. Den totala kostnaden för projektet skulle vara cirka 301,6 MSEK. På grund av läget idag på elmarknaden för förnybar energi, är projektet inte genomförbart utan höga investeringsrisker. Men den här studien bör utvärderas igen inom en snar framtid när kostnaden för tidvattenanordningen har minskat.
5

Interaction of DC-DC converters and submarine power cables in offshore wind farm DC networks

Wood, Thomas Benedict January 2014 (has links)
Offshore wind power is attracting increasing levels of research and investment. The use of HVDC transmission and the development of DC grids are topics with similar high levels of interest that go hand in hand with the development of large scale, far from shore wind farms. Despite increased capital cost of some components, DC power transmission can have significant advantages over AC transmission, in particular in the offshore environment. These advantages are well established for large scale, long distance point to point transmission. This thesis assesses the suitability of a multi-terminal DC power collection network, with short cables and relatively small amounts of power, addresses a number of the technical challenges in realising such a network and shows methods for overall system cost reduction. Technical and modelling challenges result from the interaction between power electronic DC-DC converters and the cables in a DC transmission network. In particular, the propagation of the ripple current in bipole DC transmission cables constructed with a metallic sheath and armour is examined in detail. The finite element method is used to predict the response of the cable to the ripple current produced by the converters. These results are used along with wave propagation theory to demonstrate that cable design plays a crucial role in the behaviour of the DC system. The frequency dependent cable models are then integrated with time domain DC-DC converter models. The work in the thesis is, broadly, in two parts. First, it is demonstrated that care and accuracy are required in modelling the cables in the DC transmission system and appropriate models are implemented and validated. Second, these models are combined with DC-DC converter models and used to demonstrate the practicality of the DC grid, make design recommendations and assess its suitability when compared with alternative approaches (e.g. AC collection and/or transmission).
6

ASSESSMENT OF THE OFFSHORE WIND POTENTIAL IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA TO SATISFY THE DEMAND OF ELECTRICITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION

GOMEZ SARA, JOSE ORLANDO January 2019 (has links)
The offshore wind potential of the Caribbean Sea has barely been exploited. Currently, the offshore wind power industry in Latin America and the Caribbean region is still at very early stages, leaving aside an important resource that otherwise could contribute to satisfy the growing energy demand of the zone. In this study the possibilities arising from a massive exploitation of the wind resource in the Caribbean Sea are assessed. The objective is to investigate if the resources contained in it would be sufficient to satisfy the energy demand of Latin America and the Caribbean, which is foreseen to be about 1900 TWh/year by 2020. To address this question, the “Infinite wind farm” concept is used as a simple way to model the meteorological behaviour and the wind speed in the area. The model is utilized in combination with the bathymetric data of the Caribbean Sea and with a simple economic analysis, to evaluate what the requirements to satisfy the energy demand would be in terms of area, number of turbines, and levelized cost of energy (LCoE). The assessment is performed utilizing different turbine sizes, and inter-turbine separations to find the combination that minimizes the LCoE. It is found that the energy demand of Latin America and the Caribbean could be satisfied using only 125000 km2 (4.5% of the total Caribbean Sea area) of waters shallower than 25m at a cost of 69 €/MWh, if the turbines were separated 6.5D from one another and if they had a rotor diameter of 250m. In that case, 47760 turbines should be installed using only conventional monopile foundations.
7

Inserção da energia eólica offshore no Brasil: análise de princípios e experiências regulatórias / Insertion of offshore wind energy in Brazil: analysis of principles and regulatory experiences

Barbosa, Robson 05 February 2019 (has links)
A energia eólica é uma das fontes de energia renovável mais promissoras e que cresce mais rapidamente em todo o mundo. O uso da energia eólica pode contribuir para reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa derivados da queima de combustíveis fósseis. Estima-se que o Brasil dispõe de um significativo potencial eólico offshore na sua Zona Econômica Exclusiva de cerca de 1,78 TW. Entretanto, um dos fatores limitantes para o desenvolvimento da energia eólica offshore no Brasil é a inexistência de um marco regulatório. O marco regulatório é uma condição essencial para atrair investimentos no setor e permitir o desenvolvimento do potencial latente. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar princípios e experiências regulatórias brasileiras e internacionais para subsidiar o debate na formulação de instrumentos normativos com vista a inserção da energia eólica offshore no Brasil. O estudo apresenta um panorama do estado da arte e das tendências tecnológicas para geração de energia eólica offshore que ajuda a compreender como a construção e operação de usinas pode provocar impactos socioambientais e conflitos no espaço oceânico. Uma síntese do conceito de potencial eólico é elaborada, e as rendas econômicas do recurso eólico offshore são analisadas ressaltando-se a necessidade de atuação do Estado na arbitragem de sua extração e distribuição. Por meio da investigação do arcabouço jurídico-regulatório brasileiro, e com uso da metodologia descritiva, constatou-se que não há instrumentos capazes de dar suporte ao desenvolvimento de parques eólicos offshore no Brasil. A partir da análise de princípios e experiências regulatórias brasileiras em geração de energia eólica onshore, geração de energia hidrelétrica, exploração e produção de petróleo e gás natural, e, em geração de energia eólica offshore do Reino Unido, Alemanha, Dinamarca, Holanda, Bélgica, China e Estados Unidos, foram elaborados quadros de referências para servirem de base para o caso do Brasil. Em conclusão, princípios dos modelos brasileiros para outorga de usinas hidrelétricas; princípios do modelo de exploração e produção de petróleo e gás natural, assim como das experiências internacionais em energia eólica offshore aderentes ao ambiente institucional do Brasil, podem ser adotados na formulação de instrumentos jurídicos e normativos com vista a inserção da energia eólica offshore no país. / Wind power is one of the most promising and fastest growing renewable energy sources in the world. The use of wind power can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels. It is estimated that Brazil has a significant offshore wind potential in its Exclusive Economic Zone of about 1.78 TW. However, one of the limiting factors for the development of offshore wind power in Brazil is the lack of a regulatory framework. The regulatory framework is an essential condition to attract investments in the sector and allowing the development of latent potential. This study aims to analyze Brazilian and international regulatory principles and experiences to support the debate in the formulation of normative instruments for the insertion of offshore wind energy in Brazil. The study presents an overview of the state of the art and technological trends for offshore wind power generation that helps to understand how the construction and operation of power plants can cause socio-environmental impacts and conflicts in the ocean space. A synthesis of the concept of wind potential is elaborated, and the economic rents of the offshore wind resource are analyzed emphasizing the necessity of State action in the arbitration of its extraction and distribution. Based on the investigation of the Brazilian legal-regulatory framework and by using the descriptive methodology it was verified that there are no instruments capable of supporting the development of offshore wind farms in Brazil. Based on the analysis of Brazilian principles and regulatory experiences in onshore wind power generation, hydroelectric power generation, oil and natural gas exploration and production, and in offshore wind power generation in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, China, and United States, frameworks of the conceptual references were developed to serve as a basis for the case of Brazil. In conclusion, principles of the Brazilian model for the grant of hydroelectric plants; principles of the Brazilian model for oil, and natural gas exploration and production, as well as of the international offshore wind experiences adhering to the institutional environment of Brazil, can be adopted in the formulation of legal and normative instruments aiming the insertion of offshore wind power in the country.
8

Experimental analysis of the effect of waves on a floating wind turbine

Unknown Date (has links)
The goal of this Thesis is to demonstrate, through experimentation, that ocean waves have a positive effect on the performance of an offshore wind turbine. A scale model wind turbine was placed into a wave tank that was completely covered and fitted with a variable speed fan to create different wind and wave conditions for testing. Through testing, different power coefficient vs. tip speed ratio graphs were created and a change in power coefficient was observed between steady operating conditions and operating conditions with waves. The results show a promising increase in power production for offshore wind turbines when allowed to operate with the induced motion caused by the amplitude and frequency of water waves created. / Includes bibliography. / Thesis (M.S.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2013.
9

Management System for Operations Mantenanace in Offshore Wind Turbine Plant

Ghanbari, Ahmad, Oyelakin, Muhydeen January 2012 (has links)
Management system for enhancing transfer of knowledge in wind power industry has not received sufficient research attention in recent times. In some cases, the wind power plant owner does not control the management system for operation and maintenance activities. Most of these wind power plants are under contract and rely upon the turbine vendor to perform most of the maintenance works and subsequently share their experience at the initial stage of operation. This research investigates the management system for the operations and maintenance activities of the offshore wind plant in Lillgrund. The research also explores the type of learning method that was adopted by the wind turbine vendor (Siemens) to transfer the operation and maintenance knowledge to the operator and owner (Vattenfall) within the speculated period. It was realized that in the next one year, the Vattenfall would be in full control of the operations and maintenance activities of the offshore wind power plant in Lillgrund. The co-management arrangement will give Siemens a good reputation and gainful experience in the wind power industry. The arrangement is achievable due to Siemens strategy to strive for constructive and long-standing relationships with their customer, based on trust, respect, and honesty. Vattenfall on the other hand, is aiming to be the partner of choice for their suppliers at the same time as best serving their internal customers. The provision for the training during the co-management period enables Siemens to strengthen their relationship with Vattenfall in this industry. In addition, Siemens also maintain close relationship with their customers and develop a large part of their portfolio, frequently on site. Vattenfall improves profitability and value creation, as a fundamental prerequisite for continued growth. The management systems of Vattenfall can be related to professional bureaucracy, this is due to the fact that it was organized to accommodate Siemens experts. Vattenfall benefits from the co-management activities of the operation and maintenance of the Lillgrund wind power plant for a specific period of time. The outcome of the research work has proven that there is an effective time-dependent proportionality for a gradual transfer of the technical knowledge of operation and maintenance from Siemens Wind AB to the Vattenfall personnel. The research started from the perspective of the maintenance method by Swedish standard for wind power, and the way things are being carried out in a more practical way in Lillgrund plant.
10

Analysis of Low Voltage Ride Through Capability of Different Off-shore Wind Farm Collection Schemes

Chen, Yu-Jie 15 July 2012 (has links)
Demand is emerging for offshore wind power plant (WPP) that often has favorable capacity factor and high capacity value as compared with onshore wind farms. There are many challenges regarding power losses, economics, protection system and reliability of the wind farm. Collection system design decisions play an essential role to efficient operation of the WPP. Wind generators also have to be able to cope with grid disturbances. Low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of wind turbines requires generator units remain in operation for severe voltage drops during ¡@grid system faults, and be able to withstand depressed voltage for a few seconds in a recovery period. Technical requirements set out in grid codes for off shore wind farm normally relate to different connection points. A rigor LVRT requirement would increase the overall investment costs of the wind farm. In most offshore wind farm projects, radial collector systems connecting a number of wind turbines and terminated at the offshore platform have served well the requirements for an economical design. However, due to the lack of redundancy, its reliability is poor. To improve the reliability of the collector system, the inclusion of a cable section that interconnects the remote ends of two adjacent radial feeders has been proposed. The transmission system of a wind farm takes the power generated and sends it to shore. Medium voltage AC transmission is the simplest one, just gathering the cables from the collector system and taking them together until they reach the point of common coupling (PCC).Through wind farm dynamic simulations by using DIgSIENT package, this thesis demonstrates that the ride through capability which occur at the particular wind parks with different collector system topology are greater than those which the wind turbines are capable of riding through, i.e., LVRT curves of different wind farm collection system designs of an offshore WPP and a single wind generator are different. This can be exploited to reduce the cost in complying with LVRT requirement of offshore WPP.

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