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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
51

Dad1 As Potential Therapeutic Target And Biomarker In Prostate Cancer

January 2015 (has links)
The Defender against apoptotic cell death (DAD1) is a negative regulator of programmed cell death that was initially identified in the temperature sensitive tsBN7 cell line. It has been shown to be an essential subunit of oligosaccharyltransferase and is localized to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a normal physiological state. However, our data suggests that DAD1 localizes outside of the cell and alters the apoptotic signaling via FAS ligand to give cancer cells a survival advantage. Although the mechanism is poorly understood, increased expression of DAD1 has been associated with increasing Gleason score in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tumors. Based on the aforementioned evidence, our study attempts to unravel cellular localization and the underlying mechanisms by which DAD1 mediates prostate cancer cell survival, and explore its potential as a biomarker in prostate cancer. As evidenced by qRTPCR, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Co-ip, ELISA, and immuno-blot analysis, cancer cells down regulate the expression of the binding partner of DAD1 responsible for retention of DAD1 in the ER, which allows DAD1 to exit the ER and be exocytosed. The exocytosed DAD1 binds to FAS L and prevents apoptotic signaling. Treatment with DAD1 antibody induces significantly higher cell death in prostate cancer cells compared to the non-tumorigenic cells. Combination of DAD1 antibody with currently used chemotherapeutic agents like Docetaxel and Doxorubicin can be used to achieve higher cell death at a lower dose of these drugs to minimize side effects. Further, our immunohistochemistry data in tumor microarray suggests that DAD1 could serve as a potential biomarker marker in PCa. In addition to the tissue, we also examined the expression of DAD1 in prostate cancer patient serum samples using sandwich ELISA; our results indicate DAD1 is a more sensitive and specific prognostic marker for prostate cancer compared to PSA. Our data suggests that localization of DAD1 outside of the cells is crucial to the survival of PCa cells and this phenomenon can be exploited to specifically target prostate cancer cells in therapy and serve as a biomarker in prostate cancer. / 1 / Nobel Bhasin
52

Predicting biological outcome in the radiation treatment of the prostate

Ngcezu, Sonwabile Arthur 15 March 2007 (has links)
Ngcezu, Sonwarile Arthur. Student no 0200932R. MSc Thesis. Physics. Faculty of Science. 2006. Supervisor: Prof D van der Merwe. / Purpose: A retrospective study was conducted to calculate biological objective functions [Tumor control probability (TCP) for the prostate and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), in particular for the rectum] for patients treated at Johannesburg hospital during the years 2002 – 2003 for prostate cancer and to correlate these values with observed clinical outcome. Ultimately these results were used to evaluate the effects of dose escalation on tumor control and rectal complications following radiotherapy using conformal external beam radiotherapy. Methods and materials: To calculate the TCP and the NTCP use was made of BIOPLAN, a PC-based software. This software allows the user to evaluate a treatment plan from the point of view of the biological response of the irradiated tissue, providing at the same time flexibility in the use of models (Poisson Statistics for TCP and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman for NTCP) and parameters. The clinical analysis was based on reports from on treatment review and follow-up visits made by the patients periodically after the treatment. PSA was used as a measure of biochemical failure and correlated with calculated TCP. Also, reported complications were compared to NTCP values calculated by BIOPLAN. The follow-up data were about 2 months to 2.5 years old. Results: Complications reported after therapy were all less than grade 3 (RTOG) for the patients, which means only mild complications were reported. No patient reported having necrosis, perforation or a fistula for all the prognostic groups. The calculated average NTCP (mild complications) was 36.3 ± 33.3 % and it was 3.9 ± 3.6 % for severe complications. The calculated TCP had an average of 84.3 ± 7.4 % and no biochemical failure was detected on the follow-ups. As the total dose was elevated through 70-Gy, 72-Gy, 76-Gy, and 86-Gy (2 Gy equivalent), the average TCP increased through 76.2 ± 3.8 %, 77.7 ± 2.6 %, 81.5 ± 4 % and 92.5 ± 2.5 %, respectively. The TCP therefore increased about 22 % by increasing prescribed doses from 70 Gy to 86 Gy. The relation between rectal overlap volume and the NTCP was not obvious (scattered). Conclusions The model predictions gave a reasonable reflection of the reported clinical outcome. A more comprehensive study requires derivation and use of accurate model parameters, and more mature follow-up data.
53

Rectal dose sparing and prostate immobilization using a rectal balloon in the treatment of prostate cancer with dose escalation conformal radiation therapy

Kanyike, Daniel Mukasa 15 October 2008 (has links)
ABSTRACT Objective The use of conformal radiation therapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate has allowed for dose escalation and improved local control. The dose to the rectum is an important consideration in determining complication rates. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a Foleys rectal catheter balloon on the dose volume histograms to the rectum and to assess the effect of the balloon catheter on prostate gland immobilization during treatment of intermediate risk cancer of the prostate. Design and methods Ten patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer, each acting as his own control, were recruited in the study; eight patients had complete data for analysis. CT scans were done at intervals during treatment, with and without a rectal balloon filled with 30 ml of contrast. 3 pairs of CT scans for each patient were performed and were available for analysis. All patients were treated with 6-field conformal radiotherapy up to 66 Gy followed by a boost of 12 Gy in 3 fractions to the prostate using a rectal balloon and a 3- field plan. Dose volume histograms were calculated for the boost plan with and without the rectal balloon. Movements of the prostate in the superior-inferior and the anteriorposterior directions were measured with and without the balloon for each treatment. There was a slight reduction in the dose received by 1% and 2 % of the rectal volume with the balloon (55% and 52% respectively), compared to without a balloon (57% and 54.3% respectively) (p> 0.05). Results There was a non significant increase in the dose received by 50% of the rectum (p>0.05) with the use of the rectal balloon due to the rectum being pushed towards the symphysis pubis by the balloon. With the use of rectal balloon, the superior / inferior displacement of the prostate was reduced (p=0.04) and a displacement of more than 5 mm was observed in one out of eight patients. The anterior / posterior displacement of the prostate was decreased with the rectal balloon with a mean of 4 mm compared to 5 mm with no rectal balloon. This was not statistically significantly (p>0.05). However, displacement of more than 5 mm was observed in 2 patients with the rectal balloon. No grade 3 acute rectal toxicity was recorded in the 8 patients. Conclusion There was no significant change in the percentage dose received by the rectum with the use of the rectal balloon in this study. The study showed however that the rectal balloon significantly reduced prostate movement during treatment.
54

Identification of the genetic alterations in prostate cancer metastases

Stankiewicz, Elzbieta January 2017 (has links)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Western developed countries. While the majority of PCa diagnosed by PSA screening are indolent, advanced and metastatic disease has a significant mortality and morbidity. Bone metastases are extremely common in PCa and identification of bone metastasis associated genes may provide insights into PCa progression and assist in finding new drug targets. However, the genetic study of bone metastases is very limited due to the difficulty of sampling. We performed genome-wide analysis of six fresh frozen PCa bone metastases. We found several alterations commonly present in advanced PCa, including gains at: 1q32.1, broad gains of 8q (MYC, NCOA2), 9q33.2-34.3, 11q13.1-14.1 (CCND1), 12q24.23-24.31, 16p13.3, 16p12.1-11.2 and Xq12-13.1 (AR) as well as losses at: 5q11.1-22.1, 5q14.3-23.1, 6q14.1-22, 8p23.2-p21, 13q13.2-31.1 (RB1), 17p13.1-12 (TP53) and 18q11.1-22.3. Two cases also showed PTEN loss and one sample had deletion indicative of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. For downstream analysis we concentrated on CCND1 oncogene at 11q13 and FBXL4 at 6q16 as potential drivers of these genomic changes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation we found common CCND1 gain and FBXL4 loss in PCa bone metastases (54.5%, 12/22 and 47.8%, 11/23, respectively), much less frequent in primary tumours (7%, 10/142 and 13.8%, 20/145, respectively) and absent in BPH cases (0/55). The expression levels of cyclin D1 protein, coded by CCND1 correlated with CCND1 copy number gain (p < 0.0001) and were higher in metastatic tumours than in primary PCa (p = 0.015), confirming cyclin D1 involvement in advanced PCa. Presence of FBXL4 loss in early stage primary PCa strongly correlated with current PCa prognostic markers and with worse patient survival. Therefore, we propose that FBXL4 may be a tumour suppressor gene in prostate, whose loss in early PCa could be indicative of more aggressive disease. Using in vitro experiments we demonstrated that FBXL4 regulates cells motility and invasion. We confirmed that ERLEC1, an ER lectin involved in ER stress response pathway is a degradation target of FBXL4. As activation of ER stress response pathway is linked to enhanced cell migration and invasion, loss of FBXL4 could be one of the mechanisms by which cancer cells increase their efficiency to respond to stress and to escalate their metastatic potential through stabilisation of ERLEC1. Further studies of FBXL4 - ERLEC1 axis are necessary to establish how they contribute to PCa progression. This knowledge can potentially help to develop novel targeted therapies for aggressive disease harbouring FBXL4 abnormalities.
55

Paysage immunologique du cancer de la prostate

Molina, Oscar Eduardo January 2021 (has links)
Le cancer de la prostate est le premier cancer en incidence et le troisième au niveau de la mortalité chez les hommes canadiens. Selon les estimations de la société canadienne du cancer pour l'année 2020, près de 23 300 hommes recevront un diagnostic et 4 200 mourront de la maladie. Le cancer de la prostate est l'un des rares cancers à évolution lente. Toutefois, il présente beaucoup de variabilité dans les risques de récidive, de réponse aux traitements et de décès spécifique chez des patients ayant des caractéristiques clinico-pathologiques similaires. Il y a donc un grand besoin pour le développement d'outils prédictifs plus précis pour l'évolution et la classification de la maladie. Dans les dernières années il y a de plus en plus d'indices qui suggèrent qu'une analyse exhaustive des cellules immunitaires infiltrant les tumeurs pourrait aider à prédire l'évolution des cancers. Nous avons donc émis l'hypothèse que l'étude de l'infiltration de cellules immunes dans le microenvironnement du cancer de la prostate chez des patients traités par prostatectomie radicale pourrait prédire l'évolution de la maladie. Nous avons utilisé deux techniques pour analyser l'environnement immunitaire dans le cancer de la prostate. Tout d'abord, nous avons établi le profil d'infiltration immunitaire du microenvironnement prostatique cancéreux par des marquages immunohistochimiques, en nous intéressant non seulement au type, mais aussi à la quantité et à la localisation des cellules immunes dans les différents compartiments du microenvironnement tumoral. Nos expériences ont montré tout d'abord, que l'infiltration dans la zone centrale de la tumeur par des cellules présentatrices d'antigènes ne permet pas de prédire l'évolution du PCa. Toutefois, l'infiltration dans l'épithélium péritumoral normal et dans la marge tumorale par ces cellules est associée avec l'évolution de la maladie. Soit, en augmentant les risques de progresser vers une récidive biochimique, pour des fortes infiltrations de cellules dendritiques immatures CD209+ dans la marge tumorale et un PCa létal pour une forte infiltration de macrophages M2 CD163+ dans l'épithélium péritumoral normal. Ou bien en diminuant les risques de traitements d'hormonothérapie définitive ou de PCa létal, pour une forte infiltration de cellules dendritiques matures CD83+ dans l'épithélium péritumoral normal et la marge tumorale. Par la suite, nos analyses ont montré que la valeur prédictive de l'infiltration des lymphocytes se concentre principalement dans la zone centrale de la tumeur, tel que démontré par les risques accrus de récidive biochimique par des ratios intra tumoraux faibles de CD45RO/CD3 et hauts des FoxP3/CD45RO. Nous avons observé aussi des risques plus faibles de traitements d'hormonothérapie définitive pour des faibles ratios dans la tumeur de FoxP3/CD3 et FoxP3/CD45RO ainsi que, des risques diminués de PCa létal pour un haut ratio de CD45RO/CD3 dans l'épithélium tumoral. En complément, nous avons effectué une analyse du profil d'expression génique en ciblant une série de gènes liés à la fonction immunitaire à l'aide d'expériences de RT-qPCR dans le but de bonifier les expériences d'immunohistochimie. Ces expériences nous ont permis d'identifier un sous-groupe des gènes liés à la fonction des cellules présentatrices d'antigènes pour lequel une surexpression est associée à des taux de survie sans PCa léthal diminués. De plus, nous avons mis en évidence la protéine TIM-3 comme étant un point contrôle immunologique important dans la progression du PCa, puisque des taux élevés d'expression de ce PCI sont associées à des survies plus courtes sans besoin de traitements d'hormonothérapie définitive. Les résultats de nos travaux ont permis de mettre en évidence l'importance de tenir compte des compartiments de la tumeur dans une étude exhaustive de l'infiltration immune dans le PCa. En effet, nos données suggèrent que la valeur pronostique de l'infiltration immune dépend du type et de la densité des cellules infiltrés mais aussi de leur localisation dans le microenvironnement tumoral. De plus, nous avons pu identifier des acteurs importants dans l'évolution de la maladie, tels que les cellules exprimant FoxP3, CD45RO, CD163, CD209 ainsi que le point de contrôle immunologique TIM-3. La méthodologie de cette étude pourrait être adaptée à la réalité clinique en analysant les biopsies préopératoires. L'utilisation d'un tel outil pronostic en combinaison avec les tests clinico-pathologiques de routine pourrait aider à identifier les patients qui pourraient bénéficier d'immunothérapies intra-prostatiques avant la chirurgie destinée à renverser cet état immunosuppresseur dans un contexte de médecine de précision. / Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer among Canadian men. According to Cancer Canada, in 2020 23 300 men will be diagnosed and 4 200 men will die from prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is one of the rarest cancers to have a slow evolution. However, there is a considerable variation in disease recurrence, treatment response and disease-specific death between individuals showing similar clinico-pathological characteristics. There is therefore a great need for the development of more precise predictive tools for the evolution and the classification of the disease. In recent years, there is a growing evidence suggesting that a comprehensive analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells could help to predict cancer progression. We therefore hypothesized that the study of immune cell infiltration in the prostate cancer microenvironment in patients treated by radical prostatectomy can predict the evolution of the disease. We used two techniques to analyze the immune context in prostate cancer. First, we profiled the immune microenvironment of the prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry. By focusing not only on the type, but also the quantity and the localization of immune-infiltrating cells in the various compartments of the tumor microenvironment. Our experiments showed that antigen-presenting cells infiltrating the center of the tumor does not predict the evolution of prostate cancer. On the other hand, infiltration into the normal-like peritumoral epithelium and the tumor margin are associated with the evolutions of the disease either by increasing the risks of progressing to biochemical recurrence for high infiltration by immature CD209+ dendritic cells in the tumor margin and higher risks of lethal PCa for high infiltration by CD163+ M2 macrophages in the tumor margin and normal-like peritumoral epithelium. Or by reducing the risks of definitive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or lethal PCa for a high infiltration by mature CD83+ dendritic cells in the normal-like peritumoral epithelium and the tumor margin. Subsequently, our analyzes showed that the predictive value of lymphocyte infiltration is mainly concentrated in the tumor center, as demonstrated by the increased risks of biochemical recurrence by intra-tumor low ratios of CD45RO/CD3 and high ratio of FoxP3/CD45RO. In addition, a lower risk of definitive ADT for low tumor ratios of FoxP3/CD3 and FoxP3/CD45RO and a decreased risk of lethal PCa for a high CD45RO/CD3 ratio in the tumor epithelium was also observed. Secondly, we performed gene expression profile analysis targeting a series of genes related to immune function using RT-qPCR experiments to complement the immunohistochemistry experiments. These experiments allowed us to identify a subgroup of genes related to the function of antigen presenting cells in which, overexpression is associated with decreased rates of lethal prostate cancer-free survival. In addition, we identified TIM-3 as being an important immunecheckpoint in the progression of prostate cancer since high expression levels of TIM-3 are associated with shorter survival to definitive ADT. The findings of our work have highlighted the importance of tumor compartments in a comprehensive study of immune infiltration in prostate cancer. Indeed, our data suggest that the prognostic value of immune infiltration depends on the type and density of the infiltrated cells but also on their location in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we were able to identify important players in the evolution of the disease, such as cells expressing FoxP3, CD45RO, CD163, CD209 and the immune checkpoint TIM-3. The methodology of this study could be adapted to clinical reality with the analysis of preoperative biopsies. The use of such a prognostic tool in combination with routine clinico-pathologic tests could help identify patients who might benefit from intra prostatic immunotherapies prior to surgery to reverse this immunosuppressive condition in a context of precision medicine.
56

Health Services Utilization and Associated Predictors Among Prostate Cancer Patients With and Without Depression in the United States From 2010 to 2015: A Propensity Score-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

Alsultan, Mohammed 19 November 2019 (has links)
No description available.
57

Correlation of Urinary Engrailed-2 Levels to Tumour Volume and Pathological Stage in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

Pandha, H.S., Javed, S., Sooriakumaran, P., Bott, S., Montgomery, B., Hutton, A., Eden, C., Langley, S.E., Morgan, Richard 05 1900 (has links)
yes / The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between pre-prostatectomy urinary Engrailed-2 (EN2), a transcription factor secreted by prostate cancer cells, with tumour volume and pathological characteristics in resected prostate specimens. First pass urine samples (10 ml) without prior prostatic massage were collected and stored at –80°C. EN2 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Tumour volume in the prostatectomy specimens was determined histologically. 57 men undergoing RP in one urological cancer network were evaluated. EN2 was detected in 85% of RP patients. EN2 correlated with tumour volume (but not total prostatic volume) in a linear regression analysis, with increasing pathological T stage and margin positivity. Using three “cutoff levels” of tumour volume (0.5 ml, 1.3 ml and 2.5 ml) to define “significant disease”, men with “significant disease” had markedly higher levels of urinary EN2 (p < 0.001 for each cut off level). Levels of urinary EN2 may be useful in predicting tumour volume in men with prostate cancer by potentially identifying men with small volume “insignificant” disease. This study justifies a larger multicentre evaluation of urinary EN2 levels as a biomarker of PC significance using cancer volume, pathological and PSA criteria.
58

Targeting Glutamate in Prostate Cancer-Induced Depression

Young, Kimberly January 2017 (has links)
Affecting one in every eight Canadian men, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among males. As with other forms of cancer, men with prostate cancer are much more likely to develop comorbid depression than the general population without cancer diagnoses. Depression negatively affects these men’s quality of life and increases mortality rates among cancer patients. Therefore, effective therapies to manage depression in this unique subpopulation are needed. This project sets out to assess the efficacy of glutamate-targeting drugs as antidepressants. The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, glutamate is released in excessive quantities by cancer cells. It is thought that this abundance of glutamate leads to excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration, affecting neurons in important regions of the brain relating to mood and mood regulation. A validated mouse model of depression was established using RM1 murine prostate cancer cells. This model was then used to test the properties of three drugs: sulfasalazine (SSZ), (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((S)-4-CPG), and 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). Results show that these drugs were able to improve depressive-like behaviours and symptoms to varying degrees, at least partially reversing the negative effects of tumours. This project showed that disrupting glutamate release and/or signaling could be an effective approach for an antidepressant therapy or adjuvant in prostate cancer patients. / Thesis / Master of Science (MSc) / Prostate cancer affects one in every eight Canadian men. Cancer patients are at a much higher risk of developing depression than the rest of the population. Unfortunately, current antidepressants are limited in their ability to improve depressive symptoms in cancer patients. Therefore, this project sets out to identify new options for treating depression in prostate cancer patients. Glutamate is a signalling molecule that is released in abundance by cancer cells and is largely responsible for communication between neurons in the central nervous system. This project showed that limiting the amount of glutamate released by cancer cells and limiting glutamate-based signaling improves depressive-like symptoms in mice with prostate cancer tumours. These results suggest that targeting glutamate could be an effective antidepressant therapy in the cancer population.
59

The role of microvesicles in the hyper-coagulation associated with prostate cancer

Al Saleh, Hassan Ali January 2017 (has links)
Patients with prostate cancer (PC) are at high risk of developing migratory thrombosis compared to healthy individuals. This is due to the haemostatic abnormality as a result of the presence of cancer, and is referred to as Trousseau’s syndrome. Trousseau's syndrome leads to increased mortality among cancer patients, and is considered the second cause of death after cancer itself. We investigated the role of microvesicles (MVs), which are circular membrane compartments shed from cancer as well as from healthy cells, in the development of Trousseau’s syndrome. We compared the pro-coagulant activities between MVs derived from PC cell lines with different oncogenic and metastatic characteristics, using chromogenic assays to determine their thrombin generation. Microvesicles from the more aggressive DU145vIII and more metastatic PC3-MLN4 show increased thrombin generation compared to MVs derived from DU145 and PC3. We also compared thrombin generation in MVs extracted from plasma of PC patients of various cancer stages. MVs from PC patients with a metastasized tumour had increased thrombin generation compared to patients with localized tumours. Finally, we transfected the CHO cell line with the human protease-activated receptor 1 (hPAR1), the principal receptor of thrombin. PC MVs led to the activation of PAR1 in CHO (hPAR1), indicating thrombin generation. Our in vitro studies suggest a potential role of PC MVs in the migratory thrombosis observed in Trousseau’s syndrome, due to their independent ability to generate active thrombin. We also demonstrated that thrombin generation of PC-derived MVs correlated with the oncogenic and metastatic characteristics of prostate cancer. / Thesis / Master of Science (MSc)
60

Traitement du cancer de la prostate localisé par une approche immunothérapeutique basée sur des virus permettant l'expression ciblée à la tumeur de molécules immunostimulatrices

Le Batteux, Sébastien 09 November 2022 (has links)
No description available.

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