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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Attitudes of pharmacists to mandatory prescription drug labeling for patients

Schroeder, David Leo January 1980 (has links)
No description available.

The influence of corporatization on the professional identity of community pharmacists

Kubashe, Nomachina Theopatra January 2017 (has links)
As a potential main player in the primary health care sector and the impending National Health Insurance (NHI), community pharmacists could make a significant contribution to easing the health care burden in South Africa. Recent legislative and organizational changes related to the corporatization of pharmacy in South Africa have impacted significantly on the profession and stand to weaken the already ‘tenuous’ professional identity of pharmacists in the country. Since community pharmacists are viewed as potential main players in the primary health care sector, the influence of corporatization on pharmacists’ identities and their concomitant ability to contribute to easing the health care burden in South Africa need to be considered. In this regard, this study examined the influence that corporatization has had on the professional identity of community pharmacists practicing in the Nelson Mandela Bay area of South Africa. That is, in an effort to understand the influence that corporatization has had on changing professional identities and practices the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours of community pharmacists regarding the philosophy and practice of pharmacy were explored. This included ascertaining community pharmacists’ self-perception of their professional identity and the perception of users of these community pharmacies. The study was conducted from an interpretative epistemological paradigm, based on a philosophy of pragmatism. Data collection was conducted in two phases and a qualitative approach, which included in-depth and semi-structured interviews, was adopted as a design. Phase one investigated the self-perceptions of sixteen community pharmacists, equally distributed between independent and corporate pharmacies in the Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB). Phase two examined the perceptions of thirty-two end-users of the pharmacies included in the study. Data from both phases were then analysed and interpreted. Following the identification of seven core professional identities, namely pharmacists as custodian or keeper of medicines; primary health care givers; confidante and carer; jaded; astute and credible; corporate; and independent, it was determined that corporatization has, to various degrees, had an effect on the undermining of Nelson Mandela Bay community pharmacists’ view of themselves as skilled professionals in the health care sector. In short, it was found that corporatization is believed to have blurred the boundaries related to what it means to be a pharmacist and what role pharmacists should play in the provision of public health care. Corporatization does not appear to have influenced the patients’ or pharmacy end-users’ perceptions of the pharmacist, and furthermore does not play a major role in their choice of pharmacy. It is the perception of pharmacists in this study that with the introduction of legislative changes, more so corporatization, they experienced an undermining of their professional skill and disregard for costs involved in becoming a pharmacist. The perceived undermining of the professional skill of pharmacists threatens the valuable contribution that community pharmacists can make to balancing the country’s socio-economic status by appropriately and efficiently assisting in preventing, managing and/or reducing the disease burden in South Africa. Corporatization of the community pharmacy sector seems to have realized the government’s intention of making medication affordable to its citizens, however, the certainty of whether corporatization benefits patients that are in need of access remains to be seen. Community pharmacists could in fact, capitalize on the identification and enactment of their clinical skill (pharmaceutical and social caregiving) as this skill appears to be a tool that will allow pharmacists meaningful transition to being real contributors of primary health care in the imminent introduction of the NHI. At the same time, recognition of the role a pharmacist plays in primary health care will be supporting the government in its endeavours to making medicine accessible and affordable to all South African citizens without compromising their health needs. Ultimately, pharmacists can assist in the balancing and/or improvement of the socio-economic status of our society and the country.

Aspects of delictual liability in pharmacy practice

Lewis, Melissa Geane January 2007 (has links)
The thesis explores the various instances in which pharmacists may incur delictual liability for harm suffered by their patients or third parties. As such, it is primarily concerned with the field of professional negligence. The work focuses specifically on the wrongfulness, fault and causation enquiries in pharmacy malpractice cases. The discussion is set against the backdrop of the pharmacy profession's shift towards patient-orientated service in recent years and explores whether this change in the profession's social role has had any effect on the legal duties and standard of care to which pharmacists are currently bound. It is argued that, in light of the dangers posed by modern medicines and the extent to which pharmacists are professionally expected to involve themselves in patient care, pharmacists can no longer escape liability simply by accurately dispensing pharmaceutical products. Rather, they are expected to participate actively in avoiding drug-related injury by, for example, providing patient counselling, detecting invalid or erroneous prescriptions and monitoring prescription refills. Although the thesis places particular emphasis on the role of pharmacists in achieving risk management, it also argues that pharmacists are, in very limited circumstances, required to participate in the risk assessment process traditionally thought to fall exclusively into the realm of physicians. It is furthermore demonstrated that pharmacists can incur liability regardless of whether a patient's harm can also be partially attributed to the blameworthy conduct of another healthcare professional. Although the thesis concludes that pharmacists are currently exposed to greater risks of liability than they were in the past, it also shows that plaintiffs who seek damages from pharmacists will usually experience a number of difficulties in establishing liability. In particular, problems are likely to be encountered in satisfying a court as to the presence of factual causation, which is notoriously difficult to establish in drug-related cases.

The impact of pharmaceutical care services on the management of asthma patients in a primary health care clinic

Mostert, Zhan January 2007 (has links)
Optimal management of a chronic disease, like asthma, requires the active participation of patients. To achieve this, patients require education about asthma. Many of the recommended components of asthma care and management might not be effective without adequate patient education. Pharmacists in community, hospital and clinic practice are well placed to provide continued information and reinforcement of key messages, in order to improve compliance with medication and the outcomes of asthma management plans. Pharmacists may be able to increase medication adherence with patient counselling and monitoring systems and by facilitating communication with physicians. However, regardless of this, it remains uncertain whether pharmacist-patient interactions improve patient outcomes, and in spite of recommendations for teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach in the education of asthma patients, medical doctors and nurses are still largely responsible for carrying out the greatest part of patient education. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the impact of pharmaceutical care services at a primary health care level on the management and well-being of asthmatic patients; to determine the effect of complex or multi-faceted pharmaceutical interventions, in patients with asthma, on lung function, asthma knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-management efficacy, asthma related quality of life and asthma control; and to determine the extent to which pharmacotherapeutic interventions, with regards to medication changes and dosage changes, are accepted and implemented by doctors. A randomised-control study was conducted at a primary health care clinic in the Eastern Cape. A total of 120 patients were allocated to two groups of sixty patients each (a Control Group and an Intervention Group). Baseline values were measured and follow-up interviews and post-intervention data collection were conducted three months afterwards for each group. Patients in the Control Group were attended to by the clinic staff as usual. Patients in the Intervention Group were educated on their disease by a pharmacist. The use of a customised 500ml plastic bottle as a spacer was suggested and each patient’s medication was evaluated against the Standard Treatment Guidelines for the management of asthma in adults at the primary health care level and where necessary, prescribing recommendations were made. Following assessment of the medication regimens of the patients in the Intervention Group, a total of 49 prescribing recommendations were made, of which 73 percent were accepted by both the doctor and patient. After educating the patients in the Intervention Group on inhaler technique, a significant improvement in technique was observed at the 3-month follow-up assessment (p<0.05). Using a short form of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S)), a significant improvement post-intervention in mean total quality of life score (p<0.05) and mean average quality of life score (p<0.05) in the Intervention Group, were demonstrated. An improvement in mean activity limitation score in the Intervention Group post-intervention was also recorded for the activity limitation subscale of the AQLQ(S) (p<0.05). On measuring changes in asthma related knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy, using a questionnaire (KASE-AQ), a significant improvement in mean knowledge score in the Intervention Group after the intervention (p<0.05) was also shown. With regards to lung function, both vital capacity (percent FVC) and expiratory flow volumes (percent FEV1) improved significantly in the Intervention Group (p<0.05). This study therefore demonstrated that multi-faceted pharmacist interventions, including medication assessment, asthma education, education on inhaler technique and the provision of medication aids in the form of spacers, can significantly improve the management of asthma patients and improve their well-being and quality of life.

The role of the community pharmacist in cardiovascular disease management

Venter, Ignatius Johannes Erhardt January 2007 (has links)
Cardiovascular disease contributes to mortality and morbidity statistics worldwide and in South Africa. The current focus in health care revolves around activities aimed at preventing the development of cardiovascular disease, rather than the treatment of disease. The identification of risk factors that can predispose a patient to the development of cardiovascular disease is an essential component of any cardiovascular disease management programme. It is necessary that in the management of these risk factors, they are not considered to be isolated, but inter-related. Through the provision of point-of-care cardiovascular risk screening and monitoring services as well as disease-related counselling, the community pharmacist, as a readily accessible source of healthcare, can play an essential role in the cardiovascular disease management process. The aim of this study was to describe the nature of the services provided by community pharmacists with respect to cardiovascular risk and disease management in the Nelson Mandela Metropole. The research design was a non-experimental, descriptive study using a crosssectional survey method. Data was obtained through the utilisation of a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections and was administered to community pharmacies in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, that provided cardiovascular point-of-care screening services. The community pharmacists correctly identified cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity (76.6 percent; 36, n=47) and smoking (27.7 percent; 13, n=47). Other cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity (4.2 percent; 2, n=47), gender (2.1 percent; 1, n=47) and family history (4.2 percent; 2, n=47) were largely ignored by the pharmacists. Point-of-care testing services were readily available in the pharmacies, with all of the pharmacies providing blood glucose and blood pressure measurements. Blood cholesterol measurements were only provided in 87.8 percent (36, n=41) of the pharmacies. The services were generally provided in a clinic facility, with 90.2 percent (37, n=41) of the pharmacies having a clinic facility available. Pharmacists were involved in the provision of point-of-care services, with 85.4 percent (35, n=41) of the pharmacies indicating that the pharmacists participated. Pharmacists readily provided counselling prior (70.7 percent; 29, n=41) to and after (80.5 percent; 33, n=41) the conduction of the screening services on areas such as lifestyle modification and treatment options. Only 15 percent (7, n=47) of the pharmacists indicated that they were aware of Cardiovascular Risk Calculator Tools and none of the pharmacists indicated that they had utilised such a tool. Pharmacists recommended frequent monitoring (60.5 percent; 26, n=43) and lifestyle modification (67.4 percent; 29, n=43) to patients, if the result of their screening service was within normal limits. However, the majority of the pharmacists indicated that they would refer patients, if the results obtained were out of the normal range. Conclusions based on the findings indicated that the pharmacists are readily providing cardiovascular risk screening services. The pharmacists were also able to identify the presence of any risk factors that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease in the patients. However, active pharmaceutical involvement in further cardiovascular disease monitoring seemed to be lacking. Recommendations were made on areas such as reimbursement for pharmaceutical care services, increased utilisation of support staff and Continuing Professional Development events that could assist in improving the role of the community pharmacist in cardiovascular disease management.

Exploring pharmacist-medical practitioner collaboration on outpatient pharmaceutical care at Mankweng Hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Bopape, Mack Stumpu January 2022 (has links)
Thesis (M.Pharm. (Pharmacy Practice)) -- University of Limpopo, 2022 / Developing countries face huge challenges in provision of pharmaceutical care whereas some developed countries have developed and implemented measure to improve pharmaceutical care through collaborative practices. Collaborative patient care is referred to as the cooperative work or practice by healthcare professionals assuming complementary roles and sharing responsibilities for decision making and problem solving to formulate and furnish quality patient care. Pharmaceutical care is governed by the principles and philosophy of patient centred pharmacy practice, where the main responsibilities, roles or action of a pharmacist are based on patient care. Collaborative pharmaceutical care practice for outpatient requires collaborative action of a pharmacist with other healthcare practitioners. Pharmacist-medical practitioner collaborative care practice is one of the recently emerging aspects in developing countries’ hospitals such as in South Africa which can enhance patient care. Method A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with a purposeful sample of 8 pharmacists and 9 medical practitioners at Mankweng Hospital in Limpopo province, South Africa. In the study we used audiotaped interviews that were transcribed exactly as said and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged from the study’s interview analysis, description of the current relationship and collaborative practices; the perspective of the pharmacists and medical practitioners on collaboration; the barriers affecting pharmacist-medical practitioner collaboration; and recommendations on the ways, strategy and model to improve pharmacists-medical practitioner collaboration. This highlighted that the relationship among pharmacists and medical practitioners is moderate and there a need for improvement in the relationship. The recommendations range from established xv educational and interactional platforms, improved resource supply, clarity in terms of roles and responsibilities and enhanced managerial structures and functions. Conclusion The current relationship among pharmacists and medical practitioners is moderate. There is still a need for improvement in the relationship to achieve quality collaborative practice for pharmaceutical care in outpatient.

The South African community pharmacist and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a pharmaceutical care intervention

Hill, Peter William January 2009 (has links)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of pandemic magnitude, increasingly contributing to the disease burden of countries in the developing world, largely because of the effects of unhealthy lifestyles fuelled by unbridled urbanisation. In certain settings, patients with diabetes are more likely to have a healthcare encounter with a pharmacist than with any other healthcare provider. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the potential of South African community pharmacists to positively influence patient adherence and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetes. The designated primary endpoint was glycated haemoglobin, with the intermediate health outcomes of blood lipids, serum creatinine, blood pressure and body mass index serving as secondary endpoints. Community pharmacists and their associated Type 2 diabetes patients were recruited from areas throughout South Africa using the communication media of various nonstatutory pharmacy organisations. Although 156 pharmacists initially indicated interest in participating in the study, only 28 pharmacists and 153 patients were enrolled prior to baseline data collection. Of these, 16 pharmacists and 57 patients participated in the study for the full twelve months. Baseline clinical and psychosocial data were collected, after which pharmacists and their patients were randomised, nine pharmacists and 34 patients to the intervention group and 8 pharmacists and 27 patients to the control group. The sample size calculation revealed that each group required the participation of a minimum of 35 patients. Control pharmacists were requested to offer standard pharmaceutical care, while the intervention pharmacists were provided with a scope of practice diabetes care plan to guide the diabetes care they were to provide. Data were again collected 12-months postbaseline. At baseline, proportionally more intervention patients (82.4%) than control patients (59.3%) were using only oral anti-diabetes agents (i.e. not in combination with insulin), while insulin usage, either alone or in combination with oral agents was conversely greater in the control group (40.7%) than in the intervention group (17.6%) (Chi-squared test, p=0.013). Approximately half of the patients (53.8% control and 47.1% intervention) reported having their HbA1c levels measured in terms of accepted guidelines. There was no significant difference in HbA1c between the groups at the end of the study (Independent t-test, p=0.514). In the control group, the mean HbA1c increased from 7.3±1.2% to 7.6±1.5%, while for the intervention patients the variable remained almost constant (8.2±2.0% at baseline and 8.2±1.8% at post-baseline). Similarly, there were no significant differences between the groups with regard to any of the designated secondary clinical endpoints. Adherence to medication and self-management recommendations was similarly good for both groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups for any of the other psychosocial variables measured. In conclusion, intervention pharmacists were not able to significantly influence glycaemic control or therapeutic adherence compared to the control pharmacists.

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