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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Reactions of peroxy radicals in the atmosphere

Fracheboud, Jean-Marc January 1995 (has links)
No description available.

Ozone Depletion and Global Warming

Fow, Alista John January 2006 (has links)
Abstract This thesis examines global warming and the possible contribution that ozone depletion provides to this warming. An examination is performed to determine the extent of any warming/cooling events within the Earth-atmosphere system. The change in energy corresponding to this warning of the Earth- atmosphere system is estimated as being equivilent to an increase of mean solar input of 0.22W/m2. This is compared to the predicted changes of solar input for the two most common global warming scenarios: greenhouse gases and solar irradiance variance; and for a less well explored scenario, snow-ice albedo change. Examination of ozone depletion data shows that an absence of ozone in the stratosphere produces an increase in UV-B radiation at the surface of the Earth. This increase in UV-B light has not previously been thourougly examined in any of the global warming scenarios. This is presented as a fourth scenario for global warming. An analytical three layer model of the Earth-atmosphere, based on an earlier two layer model, is developed. Using this model it is determined that greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, snow-ice albedo feedback and ozone depletion can cause warming of the Earth's atmosphere. After comparison with other models, a snow-ice albedo mechanism is incorporated into the three layer model. This produces an amplification effect of any warming that occurs. Compared to the observed increase of surface temperature between 1975-2000 of 0.55 K, the model using a snow-ice albedo feedback, produced an increase of temperature of 1.4 K for greenhouse gases, 0.294 K for a solar irradiance increase and 0.119 K caused by a decrease in the ozone layer. Of the greenhouse gas, solar irradiance and ozone depletion scenarios, ozone depletion demonstrates the most realistic relative changes with a cooling of the stratosphere and a warming of the troposphere and Earth's surface as has been observed. It is concluded that ozone depletion is likely for a reasonable part of observed global warming.

Environmental impact of green house gases on Nigeria

Douglas, Boma January 2000 (has links)
An analysis of climate change in Nigeria has been carried out. The aim was to investigate the environmental impact of Green house gases. The three zones of the country namely the extreme North, the middle zone and the extreme South have all been separately examined with respect to changes in solar radiation, temperature, precipitation and evaporation. The agricultural productivity for each zone was compiled, and trend plots over time carried out. Correlation tests were done between productivity and climatic changes and it was found that each zonal area reacted differently to changes in climate. The emission of carbon dioxide, methane and the oxides of nitrogen in Nigeria were calculated and trends plotted. A correlation test was also carried out between carbon dioxide emission and temperature change for each zone. The relationship between temperature change and productivity was shown in a regression model. An economic appraisal for Nigeria involving the GDP, pollution and population was examined in terms of the productivity- pollution index. This was also extended to some of the Western countries

The Coupling of Dynamics and Chemistry in the Antarctic Stratosphere

Huck, Petra Ellen January 2007 (has links)
This thesis addresses the parameterisation of chemical and dynamical processes in the Antarctic stratosphere. Statistical models for the inter- and intra-annual variability in Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion were developed based on theory and an understanding of the coupling of dynamics and chemistry in the atmosphere. It was confirmed that the primary driver of the long-term trend in the severity of the Antarctic ozone hole is halogen loading in the stratosphere. The year-to-year variability in ozone mass deficit, a measure of the severity of Antarctic ozone depletion, could be described by a linear combination of South Pole temperatures and midlatitude wave activity. A time lag of two weeks between wave activity effects and ozone depletion indicates the predictive capability of meteorological parameters for seasonal projections of the severity of the Antarctic ozone hole. The statistical model describing the inter-annual variability in ozone mass deficit was regressed against observations from 1979 to 2004. The resulting regression coefficients were applied to South Pole temperature and wave activity fields from 28 chemistry-climate models. This analysis indicates a slight increase in the year-to-year variability in the severity of Antarctic ozone depletion. As a prelude to analysing the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone depletion, an improved ozone mass deficit measure was derived by replacing the constant 220 DU threshold with a seasonal varying pre-ozone hole background which leads to better capturing the true extent of the depleted ozone. Furthermore, it was shown that the new measure represents the chemical ozone loss within the Antarctic vortex provided that no mixing occurs through the vortex boundary. This new measure has many advantages over previous stratospheric ozone depletion indices. The conventional ozone mass deficit omits large amounts of depleted mass of ozone, and the onset of ozone depletion does not coincide with the timing of when sunlight first reaches areas of polar stratospheric clouds as expected from theory. Chemical ozone loss derived with a tracer-tracer correlation technique depends on ozone and passive tracer profile measurements which are not as readily available as the total column ozone fields required for the new ozone mass deficit presented in this thesis. As such, the new ozone depletion measure combines the simplicity of the old ozone mass deficit index with higher accuracy of the actual amount of chemically depleted stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, when applying the new definition of ozone mass deficit to chemistry-climate model outputs, model intercomparisons should become easier to interpret because biases in the models can be avoided. Based on theory and understanding of the coupling of chemistry and dynamics in the Antarctic stratosphere, two semi-empirical models were developed to describe the intra-seasonal evolution of chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Regression of the models against chlorine monoxide and ozone mass deficit from observations results in coefficients that capture key sensitivities in the real atmosphere. The seasonal evolution of ozone mass deficit can be described with these coefficients and readily available meteorological fields (temperature and wind fields). The predictive capability of these models was demonstrated for 2005 and 2006. Given temperature and wind fields, which for example can be obtained from general circulation models, these models can predict the size and depth of the Antarctic ozone hole. Important applications of the semi-empirical models could be chemistry-climate model validation by comparing the sensitivities from observations and models which may provide new insights into potential sources of differences in chemistry-climate model projections of Antarctic ozone depletion. Furthermore, projection of the inter-annual and intra-seasonal evolution of the Antarctic ozone hole into the future can help to assess the potential recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

The retrieval of NO←2 vertical profiles from ground-based twilight UV-visible absorption measurements

Preston, Katherine Elizabeth January 1996 (has links)
No description available.

Responses of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) to UV-B radiation (280-315nm)

Cuesta, Esperanza-Raquel Gonzalez January 1996 (has links)
No description available.

Methyl halide degradation by aerobic methylotrophs

Woodall, Claire A. January 2000 (has links)
No description available.

Natural and anthropogenic sources of methyl bromide

Baker, Jonathan M. January 1998 (has links)
No description available.

Assessment of the effects of UV-B in marine macroalgae : potential biomarkers of exposure and effect

Cordi, Britt January 1999 (has links)
Studies were undertaken to investigate the suitability of several molecular and physiological responses as biomarkers of UV-B exposure in several marine macroalgal species. Investigations into the sensitivity of mature plants and the reproductive unicells were also carried out. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to determine the interaction between UV-B radiation and the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051 in both a fouling alga and two non-target algal species. Chlorophyll fluorescence, in vivo thallus absorptance and ion leakage were investigated for their suitability as physiological biomarkers of UV -B exposure in the intertidal alga Enteromorpha intestinalis and the subtidal alga Palmaria palmata. DNA damage (measured by Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, RAPD) and the cellular stress response (measured by induction of the heat shock 70 protein, HSP 70) were evaluated as molecular biomarkers of UV-B exposure. Measurements of thallus growth were used as a measure of adverse biological effects. Fv/Fm ratio showed potential as a sensitive, nonspecific general biomarker of UV-B exposure in both E. intestinalis and P. palmata. In vivo absorptance at wavelengths corresponding to chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin and/or carotenoids, as well as phycoerythrobilin and phycocyanin decreased in a dose-response dependent manner with UV-B exposure. These changes were associated with decreases in growth rate in P. palmata. The RAPD technique used for measuring DNA damage, showed potential as a tool for assessing UV -induced toxicity. These results illustrated that utilising several responses from different levels of biological organisation offer greater possibilities for detecting UV-B induced effects than do single responses. Experiments with 12 h old reproductive unicells of E. intestinalis demonstrated that asexual zoospores were up to 6 times more sensitive to UV-B exposure than mature thalli (measured as variable fluorescence). After 1 hour exposure to elevated UV-B (equivalent to 27% ozone depletion) reproductive unicells experienced decreases in variable fluorescence, accompanied by a 50 % inhibition of germination success and 16.4 % reduction in growth rates. Moreover, consistent patterns of greater sensitivity in the sexual reproductive part of the life cycle compared to the asexual part of the life cycle emerged throughout the experiments. The interactive relationship between UV-B radiation and the s-triazine Irgarol 1051 was investigated in multi-factorial experiments. Inhibitions in optimal quantum yield of approximately 20% were found after exposure to UV-B or Irgarol 1051 (applied singly). When these two stressors were applied simultaneously, however, an additive effect resulting in further reductions of up to 19.6 % compared to a single treatment occurred. These decreases in Fv/Fm were accompanied by up to a 38.5 % reduction in growth rates. Simultaneous exposure of the same stressors to two non-target macroalgae, P. palmata and P. umbilicalis, revealed that these algae were less sensitive to Irgarol 1051 compared to E. intestinalis. However, similar additive effects measured as reductions in both Fv/Fm ratio and growth rates occurred after simultaneous exposure. These results underline the importance of investigating combination effects between UV-B radiation and xenobiotic compounds, if an under-estimation of the ecological implications of elevated UV-B exposure in the marine environment is to be avoided.

Effects of UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on microorganisms on the leaf surface

Gunasekera, Thusitha Senadheera January 1996 (has links)
No description available.

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