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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Effects of active play and passive observation on problem solving in four-year-old children

Wong, Maggie Leung January 1984 (has links)
Object play is widely considered a primary medium through which children develop cognitive skills. In an attempt to examine the relative importance of different types of play experience and selected play components on children's subsequent approach to problem solving, 31 four-year-olds (19 boys, 12 girls) were matched on sex and PPVT-R raw score, and were then assigned to one of the three treatment groups. Seven triplets (5 male, 2 female) and five pairs (2 male, 3 female) of children were formed. Children in each group were exposed to a different type of experience relative to task-relevant materials (active play, passive observation of play, and no involvement) and subsequently given a lure-retrieval task. The solution to this task involved the joining of the two longest sticks with a block to produce a tool to retrieve a lure. Subjects were compared on their problem-solving performance as measured by solution time and specific object play components obtained in Cheyne and Rubin's (1983) study were replicated in this study. Examination of additional components in play indicated that problem solution was enhanced not only by frequent use of long double-stick construction, but also by double-stick constructions with any stick length. Problem-solving performance of the three groups of children were not significantly different. However, a Treatment x Sex interaction was noted among children in the active and passive groups; passive girls spent more time and tended to require more assistance to task solution than active girls, active boys, and passive boys. Factors which may have contributed to this finding are discussed.

Transfer of information : is relational processing the answer? / Running title: Spontaneous transfer / Spontaneous transfer.

Krug, Damon Brian January 1990 (has links)
The present research focused on the transfer of information from a learning situation to a problem solving task. In particular, the effect of relational processing upon the transfer of information to the solution of insight problems was considered.The design of the study was a five by two factorial design. Within this design the independent variables were five levels of relational processing, ranging from full relational processing (essay) to individual item processing (deleted letter list) and two levels of instruction, informed and uninformed. The dependent measure was the number of insight problems correctly solved. The problems consisted of ten statements which did not make sense unless one part of the sentence was modified. The subject's task was to supply the necessary information needed to make sense of the sentence.The results showed no effect for type of instruction and there was no interaction between the type of instruction and level of relational processing. There was a significant effect due to level of relational processing. More specifically, the essay condition lead to the greatest amount and individually processed items lead to the lowest amount of information transfer. Further, it was suggested that the relationship between relational processing and the transfer of information was linear. These findings were interpreted as indicating that relational processing was a significant factor in explaining the transfer of information. / Department of Educational Psychology

Resolving adversarial conflicts : an approach integrating case-based and analytical methods

Sycara, Ekaterini P. 08 1900 (has links)
No description available.


DELVECCHIO, FRANCINE LISA 07 September 2011 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to investigate how purposeful metacognitive instruction affected students’ use of metacognitive skills and their abilities to solve complex chemistry problems. The pilot (n = 18 to 26) and study (n = 21) groups were enrolled in separate Ontario Grade 11 university preparation chemistry classes. A quasi-experimental intervention was implemented, using the pilot study as a control. A Metacognitive Framework that outlined metacognitive skills specific to problem solving in chemistry formed the foundation for the intervention. Pre- and post-test self report questionnaires measuring students’ use of metacognitive skills (MCAI) and the problem solving tasks (i.e., PSTs) were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Data about students’ metacognitive and problem solving processes were also collected for the study group from: (a) think aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) protocols, (b) an exit interview with the classroom teacher, (c) the students’ lab reports for two design labs, and (d) a survey of students’ use of the Metacognitive Framework. One way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the pre- and post-test MCAI scores were not significantly different within and between the pilot and study groups. A comparison of the higher and lower achievement subgroups within the study group revealed that over time, the mean scores on the MCAI increased for the higher achievement group and decreased for the lower achievement group. One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the post-test PST scores were significantly higher than the pre-test scores, and the groups differed significantly from each other with the study group scoring higher on both scores. While the statistical analyses revealed few differences, the teacher’s exit interview, TAPPS protocols, pre- and post-test lab reports, and student survey of the Metacognitive Framework indicated that the intervention supported students’ abilities to solve complex chemistry problems and use metacognitive skills associated with planning, monitoring, and evaluation. / Thesis (Master, Education) -- Queen's University, 2011-09-06 21:09:42.036

An investigation into the experimental balancing of verbal frequency in small problem solving groups

Heslet, Frederick Ellis January 1968 (has links)
There is no abstract available for this dissertation.

Solving ill-defined personal problems : the effects of scaffolds, generation tools, and recording tools on solution generation

Vine, Heidi L. January 1998 (has links)
This experiment was designed to compare the before and after ratings of solutions generated by individuals using two problem solving scaffolds, brainstorming and the hierarchical technique. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions which varied by type of scaffold (procedures to guide thinking), type of tool used to assist solution generation (random word list or thesaurus), and type of technology utilized (computer versus paper and pencil). Using a personal problem, participants generated solutions on paper until they could no longer add to their list. Then participants were taught to use a scaffold, either brainstorming or the hierarchical technique , and allowed to continue generating solutions either on paper or on a computer with one of two tools to stimulate ideas, a random word list or a thesaurus.Results indicated that participants trained on brainstorming generated solutions that were more original than participants trained on the hierarchical technique. The mean number of solutions generated was highest when participants used the computer recording tool paired with a thesaurus. Finally, participants rated solutions higher on practicality when they used a random word list instead of a thesaurus. / Department of Psychological Science

Extroversion and a comparison of two problem-solving heuristics

Buckley, Mark C. January 1995 (has links)
The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship between the "Big Five" personality dimensions, training and problem-solving effectiveness. The second purpose of this study was to explore the effects of training upon the quantity and self-reported quality of solutions generated to ill-structured problems. Subjects generated solutions to a problem and then were trained in either brainstorming or the hierarchical method. Then they were asked to generate additional solutions and rate their solutions. Subjects returned after a month and completed the NEO-FFI and then generated solutions to a different problem. Subjects in the hierarchical condition produced more solutions than those using brainstorming. Subjects in the hierarchical condition also rated their solutions higher on a subjective quality measure. Unexpectedly, the extroversion /introversion personality dimension was not related to overall quantity or quality. There were several personality-training interactions on the quantity and quality measures. / Department of Psychological Science

Creative aspects of problem solving : A critical analysis and explanation of the attribution of meaning during interactive problem solving sessions, sequences and simulations

Proctor, R. A. January 1988 (has links)
The thesis examines the loosely framed hypothesls that a computer progr3m can be designed to aid the gaining of new insights into practical real problems in a way which is 3n3logous to well established creative problem solving techniques. Two programs were designed and tested by the writer for this purpose. Evidence is provided to show that the programs do in fact assist in the galning of such new insights. The research comprises 3n analysis of the relev3nt literature and field studies taking the form of controlled experiments. The field research design. The first stage comprised the development of 3n early prototype program BRAIN. From this e::ercise ideas for further development of the progr3m were e::tracted together with a methodology for establishing how to record user interaction with the progr3m. The second stage of the field research involved the systematic testing of an enhanced version of the initi3l progr3m. The writer sought to establish how users interacted with the program. There was observed to be strong evidence that users did in fact interact with the program. It was noted that some users found the progr3m somewhat too bizarre for their own liking and had difficulty in making good use of the structure provided by the program. Further developments of the initial program, BRAIN, and the theoretical justification for the design of a second program, ORACLE, were made. ORACLE adopts the role of a process facilitator operating in the mode of a Rogerian type therapist. The computer program is developed from ideas associated with the ELIZA program developed by Weizenbaum and experience with the BRAIN program. The third stage of the research concerned itself with ascertaining whether the programs appeared to help users working with real problems - ie; ones over which they exercised personal ownership. At the same time an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of the improvements made to the BRAIN program. The results obtained indicated that there was evidence to support the view that both programs assisted in the gaining of new insights into real, owned problems.

The cultural aspects of intervention with Soft Systems Methodogy

Davies, Lynda J. January 1989 (has links)
No description available.

Statistical computing : individual differences in the acquisition of a cognitive skill

Green, Alison Julia Katherine January 1989 (has links)
The rate at which individuals acquire new cognitive skills may vary quite substantially, some acquiring a new skill more rapidly and efficiently than others. It has been shown through the analysis of think aloud protocols that learning performance on a map learning task, for instance, is associated with the use of certain learning procedures. In the domain of mathematical problem solving, it has also been shown that performance is associated with strategic as opposed to tactical decision making. Previous research on learning and problem solving has tended to focus on tactical processes, ignoring the role of strategic processes in learning and problem solving. There is clearly a need to examine the role of strategic processes in learning and to determine whether they might be an important source of individual differences in learning performance. A related question concerns teaching thinking skills. If it is possible to determine those learning procedures that differentiate good from poor learners, is it then possible to teach the effective procedures to a group of novice students in order to enhance the rate of skill acquisition? Results from the experiments reported here show that novices differ, and that learning performance is related to the use of certain learning procedures, as revealed by subjects' think aloud protocols. A follow-up study showed that novices taught to use the procedures differentiating good from poor learners performed at a higher level than two control groups of novices. A coding scheme was developed to explicitly examine learning at macroscopic and microscopic levels, and to contrast tactical with strategic processes. Discriminant function analysis was used to examine differences between good and poor learners. It was shown that good learners more frequently use executive processes in learning episodes. A study of the same subjects learning to use statistical packages on a microcomputer corroborate these findings. Thus, results extend those obtained from the first study. A study of the knowledge structures possessed by novices was complicated by differences in levels of statistical knowledge. Multidimensional scaling techniques revealed differences between novices with three statistical courses behind them, but not among those with only two statistical courses behind them. Among those novices with three statistical courses behind them, faster learners' knowledge structures more closely resembled those of experienced users of statistical packages than did those of slower learners.

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