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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Precursors for schizophrenia : are schizotaxia and schizotypy related?

Whitehead, Kirsty Victoria, n/a 2006
Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia are fundamentally different notions of the schizophrenia precursor. Both represent a categorical precursor but differ in the nature of their relationships to schizophrenia. Specifically, schizotypy is dimensional, unchanging despite the presence or remission of schizophrenia. In contrast, schizotaxia is a transitional precursor; the presence of schizophrenia signals the end of schizotaxia. There are also differences in the way in which risk is determined. Schizotypy is reflected in a variety of information processing and experiential aberrations, is typically assessed using self-report measures, and is best identified using taxometric analyses. In contrast, schizotaxia is characterised by negative symptoms of schizophrenia and neurocognitive impairment, can be assessed using standardised clinical measures, and is diagnosed at the individual case level. The aim of Phase 1 of this study was to investigate the manifest structure of Meehl�s schizotypy in a sample of psychiatric patients. The aims of Phase 2 were to determine if schizotypy group membership was associated with poorer functioning and to determine the nature of the relationship between Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia. Participants in Phase 1 were 109 psychiatric patients and all completed a self-report measure of schizotypy, the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire (TPSQ; Linscott & Knight, 2004). Multivariate taxometric analyses of TPSQ subscales yielded evidence of a manifest group structure within the sample. The prevalence of the latent group, presumed to reflect schizotypy, was estimated to be 32% (SD = 8%), as yielded by MAXCOV analyses. MAXCOV analyses also yielded a mean indicator validity of 1.02; variance of 7; base rate estimates of .08; and a goodness of fit index of .98. MAMBAC analyses yielded a mean base rate of 56% (SD = 18%). Twenty-nine participants from Phase 1 took part in Phase 2. Fourteen were from the schizotypy group (had a p value of .85 or higher of schizotypy group membership) and 15 from the nonschizotypy group (had a p value of .03 or lower of schizotypy group membership). Participants completed tests of attention, verbal memory, and executive functioning. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia were also rated and diagnosis was determined using a diagnostic interview. The schizotypy group was significantly impaired relative to the nonschizotypy group on neuropsychological test scores spanning domains of attention, verbal memory, and executive functioning. A current DSM-IV diagnosis was made for 71% of the schizotypy group and 43% of the nonschizotypy group. Individuals were classified as having met criteria for schizotaxia if they had a negative symptom impairment and a neuropsychological impairment in two domains. A total of 7 people of 29 met criteria for schizotaxia, 6 of these people were from the schizotypy group. There was statistical evidence that Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia are not independent. The proposed precursors for schizophrenia may reflect the same construct, not separate entities. Limitations and implications of these results are considered.
2

Precursors for schizophrenia : are schizotaxia and schizotypy related?

Whitehead, Kirsty Victoria, n/a 2006
Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia are fundamentally different notions of the schizophrenia precursor. Both represent a categorical precursor but differ in the nature of their relationships to schizophrenia. Specifically, schizotypy is dimensional, unchanging despite the presence or remission of schizophrenia. In contrast, schizotaxia is a transitional precursor; the presence of schizophrenia signals the end of schizotaxia. There are also differences in the way in which risk is determined. Schizotypy is reflected in a variety of information processing and experiential aberrations, is typically assessed using self-report measures, and is best identified using taxometric analyses. In contrast, schizotaxia is characterised by negative symptoms of schizophrenia and neurocognitive impairment, can be assessed using standardised clinical measures, and is diagnosed at the individual case level. The aim of Phase 1 of this study was to investigate the manifest structure of Meehl�s schizotypy in a sample of psychiatric patients. The aims of Phase 2 were to determine if schizotypy group membership was associated with poorer functioning and to determine the nature of the relationship between Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia. Participants in Phase 1 were 109 psychiatric patients and all completed a self-report measure of schizotypy, the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire (TPSQ; Linscott & Knight, 2004). Multivariate taxometric analyses of TPSQ subscales yielded evidence of a manifest group structure within the sample. The prevalence of the latent group, presumed to reflect schizotypy, was estimated to be 32% (SD = 8%), as yielded by MAXCOV analyses. MAXCOV analyses also yielded a mean indicator validity of 1.02; variance of 7; base rate estimates of .08; and a goodness of fit index of .98. MAMBAC analyses yielded a mean base rate of 56% (SD = 18%). Twenty-nine participants from Phase 1 took part in Phase 2. Fourteen were from the schizotypy group (had a p value of .85 or higher of schizotypy group membership) and 15 from the nonschizotypy group (had a p value of .03 or lower of schizotypy group membership). Participants completed tests of attention, verbal memory, and executive functioning. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia were also rated and diagnosis was determined using a diagnostic interview. The schizotypy group was significantly impaired relative to the nonschizotypy group on neuropsychological test scores spanning domains of attention, verbal memory, and executive functioning. A current DSM-IV diagnosis was made for 71% of the schizotypy group and 43% of the nonschizotypy group. Individuals were classified as having met criteria for schizotaxia if they had a negative symptom impairment and a neuropsychological impairment in two domains. A total of 7 people of 29 met criteria for schizotaxia, 6 of these people were from the schizotypy group. There was statistical evidence that Meehl�s (1962, 1989, 1990b) schizotypy and Tsuang et al.�s (1999b, 2000a, 2000b) schizotaxia are not independent. The proposed precursors for schizophrenia may reflect the same construct, not separate entities. Limitations and implications of these results are considered.
3

A twin study of antisocial behavior and depression : methodology, etiology, and comorbidity

Tracy, Kelly A. 2006 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Virginia Commonwealth University, 2006. Prepared for: Dept. of Human Genetics. Bibliography: leaves (175)-199. Also available online via the Internet.
4

The role of COMT in schizophrenic-like cognitive impairment and social functioning in children with 22q11 deletion syndrome

Lewandowski, Kathryn Eve. 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2007. Title from PDF t.p. (viewed Feb. 29, 2008). Directed by Thomas R. Kwapil; submitted to the Dept. of Psychology. Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-111).
5

What do borderline's say they want from their therapists

Friedman-Daugherty, Lana R. 1998 (has links) (PDF)
Dissertation (Ph.D.) -- The Institute for Clinical Social Work, 1998. A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Institute of Clinical Social Work in partial fulfillment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
6

Personality disorder and violent criminality : a follow-up study with special reference to psychopathy and risk assessment

Grann, Martin 1998 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst. Härtill 6 uppsatser.
7

A study of the development of object representation in the treatment of borderline personality disorder

Kurz, Barry Frank. 1992 (has links) (PDF)
Dissertation (Ph.D.) -- The Institute for Clinical Social Work, 1992. A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Institute of Clinical Social Work in partial fulfillment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
8

Using measures of personality to predict borderline personality traits a comparison of the SIFFM and the MPQ

Vieth, Angela Z. 1999 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 1999. Typescript. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 211-220). Also available on the Internet.
9

Using measures of personality to predict borderline personality traits : a comparison of the SIFFM and the MPQ

Vieth, Angela Z. 1999 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 1999. Typescript. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 211-220). Also available on the Internet.
10

Mechanisms of Borderline Personality Disorder: The Role of Identity Diffusion

Lowmaster, Sara Elizabeth 2013 (has links)
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that causes pervasive and enduring impairments in social and occupational functioning. Previous literature has outlined the core components of the disorder to include disturbances in affect regulation, identity problems, disrupted interpersonal relationships, and impulsive behavior. While several theories have postulated the primacy of one component in driving the remaining components, the etiological and maintaining mechanisms of BPD are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study examined the primacy of one of these components, identity disturbance, in eliciting changes in the affective, interpersonal, and impulsive components of the disorder. The current study employed an experimental manipulation of identity coherence in 388 undergraduates who were screened for high or low levels of borderline personality features. All participants completed measures of affect prior to and immediately following the manipulation and then completed a GoStop task of impulsivity and an interpersonal trust task in a counterbalanced order. The results suggest individuals with high levels of borderline personality features generally report reduced self-concept clarity and are more susceptible to efforts to alter the coherence of their identity than those with lower levels of borderline personality features. Destabilization of identity coherence led to greater difficulties inhibiting behavior in those with high levels of borderline features, whereas it improved behavioral control in those with low levels of borderline features. These results support theoretical articulations of BPD that indicate impulse control problems are a means of regulating one’s internal self-state. Contrary to some characterizations of the disorder, there was no evidence to suggest that alterations of identity coherence led to an exaggerated emotional response or disturbed interpersonal behavior. This finding is consistent with a number of studies examining affective reactivity to emotion induction procedures, interpersonal stimuli, and now alterations in identity coherence indicating that BPD is better characterized by severe, trait negative affect valence compared to healthy controls rather than hyper-reactivity. Moreover, the failure of interpersonal behavior to vary as a function of borderline personality status or experimental task type indicates the importance of dynamic influences during interactions as potential sources for variability in behavior. Although further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms linking identity, affective dysregulation, and interpersonal behavior; psychosocial interventions aimed at maintaining and developing a stable sense of identity may be beneficial for reducing the impulsive behaviors in BPD, which are potentially most critical for establishing the patient’s safety.

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