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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Indiërs en Indiër-onderwys in Natal en Transvaal : 'n historiese en kritiese studie, 1860-1940 / Pieter Schalk Naudé

Naudé, Pieter Schalk January 1950 (has links)
Proefskrif--PU vir CHO
2

Indiërs en Indiër-onderwys in Natal en Transvaal : 'n historiese en kritiese studie, 1860-1940 / Pieter Schalk Naudé

Naudé, Pieter Schalk January 1950 (has links)
Proefskrif--PU vir CHO
3

Fenomenologiese reduksie en essensiepedagogiek. / Jordaan, Hendrik Sebastiaan

Jordaan, Hendrik Sebastiaan January 1976 (has links)
The present situation in South Africa is that the study of the science of pedagogy is mainly based on the phenomenological approach. In this method of reduction the scientist is enabled to get to the essences of the phenomenon of "education". This method has gradually become a system or a philosophy of education based on phenomenology. The system, iniated by Husserl, was adopted by the dutch philosophers Langeveld and Perquin and embrace9 in their philosophy of education. Their writings on this subject became very popular and were taken over by the South African educationists Oberholzer, Gunter, Landman, Van Zyl and others. These people established a philosophy of education for South Africa almost similar to the dutch system, but they went further and declared that the phenomenological method is the one and only method for the study of the science of education, this is the sole method, they maintain, by which a scientific study could be made and by which an unbiased, neutral conception of this science could ever be obtained. Thus they have absolutized phenomenology as a method and a philosophy and have excluded all other approaches as being unscientific, biased and even tarnished with some unscientific pre-conception. These phenomenologists maintain that it is essential to advance from the phenomenon of education and to investigate this phenomen without any prejudice or preconceived principles as these prejudices or principles or conceptions or beliefs are injurious to the pure science which education should be. Such a preconceived principle or attitude could be a christian outlook on life and such like conceptions. These principles would have been in order had they remained pre-scientific or post-scientific but they should not be taken in account when the pure phenomen "education" as such is studied. All these pre-conceived ideas, religions, conceptions have to be bracketed before any such scientific study could be undertaken. It is further maintained these e that the result arrived at under these conditions is "a universally acceptable and scientific result" on which e of any creed or denomination could be unanimous as it is then a neutral conclusion. This neutral approach implies that the is taken and reduced to its essences or irreducible components which are then the originally given or "fait primitif” which has the intrinsic ability to declare itself to the investigator or "education scientist". The investigator must only listen to this essence which then is active while the "scientist" is the passive medium through which these essences disclose themselves. As pointed out before the personal beliefs, disbeliefs, convictions, etc. must under no account be brought into play while this "scientific scrutiny and the resultant disclosure by the essences" take place. The interpreter and his action of reduction are left out of account and it is only the "knowable" as such that declares itself to the investigator. The phenomenological philosophy hence ascribes the potential and ability of denoting or explaining, itself to the essence or "eidos". The, method and philosophy known as Phenomenology has become a conception accepted by the majority of writers on educational science and also by teachers and students of education. It is, of course, a natural outcome when one considers that most books on the philosophy of education are written from the phenomenological approach authors of this conviction. To our mind this conception has caused a problem as it has not remained with education and educators but has spread the nation and has become a philosophy of life with its branches of naturalism, humanism and essentialism others. Ultimately a need and a desire for a changed view have become imperative. A religiously minded people cannot accept the alienation of its religion from its education and hence this study was undertaken in an effort to put the two facts into perspective. To our mind a conception that an "essence" has the ability to convey to the investigator its knowability, while the investigator remains passive and God the Creator is left altogether out of reckoning, is impossible to accept. If a thing or fact is knowable and can. be known it is such because God has created it as such. It has a part in the analitical modality and the fact that man possesses the ability to analyse the analysable and express the result in words and thus communicate it to fellow men process of knowing has a two-poled "dialogue" because it is the knower and the knower -each in its complete reality, but is not a "dial in the sense in which the phenomenologists desire the term to be interpreted -coming from the "knowable" or "essence" only. It is a process of knowing, an activity, which ensues from the knower. It is a "two-oneness" because the scope and contents of the result of knowing, is determined by the knowable. In its full reality, however, the God of Scripture and the Word of God can not for one moment be excluded from its reality and no neutrality as such is ever possible. Any scientist or investigator is a human being and hence a religions being who stands in relation to God, whether he knows it or not, whether he accepts it or not, does not matter. And the scientific activity is an activity ensueing from the heart and qualified by the heart be it in obedience to the law of God or not. Hence all activities of man is religiously deter= minded and that includes education and educating. Man was created by God, as child of God with the task to Govern and rule over all of creation which was given to him by God to rule over as even over himself, over his fellow human being in which is included the child in its rearing and educating to answer to its calling in complete responsibility solely to the glory of God, its Creator. The problem posed thus is - what is the place of Word revelation in practising any science, even the science of education or pedagogics? What are the implications of this and do the truths of Scripture come to realization in science without having to be verified or proven? What actually are these truths? Which of these truths are required for the science of education and what part will they play? The phenomenologists reject these truths or parenthesize them until they deem it necessary to bring them into play. In their so-called scientific or neutral approach they repudiate World revelation in which God discloses Himself and His relation to all things. The Lord God had put a radical yet correlated variety in the cosmos. This irreducible variety and interdependent relation must be accepted and investigated without reletavizations and particulirizations and yet with acknowledgement of God as sovereign Ruler over and Creator of man and cosmos which are subjected to His cosmic law and order. This approach to science will nullify all cosmologic absolutization of naturalism, pragmatism, positivism, scientism, secularism, existentialism as well as "phenomenism" which is an absolutization of the phenomenon. Man was created by God with a given task and responsibility to do his share in fulfilment of God's will. Practising science is part and parcel of this task accomplishment for which the light of the lord of God is indespensible but practising science is also religious service of God which has to be practised in the light of Scripture. The true scientist, therefore, tests the foundation of his science by the Word of God and absolutization of something from the cosmos, be it something of man like his reason, or be it something of the world like the phenomenon, must be opposed because it is not in accordance with the light of Scripture. Thus the scientist shall investigate the whole of reality in its complete coherence and not only a phenomenon which has been reduced to its "essences" from this reality. In his research the educationist as a scientist, shall continually realize that he can know only partially but in the light of Scripture he should declare the sovereignity of God over all cosmos and over each and every activity of man and this includes education as such. This, then is the crux of the matter therefore a Christian cannot accept the neutral approach of the phenomenologists to found a philosophy of education on anything else but Scripture. The field of is to include the founding and practise of present phi of education in South Africa as practised and accepted at most instutions for teacher training. This philosophy is based on the phenomenol approach and the Christian world and life view is bracketed and ignored until a point is reached. This actually leads to a dualistic approach which is not acceptable in view of the above mentioned standpoint. Education is religiously determined and a pedagogy of essences declares its approach to be phenomenologically based The origin and devel of this branch of thought is indicated and reference is made to the greatest exponents of this school of thought in Brentano as the originator of the conception of phenomenology is given attention to. Some of the works of Husserl, the initiator of this school are studied as well as works of Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, who are famous exponents of the phenomenology. The works of these philosophers had inspired the dutch philosophers Langeveld and Perquin to design their system of phenomenologically based philosophy of education. The dutch version of this philosophy was brought to South Africa by C.K. Oberholzer and he and his followers are mainly responsible for the present day widely accepted fundamental pedagogy or philosophy of education, which can be denoted as the "pedagogy of essences". A look is taken at this pedagogy of essences and it is duly evaluated. Because this pedagogy of essences is not acceptable to some of us in the light of Christian and religious conviction as indicated earlier, a tentative idea for an alternative philosophy of education is indicated. The so called unbiased and neutral approach to education is, to our mind, not only impossible but actually an apostasy of the Christian religion. This is virtually proved by these phenomenologists themselves by the fact that sooner or later they do return to a world and life view which they initially had professed to have bracketed so as to enable them to reach a scientific, unbiased or neutral foundation for the philosophy of education. It was deemed necessary to refer to religion, science and calling (vocation) as these are integral aspects of man's life. It was also necessary to refer briefly to the ontic law, as well as to the implications of the belief in God as the foundation for a science of education with its corresponding aim and contents. Therefore reference is made to a cosmological, a anthropological, a cognizable and a methodological basis for this philosophy of education determined Word revelation. The method mainly used in this study is philosophic-historic-critical. Philosophy is that science which studies the radical variety in its integral composity, so as to establish a total conception of temporal reality. It therefore explains matters about the universe and man in the universe, thus also matters about man and his education. A philosophy of education must develop against a specific philosophical background and cannot be isolated from it. To the Christian it is clear that the task of a well-defined, well-formulated and scientifically substantiated and responsible philosophical pedagogy, is to indicate the final destination of man and practise this education with a similar purpose. It should then be clear that in this study a systematic method was used which has a specific view on the relation between God, ontic law and cosmos. The sources used in this study were works of Husserl (English translations mainly) Langeveld, Perquin, and the South African authors Oberholzer, Gunter and B.F. Nel, Landman and others. Works of Stoker, Spier, Loen, Taljaard, Strauss and Venter, were valuable sources. The conclusion arrived at in this study is that a philosophy of education should be based on a christian philosophy and should include the totality of education and not only a phenomenon. Such a philosophy of education should, in its entirety depend on Word revelation. / Proefskrif--PU vir CHO
4

Lewensbeskoulike differensiasie in die onderwysstelsel. / Hermanus de Jager

De Jager, Hermanus January 1981 (has links)
The aim of this study is to indicate, analyse and describe, by means of theoretical principles, the close connection between man's philosophy of life and the educational system which is often postulated by educationalists. The research was conducted in the form of a literature study. In this way different aspects in the field of research were highlighted. In contrast with scientists who maintain the so-called autonomy of theoretical thought as a basic starting point, the explicit point of view taken here was that the Bible should be the guideline for all human action, this necessarily includes all scientific activity. The philosophical "model of reality" which was used was that of the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea. The use of this structure of reality was, however, subject to the view that not all conclusions to which the various followers of this school of thought arrived at, were acceptable. This research revealed that the basic motive in both education and the educational system is always of a religious nature. By "religious" is meant that man's inclination is always towards that to which he is most deeply attached in the depths of his being. In the educational situation it has been shown that human attitudes and beliefs vary greatly from person to person. This difference is the result of the Fall - since the Fall the heart of man is inclined either towards God or idolatrously towards something in the cosmos. From the subsequent analysis of identity and modal structures in education, and the educational system, it became abundantly clear that these structures are particularised by the religious motive. It was found that the central principle of a philosophy of life is also of a religious nature. This makes it evident to conclude that man's philosophy of life is the guiding force of his life. It directs all his activities and consequently also his educational work and the educational system designed by him. From this analysis it was concluded that man's philosophy of life which is always religiously determined is the first and most primary principle of the educational system and therefore forms the basis for differentiation in the educational system one which takes precedence over and forms the basis of all other principles of differentiation in the educational system. / Thesis (MEd)--PU vir CHO
5

The modern school: its crisis and its future. / Sung Soo Kim

Kim, Sung Soo January 1984 (has links)
Education and schooling have been under severe and constant attack on all sides since the Russians launched Sputnik in 1957. It is today a platitude or a reality of educational thought to say that the school as a social institution is in a state of deep crisis. In the relevant literature there is a great amount of data available which support the contention that the schools are in trouble. The increasing number of private and free schools is also indicative of the extent to which the modern school is beset with problems. A survey of the literature on the crisis of the school revealed several topical problems which underlined the necessity for undertaking this study. First of all, what the critics accuse the school of varies widely. It was, therefore, necessary in this study to outline some fundamental problems of the school. Secondly, the modern school remains in trouble in spite of the fact that the calls to reform the school situation have been met by many positive suggestions. Therefore, this study needed to explore the reasons why criticism of the school has failed to solve the problems of the school. Thirdly, there appeared on the scene in the past decade or so some extremely radical critics of the school whereas the school and its particular role fulfilment in society have so far only been accepted uncritically in Christian-reformational circles. The socalled "deschooling" philosophy therefore had to be viewed from a Scriptural perspective. Lastly, an investigation into the reasons why schools today pass through such a bombardment of criticism had to be made from a Scriptural perspective. This study attempted to achieve a threefold over-all aim: firstly, it tried to profile and analyse the main or fundamental problems or the crisis of the school; secondly, it tried to evaluate these problems or crisis of the school fundamental-educationally; and thirdly, it tried to find a Christian solution to the crisis of the school from a Scriptural perspective, in the process attempting to make a contribution to a radically Christian science of education and theory of the school. The research method employed in this research is characteristic of fundamental educational inquiry. The method applied to this study is, therefore, based mainly on documentary analysis. The problem-historical method and the method of philosophical reflection were also used in this study. Furthermore, various views of the school, school criticisms, reforming ideas as well as alternative ideas to the present schooling are criticized and evaluated in this study by way of immanent, transcendental, and exheretical critical methods. Above all else, this study is guide by the principle of sola Scriptura. In order to see and understand properly the present-day fundamental crisis of the school, attention was, firstly, given to a brief historical review of the development of the school, and also to some of the problems which the school has faced from primitive times up to the end of the 19th century. It became evident that the school, in the first instance, came into existence as an institution which takes care of teaching, namely the transmitting of knowledge and skills regarded as necessary to the pupils. A review of the history of the school revealed that the school has, throughout the centuries, been criticized in various ways. Up to the end of the 19th century, however, it seems that all the critique of the school was in some way related to the school’s basic function, that is, related to the question of whether it performs its primary function of teaching children effectively or not. Consequently, most of the efforts to reform the school were, in a broad sense, concentrated upon the problem of organizing learning content logically or according to the natural development of the educand, or to extending more opportunities of schooling to more pupils, or to striking a balance between individual demands and societal demands. The most important thing in connection with the crisis line of the school which the review of the history of the school has revealed, is that the school has always performed its basic function of teaching children in a way determined by a certain (mainly apostatic) religious ground motif, but has so far (generally speaking) never truly stood on the sound and true (anastatic) Scriptural religious ground motif. The examination of the problems or crisis of the school in the North American regional context has also proved that the critics and the reformers of education and the school in North America have so far never truly stood on the sound and true (anastatic) Scriptural religious ground motif. The Deweyan progressive school was determined, motivated, and controlled by the modern humanistic religious ground motif of nature and freedom. After the Sputnik debacle, education and schooling for the pursuit of individual excellence began to take central importance again and a largescale curriculum reforming movement was launched. The return to "hard" education after Sputnik, however, contributed significantly to the radicalism of the counter-cultural movement, which then again led to the advent of the "return-to-basics" movement of the early 1980's. All this clearly shows that the pendulum of school reform oscillates to and fro between the two extreme poles of the modern humanistic religious ground motif, that is, the science or nature pole, on the one hand, and the ideal of human freedom or the personality ideal, on the other hand. In modern/contemporary times, education and schooling in the Western world are dominated by the personality ideal. The left liberal critics (like Postman, Weingartner, Kohl, Silberman, Dennison, and Neill) and the left radical critics (like Reimer, Goodman, Holt, Freire, and Illich) are all concerned about the individual's free l autonomous, and self-sufficient growth and development. They all charge the public schools with damaging, thwarting, stifling children's capacity to learn and grow as free autonomous human beings. The present school, according to their criticism, is not fit for free autonomous human beings. The left liberals, on the one hand, have a strong belief in progress and accept the assumption that the problems of the present school can be changed" creatively. Therefore, they want to reform the school environment to become more humane by putting more emphasis on individuality and on the individual freedom of the child. They do not reject the very idea of a school system. The left radicals, on the other hand, no longer think of the school in terms of reforming, changing or improving it, but think of the total destruction of the school. The school as it currently exists, according to its left radical critics, generates ill-will, hypocrisy, mono= poly, and manipulation to such a degree that the school is beyond all hope. School reform, whether radical or moderate, is, according to them, a futile enterprise. Therefore, they have suggested that the very idea of a school system must be rejected in favour of finding a more effective, humane, personal, self-directed choice of means for learning. The concept of deschooling society has been, therefore, suggested by the left radical critics as a solution to the educational crisis in general, and the school crisis in particular. Although the problems (or crisis) of the school which have been raised by humanistic critics do not reveal a homogeneous character, the central or fundamental problems of the school centre mainly around matters of ontology, anthropology, epistemology, societal relationships, and matters of an ethical and religious nature. The Bible does not offer any directive and systematic treatment of these problems of the school. However, it supplies sufficient guidelines and perspectives on fundamental aspects of the school and schooling. With regard to the ontological "problem" of the school, it is clear from the Scriptural perspective that the school as an institution is no mere product of historical coincidence. It is a form of positivization of the ontic law for the school, which was given by God, at creation, for His glory. The left radical critics of the school regard the school merely as a historical phenomenon and they overlook the ontic law for the school. For this reason, they do not acknowledge the fact that the school has its own unique law side. The anthropological presuppositions of modern humanistic critics of the school are also unacceptable. Man, as a created being, is not a totally "free" and autonomous/sovereign being. The critics, however, succeed in calling our attention to the fact that the modern school leaves little room to the pupils to be creative and original. In connection with the epistemological "problem" of the school, modern humanistic criticism cannot be justified in its insistence that the primary function of the school is the educative function and that the school is the wrong place for the transmission and learning of knowledge and skills. The school certainly has and should have an educational task, but it is a fallacy to state that it is the school's first and foremost responsibility to educate children. If the primary and exclusive teaching task of the school is not fully acknowledged, confusion and haziness about the unique structure and task of the school may arise. Furthermore, the school has so far succeeded fairly in carrying out its basic function of teaching pupils. However, modern humanistic critics are justified, to a certain extent, in their criticism that the teaching function of the school has been contrived to serve the established norms and ideals of the existing social order in society. From a Scriptural standpoint, the crisis of the modern school can be ascribed to the fact that the teaching work of the school has not always been truly educational teaching. The relationship of the school with other societal structures is also one of the fundamental "problems" about which many school-critics have been concerned. The school has the specific and unique task of teaching, and no other task in communal life can be allocated to it. Founded in the historical modality, the school has its own structural identity which functions in its unique way in all the cosmic aspects. The unique teaching task (logical-analytical function) of the school, however, can not be effectively achieved unless there exist a proper and correct relationship of understanding and co-operation between the different types of communities as concrete realities. The crisis of the school in modern times is also caused to a large extent by the misconception of the close relationship between freedom and authority. The ultimate morality of a society, according to the left liberal and left radical critics, depends upon the education of its members; a moral society must have moral education, that is, education which protects and enhances the natural goodness of man. The freedom of the child is, therefore, strongly emphasized by the left liberal and left radical critics. They distort the real and true meaning of freedom and authority. Freedom and authority in the school should be viewed and practised by both the teacher and the pupil within the biblical perspective. All the above-mentioned fundamental "problems" of the school are basically related to the religious ground motif "problem" since nothing (not even science) can escape from being religiously determined. The school and schooling are always determined by certain some or other religious ground motif. Modern school critics (humanists) keep wavering backward and forward between the two polar opposites of the modern humanistic religious ground motif of freedom/the personality ideal and nature/the science ideal. From a non-Scriptural, humanistic point of view the problem of the ground motif of the school is insoluble; the humanist has no choice but to vacillate irresolutely between the two poles of the antinomy. Only the Scriptural ground motif of creation, fall into sin and redemption through Jesus Christ in communion with the Holy Spirit can make it possible for one to reach a real and true synthesis. If the modern school is to truly meet crises in future it must radically break with all the inwardly contradictory trends of humanistic thought and practice, and should in all its aspects and facets be radically determined by the sound Scriptural ground motif. Only then, the school as a social institution will be able to function properly and effectively in future. The school as a social institution, as a form of positivization of the divine ontic law for the school, should continually be reformed according to God's will (law) for the school. Modern humanistic critics surely call our attention to the rigidities, weaknesses and various shortcomings of the existing school system. Much talk about the crisis and even of the death of the school should be the signal to reform the school. / Proefskrif (DEd)--PU vir CHO
6

Fenomenologiese reduksie en essensiepedagogiek. / Jordaan, Hendrik Sebastiaan

Jordaan, Hendrik Sebastiaan January 1976 (has links)
The present situation in South Africa is that the study of the science of pedagogy is mainly based on the phenomenological approach. In this method of reduction the scientist is enabled to get to the essences of the phenomenon of "education". This method has gradually become a system or a philosophy of education based on phenomenology. The system, iniated by Husserl, was adopted by the dutch philosophers Langeveld and Perquin and embrace9 in their philosophy of education. Their writings on this subject became very popular and were taken over by the South African educationists Oberholzer, Gunter, Landman, Van Zyl and others. These people established a philosophy of education for South Africa almost similar to the dutch system, but they went further and declared that the phenomenological method is the one and only method for the study of the science of education, this is the sole method, they maintain, by which a scientific study could be made and by which an unbiased, neutral conception of this science could ever be obtained. Thus they have absolutized phenomenology as a method and a philosophy and have excluded all other approaches as being unscientific, biased and even tarnished with some unscientific pre-conception. These phenomenologists maintain that it is essential to advance from the phenomenon of education and to investigate this phenomen without any prejudice or preconceived principles as these prejudices or principles or conceptions or beliefs are injurious to the pure science which education should be. Such a preconceived principle or attitude could be a christian outlook on life and such like conceptions. These principles would have been in order had they remained pre-scientific or post-scientific but they should not be taken in account when the pure phenomen "education" as such is studied. All these pre-conceived ideas, religions, conceptions have to be bracketed before any such scientific study could be undertaken. It is further maintained these e that the result arrived at under these conditions is "a universally acceptable and scientific result" on which e of any creed or denomination could be unanimous as it is then a neutral conclusion. This neutral approach implies that the is taken and reduced to its essences or irreducible components which are then the originally given or "fait primitif” which has the intrinsic ability to declare itself to the investigator or "education scientist". The investigator must only listen to this essence which then is active while the "scientist" is the passive medium through which these essences disclose themselves. As pointed out before the personal beliefs, disbeliefs, convictions, etc. must under no account be brought into play while this "scientific scrutiny and the resultant disclosure by the essences" take place. The interpreter and his action of reduction are left out of account and it is only the "knowable" as such that declares itself to the investigator. The phenomenological philosophy hence ascribes the potential and ability of denoting or explaining, itself to the essence or "eidos". The, method and philosophy known as Phenomenology has become a conception accepted by the majority of writers on educational science and also by teachers and students of education. It is, of course, a natural outcome when one considers that most books on the philosophy of education are written from the phenomenological approach authors of this conviction. To our mind this conception has caused a problem as it has not remained with education and educators but has spread the nation and has become a philosophy of life with its branches of naturalism, humanism and essentialism others. Ultimately a need and a desire for a changed view have become imperative. A religiously minded people cannot accept the alienation of its religion from its education and hence this study was undertaken in an effort to put the two facts into perspective. To our mind a conception that an "essence" has the ability to convey to the investigator its knowability, while the investigator remains passive and God the Creator is left altogether out of reckoning, is impossible to accept. If a thing or fact is knowable and can. be known it is such because God has created it as such. It has a part in the analitical modality and the fact that man possesses the ability to analyse the analysable and express the result in words and thus communicate it to fellow men process of knowing has a two-poled "dialogue" because it is the knower and the knower -each in its complete reality, but is not a "dial in the sense in which the phenomenologists desire the term to be interpreted -coming from the "knowable" or "essence" only. It is a process of knowing, an activity, which ensues from the knower. It is a "two-oneness" because the scope and contents of the result of knowing, is determined by the knowable. In its full reality, however, the God of Scripture and the Word of God can not for one moment be excluded from its reality and no neutrality as such is ever possible. Any scientist or investigator is a human being and hence a religions being who stands in relation to God, whether he knows it or not, whether he accepts it or not, does not matter. And the scientific activity is an activity ensueing from the heart and qualified by the heart be it in obedience to the law of God or not. Hence all activities of man is religiously deter= minded and that includes education and educating. Man was created by God, as child of God with the task to Govern and rule over all of creation which was given to him by God to rule over as even over himself, over his fellow human being in which is included the child in its rearing and educating to answer to its calling in complete responsibility solely to the glory of God, its Creator. The problem posed thus is - what is the place of Word revelation in practising any science, even the science of education or pedagogics? What are the implications of this and do the truths of Scripture come to realization in science without having to be verified or proven? What actually are these truths? Which of these truths are required for the science of education and what part will they play? The phenomenologists reject these truths or parenthesize them until they deem it necessary to bring them into play. In their so-called scientific or neutral approach they repudiate World revelation in which God discloses Himself and His relation to all things. The Lord God had put a radical yet correlated variety in the cosmos. This irreducible variety and interdependent relation must be accepted and investigated without reletavizations and particulirizations and yet with acknowledgement of God as sovereign Ruler over and Creator of man and cosmos which are subjected to His cosmic law and order. This approach to science will nullify all cosmologic absolutization of naturalism, pragmatism, positivism, scientism, secularism, existentialism as well as "phenomenism" which is an absolutization of the phenomenon. Man was created by God with a given task and responsibility to do his share in fulfilment of God's will. Practising science is part and parcel of this task accomplishment for which the light of the lord of God is indespensible but practising science is also religious service of God which has to be practised in the light of Scripture. The true scientist, therefore, tests the foundation of his science by the Word of God and absolutization of something from the cosmos, be it something of man like his reason, or be it something of the world like the phenomenon, must be opposed because it is not in accordance with the light of Scripture. Thus the scientist shall investigate the whole of reality in its complete coherence and not only a phenomenon which has been reduced to its "essences" from this reality. In his research the educationist as a scientist, shall continually realize that he can know only partially but in the light of Scripture he should declare the sovereignity of God over all cosmos and over each and every activity of man and this includes education as such. This, then is the crux of the matter therefore a Christian cannot accept the neutral approach of the phenomenologists to found a philosophy of education on anything else but Scripture. The field of is to include the founding and practise of present phi of education in South Africa as practised and accepted at most instutions for teacher training. This philosophy is based on the phenomenol approach and the Christian world and life view is bracketed and ignored until a point is reached. This actually leads to a dualistic approach which is not acceptable in view of the above mentioned standpoint. Education is religiously determined and a pedagogy of essences declares its approach to be phenomenologically based The origin and devel of this branch of thought is indicated and reference is made to the greatest exponents of this school of thought in Brentano as the originator of the conception of phenomenology is given attention to. Some of the works of Husserl, the initiator of this school are studied as well as works of Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, who are famous exponents of the phenomenology. The works of these philosophers had inspired the dutch philosophers Langeveld and Perquin to design their system of phenomenologically based philosophy of education. The dutch version of this philosophy was brought to South Africa by C.K. Oberholzer and he and his followers are mainly responsible for the present day widely accepted fundamental pedagogy or philosophy of education, which can be denoted as the "pedagogy of essences". A look is taken at this pedagogy of essences and it is duly evaluated. Because this pedagogy of essences is not acceptable to some of us in the light of Christian and religious conviction as indicated earlier, a tentative idea for an alternative philosophy of education is indicated. The so called unbiased and neutral approach to education is, to our mind, not only impossible but actually an apostasy of the Christian religion. This is virtually proved by these phenomenologists themselves by the fact that sooner or later they do return to a world and life view which they initially had professed to have bracketed so as to enable them to reach a scientific, unbiased or neutral foundation for the philosophy of education. It was deemed necessary to refer to religion, science and calling (vocation) as these are integral aspects of man's life. It was also necessary to refer briefly to the ontic law, as well as to the implications of the belief in God as the foundation for a science of education with its corresponding aim and contents. Therefore reference is made to a cosmological, a anthropological, a cognizable and a methodological basis for this philosophy of education determined Word revelation. The method mainly used in this study is philosophic-historic-critical. Philosophy is that science which studies the radical variety in its integral composity, so as to establish a total conception of temporal reality. It therefore explains matters about the universe and man in the universe, thus also matters about man and his education. A philosophy of education must develop against a specific philosophical background and cannot be isolated from it. To the Christian it is clear that the task of a well-defined, well-formulated and scientifically substantiated and responsible philosophical pedagogy, is to indicate the final destination of man and practise this education with a similar purpose. It should then be clear that in this study a systematic method was used which has a specific view on the relation between God, ontic law and cosmos. The sources used in this study were works of Husserl (English translations mainly) Langeveld, Perquin, and the South African authors Oberholzer, Gunter and B.F. Nel, Landman and others. Works of Stoker, Spier, Loen, Taljaard, Strauss and Venter, were valuable sources. The conclusion arrived at in this study is that a philosophy of education should be based on a christian philosophy and should include the totality of education and not only a phenomenon. Such a philosophy of education should, in its entirety depend on Word revelation. / Proefskrif--PU vir CHO
7

Lewensbeskoulike differensiasie in die onderwysstelsel. / Hermanus de Jager

De Jager, Hermanus January 1981 (has links)
The aim of this study is to indicate, analyse and describe, by means of theoretical principles, the close connection between man's philosophy of life and the educational system which is often postulated by educationalists. The research was conducted in the form of a literature study. In this way different aspects in the field of research were highlighted. In contrast with scientists who maintain the so-called autonomy of theoretical thought as a basic starting point, the explicit point of view taken here was that the Bible should be the guideline for all human action, this necessarily includes all scientific activity. The philosophical "model of reality" which was used was that of the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea. The use of this structure of reality was, however, subject to the view that not all conclusions to which the various followers of this school of thought arrived at, were acceptable. This research revealed that the basic motive in both education and the educational system is always of a religious nature. By "religious" is meant that man's inclination is always towards that to which he is most deeply attached in the depths of his being. In the educational situation it has been shown that human attitudes and beliefs vary greatly from person to person. This difference is the result of the Fall - since the Fall the heart of man is inclined either towards God or idolatrously towards something in the cosmos. From the subsequent analysis of identity and modal structures in education, and the educational system, it became abundantly clear that these structures are particularised by the religious motive. It was found that the central principle of a philosophy of life is also of a religious nature. This makes it evident to conclude that man's philosophy of life is the guiding force of his life. It directs all his activities and consequently also his educational work and the educational system designed by him. From this analysis it was concluded that man's philosophy of life which is always religiously determined is the first and most primary principle of the educational system and therefore forms the basis for differentiation in the educational system one which takes precedence over and forms the basis of all other principles of differentiation in the educational system. / Thesis (MEd)--PU vir CHO
8

The modern school: its crisis and its future. / Sung Soo Kim

Kim, Sung Soo January 1984 (has links)
Education and schooling have been under severe and constant attack on all sides since the Russians launched Sputnik in 1957. It is today a platitude or a reality of educational thought to say that the school as a social institution is in a state of deep crisis. In the relevant literature there is a great amount of data available which support the contention that the schools are in trouble. The increasing number of private and free schools is also indicative of the extent to which the modern school is beset with problems. A survey of the literature on the crisis of the school revealed several topical problems which underlined the necessity for undertaking this study. First of all, what the critics accuse the school of varies widely. It was, therefore, necessary in this study to outline some fundamental problems of the school. Secondly, the modern school remains in trouble in spite of the fact that the calls to reform the school situation have been met by many positive suggestions. Therefore, this study needed to explore the reasons why criticism of the school has failed to solve the problems of the school. Thirdly, there appeared on the scene in the past decade or so some extremely radical critics of the school whereas the school and its particular role fulfilment in society have so far only been accepted uncritically in Christian-reformational circles. The socalled "deschooling" philosophy therefore had to be viewed from a Scriptural perspective. Lastly, an investigation into the reasons why schools today pass through such a bombardment of criticism had to be made from a Scriptural perspective. This study attempted to achieve a threefold over-all aim: firstly, it tried to profile and analyse the main or fundamental problems or the crisis of the school; secondly, it tried to evaluate these problems or crisis of the school fundamental-educationally; and thirdly, it tried to find a Christian solution to the crisis of the school from a Scriptural perspective, in the process attempting to make a contribution to a radically Christian science of education and theory of the school. The research method employed in this research is characteristic of fundamental educational inquiry. The method applied to this study is, therefore, based mainly on documentary analysis. The problem-historical method and the method of philosophical reflection were also used in this study. Furthermore, various views of the school, school criticisms, reforming ideas as well as alternative ideas to the present schooling are criticized and evaluated in this study by way of immanent, transcendental, and exheretical critical methods. Above all else, this study is guide by the principle of sola Scriptura. In order to see and understand properly the present-day fundamental crisis of the school, attention was, firstly, given to a brief historical review of the development of the school, and also to some of the problems which the school has faced from primitive times up to the end of the 19th century. It became evident that the school, in the first instance, came into existence as an institution which takes care of teaching, namely the transmitting of knowledge and skills regarded as necessary to the pupils. A review of the history of the school revealed that the school has, throughout the centuries, been criticized in various ways. Up to the end of the 19th century, however, it seems that all the critique of the school was in some way related to the school’s basic function, that is, related to the question of whether it performs its primary function of teaching children effectively or not. Consequently, most of the efforts to reform the school were, in a broad sense, concentrated upon the problem of organizing learning content logically or according to the natural development of the educand, or to extending more opportunities of schooling to more pupils, or to striking a balance between individual demands and societal demands. The most important thing in connection with the crisis line of the school which the review of the history of the school has revealed, is that the school has always performed its basic function of teaching children in a way determined by a certain (mainly apostatic) religious ground motif, but has so far (generally speaking) never truly stood on the sound and true (anastatic) Scriptural religious ground motif. The examination of the problems or crisis of the school in the North American regional context has also proved that the critics and the reformers of education and the school in North America have so far never truly stood on the sound and true (anastatic) Scriptural religious ground motif. The Deweyan progressive school was determined, motivated, and controlled by the modern humanistic religious ground motif of nature and freedom. After the Sputnik debacle, education and schooling for the pursuit of individual excellence began to take central importance again and a largescale curriculum reforming movement was launched. The return to "hard" education after Sputnik, however, contributed significantly to the radicalism of the counter-cultural movement, which then again led to the advent of the "return-to-basics" movement of the early 1980's. All this clearly shows that the pendulum of school reform oscillates to and fro between the two extreme poles of the modern humanistic religious ground motif, that is, the science or nature pole, on the one hand, and the ideal of human freedom or the personality ideal, on the other hand. In modern/contemporary times, education and schooling in the Western world are dominated by the personality ideal. The left liberal critics (like Postman, Weingartner, Kohl, Silberman, Dennison, and Neill) and the left radical critics (like Reimer, Goodman, Holt, Freire, and Illich) are all concerned about the individual's free l autonomous, and self-sufficient growth and development. They all charge the public schools with damaging, thwarting, stifling children's capacity to learn and grow as free autonomous human beings. The present school, according to their criticism, is not fit for free autonomous human beings. The left liberals, on the one hand, have a strong belief in progress and accept the assumption that the problems of the present school can be changed" creatively. Therefore, they want to reform the school environment to become more humane by putting more emphasis on individuality and on the individual freedom of the child. They do not reject the very idea of a school system. The left radicals, on the other hand, no longer think of the school in terms of reforming, changing or improving it, but think of the total destruction of the school. The school as it currently exists, according to its left radical critics, generates ill-will, hypocrisy, mono= poly, and manipulation to such a degree that the school is beyond all hope. School reform, whether radical or moderate, is, according to them, a futile enterprise. Therefore, they have suggested that the very idea of a school system must be rejected in favour of finding a more effective, humane, personal, self-directed choice of means for learning. The concept of deschooling society has been, therefore, suggested by the left radical critics as a solution to the educational crisis in general, and the school crisis in particular. Although the problems (or crisis) of the school which have been raised by humanistic critics do not reveal a homogeneous character, the central or fundamental problems of the school centre mainly around matters of ontology, anthropology, epistemology, societal relationships, and matters of an ethical and religious nature. The Bible does not offer any directive and systematic treatment of these problems of the school. However, it supplies sufficient guidelines and perspectives on fundamental aspects of the school and schooling. With regard to the ontological "problem" of the school, it is clear from the Scriptural perspective that the school as an institution is no mere product of historical coincidence. It is a form of positivization of the ontic law for the school, which was given by God, at creation, for His glory. The left radical critics of the school regard the school merely as a historical phenomenon and they overlook the ontic law for the school. For this reason, they do not acknowledge the fact that the school has its own unique law side. The anthropological presuppositions of modern humanistic critics of the school are also unacceptable. Man, as a created being, is not a totally "free" and autonomous/sovereign being. The critics, however, succeed in calling our attention to the fact that the modern school leaves little room to the pupils to be creative and original. In connection with the epistemological "problem" of the school, modern humanistic criticism cannot be justified in its insistence that the primary function of the school is the educative function and that the school is the wrong place for the transmission and learning of knowledge and skills. The school certainly has and should have an educational task, but it is a fallacy to state that it is the school's first and foremost responsibility to educate children. If the primary and exclusive teaching task of the school is not fully acknowledged, confusion and haziness about the unique structure and task of the school may arise. Furthermore, the school has so far succeeded fairly in carrying out its basic function of teaching pupils. However, modern humanistic critics are justified, to a certain extent, in their criticism that the teaching function of the school has been contrived to serve the established norms and ideals of the existing social order in society. From a Scriptural standpoint, the crisis of the modern school can be ascribed to the fact that the teaching work of the school has not always been truly educational teaching. The relationship of the school with other societal structures is also one of the fundamental "problems" about which many school-critics have been concerned. The school has the specific and unique task of teaching, and no other task in communal life can be allocated to it. Founded in the historical modality, the school has its own structural identity which functions in its unique way in all the cosmic aspects. The unique teaching task (logical-analytical function) of the school, however, can not be effectively achieved unless there exist a proper and correct relationship of understanding and co-operation between the different types of communities as concrete realities. The crisis of the school in modern times is also caused to a large extent by the misconception of the close relationship between freedom and authority. The ultimate morality of a society, according to the left liberal and left radical critics, depends upon the education of its members; a moral society must have moral education, that is, education which protects and enhances the natural goodness of man. The freedom of the child is, therefore, strongly emphasized by the left liberal and left radical critics. They distort the real and true meaning of freedom and authority. Freedom and authority in the school should be viewed and practised by both the teacher and the pupil within the biblical perspective. All the above-mentioned fundamental "problems" of the school are basically related to the religious ground motif "problem" since nothing (not even science) can escape from being religiously determined. The school and schooling are always determined by certain some or other religious ground motif. Modern school critics (humanists) keep wavering backward and forward between the two polar opposites of the modern humanistic religious ground motif of freedom/the personality ideal and nature/the science ideal. From a non-Scriptural, humanistic point of view the problem of the ground motif of the school is insoluble; the humanist has no choice but to vacillate irresolutely between the two poles of the antinomy. Only the Scriptural ground motif of creation, fall into sin and redemption through Jesus Christ in communion with the Holy Spirit can make it possible for one to reach a real and true synthesis. If the modern school is to truly meet crises in future it must radically break with all the inwardly contradictory trends of humanistic thought and practice, and should in all its aspects and facets be radically determined by the sound Scriptural ground motif. Only then, the school as a social institution will be able to function properly and effectively in future. The school as a social institution, as a form of positivization of the divine ontic law for the school, should continually be reformed according to God's will (law) for the school. Modern humanistic critics surely call our attention to the rigidities, weaknesses and various shortcomings of the existing school system. Much talk about the crisis and even of the death of the school should be the signal to reform the school. / Proefskrif (DEd)--PU vir CHO
9

Die taak van die universiteit in die voorsiening van voortgesette onderwys / Johannes Benjamin Espach

Espach, Johannes Benjamin January 1985 (has links)
1. THE PROBLEM INVESTIGATED - In the course of the past decade it has become clear that the ever-increasing tempo of scientific and technological development has increasingly placed the stress to a larger extent on proper training, and the implementation of especially high-level manpower. Apart from formal education continuing education and in-service training and retraining have begun to receive attention universally from educational authorities. It is also a fact that the practitioner of a profession periodically has to receive continuing education and training in order * to attain specialised knowledge in his own field; * to keep up with recent developments in his field; and * to get help with new adjustments and challenges posed by the profession he is in. Apart from continuing education to the professional practitioner, provision also has to be made for supportive programmes, provision for ad hoc needs for knowledge about specific issues, the identification of individuals who either did not enter into the sphere of formal education or who left it early, and the fulfilment of knowledge about recreational activities. With regard to continuing education the following might be stated axiomatically: * education and training are continuing activities; * in both developed and developing countries lifelong learning should receive the highest priority rating in all educational planning, and * in the RSA the need for continuing education was stressed by two recent government reports, viz. Provision of Education in the RSA (HSRC Report), 1981, and Report of the National Manpower Commission on High Level Manpower in the RSA, 1980. The problem to be investigated was thus: What task does the university have in the provision of continuing education and how can the university fulfil this task? In other words, it has to be determined what the task of the university, with its special structural nature, skills and facilities is with regard to the provision of continuing education, with its complex objectives, structure and idiosyncratic nature. 2. HYPOTHESES - The following research hypotheses were postulated: Main hypothesis The university with its skills encompassed in a large number of departments, bureaus and institutes, has, apart from its task of formal instruction of registered students, also the task of making a contribution in the provision of continuing education to practitioners of professions and the “general public”. Sub-hypothesis 1: The special nature of continuing education makes possible the effective participation of the university in this activity. Sub-hypothesis 2: The university, on the basis of its special structure, is particularly suited to make a contribution in the field of continuing education. Sub-hypothesis 3: Various overseas and South African universities are already actively engaged in the field of continuing education. Sub-hypothesis 4: The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education has a contribution to make in the field of continuing education on the basis of its special character. 3. METHOD OF RESEARCH - At the inception of the study a hypothesis and a number of sub-hypotheses were postulated. In the course of the study the hypotheses were then proved either in terms of being acceptable or unacceptable. Use was also made of a literature survey and interviewing by way of a schedule of questions asked of university departments and units for continuing education at universities. Concepts were defined, deductions and conclusions were arrived at and descriptions were also used. * In chapter 2, by means of a literature survey, variant concepts of continuing education were dealt with and explicated, viz., amongst others, adult education, lifelong education, life-wide education and recurrent education. The nature, the essence, the structure and aspects of continuing education were also dealt with. Subsequently motives which adults have for participating in continuing education programmes were examined, and it emerged that the social togetherness with others and the desire to make progress professionally are important motives. The need for continuing education to be integrated into the system of formal educational provision was stressed. * In chapter 3 the task of the university, with special reference to the provision of continuing education, was put under the magnifying glass. It was pointed out that continuing education is one of the most important aspects of the community service which the university can render. * In chapter 4 the stress was on the provision of continuing education at some overseas universities. Examples of courses for the practitioners of professions as well as generally formative and culturally enriching programmes were provided. Both the manner of presentation of these courses and the purpose of the courses were looked at. * In chapter 5 the provision of continuing education in South African universities were dealt with in the same way. Reference was made evaluatively to noticeably positive and less positive aspects of the provision of continuing education at each university. * In chapter 6 attention was given to the provision of continuing education at the PU for CHE with due regard for the special nature and essence of the university, the area from which the university draws its students and the skills offered at this university. Apart from continuing educational courses initiated by the Bureau for Continuing Education and presented under its auspices, reference was also made to continuing educational courses offered by departments, bureaus and institutes. In the same manner as when dealing with the other universities, evaluation was made and deficiencies pointed out. * In chapter 7 findings were arrived at, conclusions drawn and some recommendations made. 4. FINDINGS - 4.1 With regard to the sub-hypotheses: 4.1.1 The special nature of continuing education makes possible the effective participation of the university in this activity Continuing education is a creative event which continues throughout man’s life and which has the purpose of integrating the various learning events with each other in order to have man developed in his totality. Continuing education points to a new view and a new approach with regard to education and the provision of educational services. The view that education should be limited merely to institutions for formal education has made room for a new approach: education carries on throughout man 1s life. It is also true that no initial training can offer a guarantee for lifelong training, and it is periodically necessary for practitioners of professions to be trained in-service. “Professional practitioner” implies someone who has already received higher education.) School and university curricula should to a larger extent make provision for continuing education. Stress has to be put throughout on the need for continuing education. Through bringing home self-study techniques to pupils and students they can be prepared for eventual further training following the period of formal education at the secondary or the tertiary level. Continuing education envisages the optimal development of all people at all stages of life, and the optimal utilization of all educational facilities (including therefore those of the university too) in the interests of the state, but above all with a view to the richer personal fulfilment of the individual. Although continuing education indicates education in the wider sense, it places primary stress on professional training and re-training, that is, in-service training of professional practitioners. What is also envisaged with continuing education is culturally and generally formative education of the "general public". The special nature and objectives of continuing education, viz. to retrain the professional practitioner periodically, thus makes possible the effective participation of the universities which are especially equipped to fulfil this demand, the need for continuing education. 4.1.2 The university, on the basis of its special structure, is particularly suited to make a contribution in the field of continuing education It is universally accepted that the task of the university is to teach, to do research and to provide community service. The university serves the local community from which it receives financial support and other support, and from which its students are drawn. The university also renders service to the national community through the training of scientists and professional practitioners. As a result of technological developments in all fields throughout the world, the task of community service of the university has been thus influenced that increasingly attention has had to be given to the training, re-training and in-service training of professional practitioners. This further training is also in the first instance applicable to those who have already been trained for a profession, but whose knowledge has become obsolescent as a result of technological development. It is also true that the community service of the university is linked to the teaching and research tasks of the university and that continuing education can be mentioned as an example of community service. The university has special skills which are situated in its academic departments and research and teaching bureaus and institutes. The university also has the calling of rendering community service in the shape of continuing education. It is universally accepted that continuing education is not a separate activity of the university 1s teaching structure, that continuing edu= cation should be offered at university level and that co-ordinated con= tinuing educational activities are to be preferred tci separate, ad hoc efforts. On the other hand it is generally accepted that community service (and implicitly continuing education) should not take place at the expense of the primary task of the university which is teaching and research. 4.1.3 Various overseas and South African universities are already actively engaged in the field of continuing education Continuing educational courses which have as an objective in-service training or refresher courses for professional practitioners, and the general forming and knowledge and cultural enrichment of the community, are offered locally and overseas over a wide spectrum. Continuing education courses for professional practitioners, e.g. for attorneys, medics, nurses, social workers, accountants, engineers and teachers vary from one-day seminars to three-week residential courses. Generally formative and culturally enriching courses for the public vary from evening classes to week-long courses and mostly also include public lectures on topical events. These courses often form part of Winter and Summer Schools. Courses providing knowledge about recreational activities are also included in these fields. Examination of continuing education courses is seldom done, and normally only attendance certificates are presented. On the other hand, it usually happens at overseas universities that credits for degree purposes can be achieved through continuing education courses. It is also a fact that in some cases at overseas institutions so much value is attached to continuing education as a means to the further training of the employee that substantial rebates are allowed in personal income tax to the employee in terms of costs incurred in the course of continuing educational courses. At most South African universities, in contrast to overseas universities, no attention to speak of is given to research on continuing education. Continuing education units usually function as separate departments at universities and are controlled according to regulations, constitutions etc. In some cases at South African universities the unit for continuing education constitutes part of another department, such as for example university education. With regard to the financing of continuing education units, the following variations are found: from completely self-sufficient to completely dependent on financing through the university. In South Africa continuing education of universities can not claim state subsidies. In England continuing education is fully subsidized by both the central and local governments. Apart from presentation of continuing education courses in the form of lectures, seminars, conferences and discussions, courses at some overseas universities are also presented by means of audio and video cassettes and by way of correspondence courses. Radio and television are also freely used for this purpose by universities that have their own radio transmitters and/or television channels. 4.1.4 The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education has a contribution to make in the field of continuing education on the basis of its special character The academic skills of the PU for CHE are located in 8 faculties, more than 80 academic departments and a number of bureaus, centres and institutes. This university also has its own specific skills because of its Christian-Afrikaans character, its rura1 but also semi-urban situation (Vaa1 Campus) and its specia1 area from which students are drawn - ski1ls which are transmitted via a Christian practice of scho1arship and which can then also make a contribution to the provision of continuing education. In the same way as is the case with other South African universities, the objective of continuing education at this university is also periodically to retrain professiona1 practitioners and also to render community service in the form of generally formative and culturally enriching programmes. Because of the rural situation of this university the nature of continuing education differs from urban universities, in the same way that the number of people involved in the programmes are different. 4.2 With regard to the main hypothesis: On the basis of the acceptance of the above four sub-hypotheses the main hypothesis can also now be accepted. The crucial finding on the basis of the research is that the university, with its skills encompassed in a large number of departments, bureaus and institutes, apart from the formal task of teaching registered undergraduate and postgraduate students, also has the task of rendering continuing education to professional practitioners and the "general pub1ic". 5. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON THE BASIS OF THE COMPLETED RESEARCH - The recommendations emanating from the research are distinguished into two groups, viz. recommendations with regard to continuing education in general by universities, and secondly recommendations aimed more specifically at continuing education at the PU for CHE. 5.1 General recommendations: * Research on continuing education should get more attention. * Continuing education provision to the professional practitioner could be extended to more professions. * More co-operation should be obtained with professional councils in the provision of continuing education for the professional practitioner. * Universities could co-operate in the presentation of continuing education courses. * Co-operative training ("sandwich courses") should be considered for the training of various professional practitioners. * Continuing educational presentations at universities should receive financial support from government. 5.2 Recommendations more specifically with regard to continuing education at the PU for CHE: * More attention should be directed to the continuing educational opportunities for the agricultural and mining sectors. * More effective liaison should be effected between the Bureau for Continuing Education and academic departments. * Consideration should be given to audio and video cassettes and correspondence courses in the presentation of continuing education courses, amongst others in Christian scholarship. * Continuing education courses can be presented decentralized to a larger extent. * The institution of a course in non-formal education at the H.E.D. or B.Ed. levels should be considered. / Proefskrif (DEd)--PU vir CHO, 1985
10

Die taak van die universiteit in die voorsiening van voortgesette onderwys / Johannes Benjamin Espach

Espach, Johannes Benjamin January 1985 (has links)
1. THE PROBLEM INVESTIGATED - In the course of the past decade it has become clear that the ever-increasing tempo of scientific and technological development has increasingly placed the stress to a larger extent on proper training, and the implementation of especially high-level manpower. Apart from formal education continuing education and in-service training and retraining have begun to receive attention universally from educational authorities. It is also a fact that the practitioner of a profession periodically has to receive continuing education and training in order * to attain specialised knowledge in his own field; * to keep up with recent developments in his field; and * to get help with new adjustments and challenges posed by the profession he is in. Apart from continuing education to the professional practitioner, provision also has to be made for supportive programmes, provision for ad hoc needs for knowledge about specific issues, the identification of individuals who either did not enter into the sphere of formal education or who left it early, and the fulfilment of knowledge about recreational activities. With regard to continuing education the following might be stated axiomatically: * education and training are continuing activities; * in both developed and developing countries lifelong learning should receive the highest priority rating in all educational planning, and * in the RSA the need for continuing education was stressed by two recent government reports, viz. Provision of Education in the RSA (HSRC Report), 1981, and Report of the National Manpower Commission on High Level Manpower in the RSA, 1980. The problem to be investigated was thus: What task does the university have in the provision of continuing education and how can the university fulfil this task? In other words, it has to be determined what the task of the university, with its special structural nature, skills and facilities is with regard to the provision of continuing education, with its complex objectives, structure and idiosyncratic nature. 2. HYPOTHESES - The following research hypotheses were postulated: Main hypothesis The university with its skills encompassed in a large number of departments, bureaus and institutes, has, apart from its task of formal instruction of registered students, also the task of making a contribution in the provision of continuing education to practitioners of professions and the “general public”. Sub-hypothesis 1: The special nature of continuing education makes possible the effective participation of the university in this activity. Sub-hypothesis 2: The university, on the basis of its special structure, is particularly suited to make a contribution in the field of continuing education. Sub-hypothesis 3: Various overseas and South African universities are already actively engaged in the field of continuing education. Sub-hypothesis 4: The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education has a contribution to make in the field of continuing education on the basis of its special character. 3. METHOD OF RESEARCH - At the inception of the study a hypothesis and a number of sub-hypotheses were postulated. In the course of the study the hypotheses were then proved either in terms of being acceptable or unacceptable. Use was also made of a literature survey and interviewing by way of a schedule of questions asked of university departments and units for continuing education at universities. Concepts were defined, deductions and conclusions were arrived at and descriptions were also used. * In chapter 2, by means of a literature survey, variant concepts of continuing education were dealt with and explicated, viz., amongst others, adult education, lifelong education, life-wide education and recurrent education. The nature, the essence, the structure and aspects of continuing education were also dealt with. Subsequently motives which adults have for participating in continuing education programmes were examined, and it emerged that the social togetherness with others and the desire to make progress professionally are important motives. The need for continuing education to be integrated into the system of formal educational provision was stressed. * In chapter 3 the task of the university, with special reference to the provision of continuing education, was put under the magnifying glass. It was pointed out that continuing education is one of the most important aspects of the community service which the university can render. * In chapter 4 the stress was on the provision of continuing education at some overseas universities. Examples of courses for the practitioners of professions as well as generally formative and culturally enriching programmes were provided. Both the manner of presentation of these courses and the purpose of the courses were looked at. * In chapter 5 the provision of continuing education in South African universities were dealt with in the same way. Reference was made evaluatively to noticeably positive and less positive aspects of the provision of continuing education at each university. * In chapter 6 attention was given to the provision of continuing education at the PU for CHE with due regard for the special nature and essence of the university, the area from which the university draws its students and the skills offered at this university. Apart from continuing educational courses initiated by the Bureau for Continuing Education and presented under its auspices, reference was also made to continuing educational courses offered by departments, bureaus and institutes. In the same manner as when dealing with the other universities, evaluation was made and deficiencies pointed out. * In chapter 7 findings were arrived at, conclusions drawn and some recommendations made. 4. FINDINGS - 4.1 With regard to the sub-hypotheses: 4.1.1 The special nature of continuing education makes possible the effective participation of the university in this activity Continuing education is a creative event which continues throughout man’s life and which has the purpose of integrating the various learning events with each other in order to have man developed in his totality. Continuing education points to a new view and a new approach with regard to education and the provision of educational services. The view that education should be limited merely to institutions for formal education has made room for a new approach: education carries on throughout man 1s life. It is also true that no initial training can offer a guarantee for lifelong training, and it is periodically necessary for practitioners of professions to be trained in-service. “Professional practitioner” implies someone who has already received higher education.) School and university curricula should to a larger extent make provision for continuing education. Stress has to be put throughout on the need for continuing education. Through bringing home self-study techniques to pupils and students they can be prepared for eventual further training following the period of formal education at the secondary or the tertiary level. Continuing education envisages the optimal development of all people at all stages of life, and the optimal utilization of all educational facilities (including therefore those of the university too) in the interests of the state, but above all with a view to the richer personal fulfilment of the individual. Although continuing education indicates education in the wider sense, it places primary stress on professional training and re-training, that is, in-service training of professional practitioners. What is also envisaged with continuing education is culturally and generally formative education of the "general public". The special nature and objectives of continuing education, viz. to retrain the professional practitioner periodically, thus makes possible the effective participation of the universities which are especially equipped to fulfil this demand, the need for continuing education. 4.1.2 The university, on the basis of its special structure, is particularly suited to make a contribution in the field of continuing education It is universally accepted that the task of the university is to teach, to do research and to provide community service. The university serves the local community from which it receives financial support and other support, and from which its students are drawn. The university also renders service to the national community through the training of scientists and professional practitioners. As a result of technological developments in all fields throughout the world, the task of community service of the university has been thus influenced that increasingly attention has had to be given to the training, re-training and in-service training of professional practitioners. This further training is also in the first instance applicable to those who have already been trained for a profession, but whose knowledge has become obsolescent as a result of technological development. It is also true that the community service of the university is linked to the teaching and research tasks of the university and that continuing education can be mentioned as an example of community service. The university has special skills which are situated in its academic departments and research and teaching bureaus and institutes. The university also has the calling of rendering community service in the shape of continuing education. It is universally accepted that continuing education is not a separate activity of the university 1s teaching structure, that continuing edu= cation should be offered at university level and that co-ordinated con= tinuing educational activities are to be preferred tci separate, ad hoc efforts. On the other hand it is generally accepted that community service (and implicitly continuing education) should not take place at the expense of the primary task of the university which is teaching and research. 4.1.3 Various overseas and South African universities are already actively engaged in the field of continuing education Continuing educational courses which have as an objective in-service training or refresher courses for professional practitioners, and the general forming and knowledge and cultural enrichment of the community, are offered locally and overseas over a wide spectrum. Continuing education courses for professional practitioners, e.g. for attorneys, medics, nurses, social workers, accountants, engineers and teachers vary from one-day seminars to three-week residential courses. Generally formative and culturally enriching courses for the public vary from evening classes to week-long courses and mostly also include public lectures on topical events. These courses often form part of Winter and Summer Schools. Courses providing knowledge about recreational activities are also included in these fields. Examination of continuing education courses is seldom done, and normally only attendance certificates are presented. On the other hand, it usually happens at overseas universities that credits for degree purposes can be achieved through continuing education courses. It is also a fact that in some cases at overseas institutions so much value is attached to continuing education as a means to the further training of the employee that substantial rebates are allowed in personal income tax to the employee in terms of costs incurred in the course of continuing educational courses. At most South African universities, in contrast to overseas universities, no attention to speak of is given to research on continuing education. Continuing education units usually function as separate departments at universities and are controlled according to regulations, constitutions etc. In some cases at South African universities the unit for continuing education constitutes part of another department, such as for example university education. With regard to the financing of continuing education units, the following variations are found: from completely self-sufficient to completely dependent on financing through the university. In South Africa continuing education of universities can not claim state subsidies. In England continuing education is fully subsidized by both the central and local governments. Apart from presentation of continuing education courses in the form of lectures, seminars, conferences and discussions, courses at some overseas universities are also presented by means of audio and video cassettes and by way of correspondence courses. Radio and television are also freely used for this purpose by universities that have their own radio transmitters and/or television channels. 4.1.4 The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education has a contribution to make in the field of continuing education on the basis of its special character The academic skills of the PU for CHE are located in 8 faculties, more than 80 academic departments and a number of bureaus, centres and institutes. This university also has its own specific skills because of its Christian-Afrikaans character, its rura1 but also semi-urban situation (Vaa1 Campus) and its specia1 area from which students are drawn - ski1ls which are transmitted via a Christian practice of scho1arship and which can then also make a contribution to the provision of continuing education. In the same way as is the case with other South African universities, the objective of continuing education at this university is also periodically to retrain professiona1 practitioners and also to render community service in the form of generally formative and culturally enriching programmes. Because of the rural situation of this university the nature of continuing education differs from urban universities, in the same way that the number of people involved in the programmes are different. 4.2 With regard to the main hypothesis: On the basis of the acceptance of the above four sub-hypotheses the main hypothesis can also now be accepted. The crucial finding on the basis of the research is that the university, with its skills encompassed in a large number of departments, bureaus and institutes, apart from the formal task of teaching registered undergraduate and postgraduate students, also has the task of rendering continuing education to professional practitioners and the "general pub1ic". 5. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON THE BASIS OF THE COMPLETED RESEARCH - The recommendations emanating from the research are distinguished into two groups, viz. recommendations with regard to continuing education in general by universities, and secondly recommendations aimed more specifically at continuing education at the PU for CHE. 5.1 General recommendations: * Research on continuing education should get more attention. * Continuing education provision to the professional practitioner could be extended to more professions. * More co-operation should be obtained with professional councils in the provision of continuing education for the professional practitioner. * Universities could co-operate in the presentation of continuing education courses. * Co-operative training ("sandwich courses") should be considered for the training of various professional practitioners. * Continuing educational presentations at universities should receive financial support from government. 5.2 Recommendations more specifically with regard to continuing education at the PU for CHE: * More attention should be directed to the continuing educational opportunities for the agricultural and mining sectors. * More effective liaison should be effected between the Bureau for Continuing Education and academic departments. * Consideration should be given to audio and video cassettes and correspondence courses in the presentation of continuing education courses, amongst others in Christian scholarship. * Continuing education courses can be presented decentralized to a larger extent. * The institution of a course in non-formal education at the H.E.D. or B.Ed. levels should be considered. / Proefskrif (DEd)--PU vir CHO, 1985

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