Bekele, Yilma Yitayew
Includes bibliographical references. It is recognized that the pathways patients take en route to psychiatric services vary between countries and socio-cultural groups. Delay along the pathway to care is not a mere reflection of organization of health care and referral systems but also of availability and accessibilty of services. Studies have shown associations between delay and various sociodemographic, clinical and service related factors. Understanding the pathway to psychiatric care, and recognition od delay points along the pathway, is a crucial step for the development of intervention programs geared at improving the provision of mental health care.
Heroin detoxification during pregnancy: a systematic review and retrospective study of management of heroin addiction in pregnancyGilfillan, Katherine Verne 2012 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. There is a general consensus that methadone maintenance is the gold standard in the management of pregnant heroin users. However, in South African state hospitals, methadone withdrawal is the routine procedure offered to these patients, as methadone maintenance programmes are unavailable in the public sector.
Systematic review of imaging studies in the lateral orbitofrontal circuit in bipolar type I disorderYorke, Neil 2013 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. The aim of this study was to review the available published structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in bipolar type I disorder, looking for any evidence of a change in size of the structures in lateral orbitofrontal circuits relative to the conceptually unaffected motor circuit. Structures in the motor circuit will thus act as an internal control. We will additionally look at healthy controls as an external control.
Includes bibliographical references. The rationale of doing thorough medical screening of all psychiatric patients is clear, because there is a relationship between medical illness and mental illness. It remains unresolved which screening tests should be performed routinely in general psychiatric patients even though the prevalence of medical illness is relatively high. Even less is known about the prevalence of medical illnesses in criminal defendants referred for observation, most of whom do not have a serious psychiatric disorder. Special investigations may be necessary in the diagnosis of these medical conditions. Within the context of psychiatry as a whole, the population referred for forensic observation may be subject to more stringent investigation as a legal requirement. However there is little information available on this group regarding the prevalence of medical illnesses and the impact that these have on the psycho-legal assessment. This study will therefore seek to assess the current practice of routine investigations in assessing criminal defendants that have been referred to the forensic observation unit in order to assess whether these findings contribute significantly to the psycho-legal assessment, and to determine the prevalence of medical illness in this population. It is hoped that it will be possible to decide whether there is utility to do routine tests, essentially by coercion, in this group.
The lived experience of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome : a qualitative phenomenological studyMayers, Patricia Margaret 2000 (has links)
Bibliography : leaves 99-111. This phenomenological study examined the lived experience of persons who suffer from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Research into this condition has to date concentrated on causality and coping strategies and there is limited knowledge of the experiences of sufferers of this condition. In-depth interviews were conducted with five participants who met the criteria for the diagnosis of CFS. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed, coding for thematic content.
Neurocognitive disorders in young adults commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment in the Western CapeJoska, John Anton 2010 (has links)
Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of the study was to investigate whether HAND are as prevalent in South Africa as in other regions, and whether individuals with HAND in South Africa will respond to HAART. The literature was reviewed to elucidate potential mechanisms of the development of HIV-associated dementia (HAD), the most severe form of HAND, and to establish the effect that HAART has exerted on HAND across diverse studies. A prospective clinical cohort study was initiated in Cape Town, comprising 170 participants. The reviewed literature suggests that HAD is likely mediated by a range of HIV-related factors (including possible difference in HIV sub-type) and host-related factors.
The relationship between impulsivity, affect and a history of psychological adversity: a cognitive-affective neuroscience approachIpser, Jonathan 2011 (has links)
There is increasing evidence that trauma exposure is associated with impulsive behaviour and difficulties regulating affect. The findings of recent studies implicate the disruption of neurobiological mechanisms, particularly those involving the neurotransmitter serotonin, in both impulsivity and affect regulation.
Prevalence and patterns of medication use in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Western CapeLouw, Kerry-Ann 2012 (has links)
Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references. The Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) are a group of neurobiological conditions of growing prevalence for which there is no known cure. International prevalence studies have determined that children and adolescents with ASD are a highly medicated population. This comes to light in the context of a paucity of data around the efficacy of commonly prescribed medications. There is no data around the prevalence of medication use in the ASD population in South Africa. The aim of this study is to determine the prevelance and patterns of medication use in children and adolescents with ASD in the Western Cape and to determine the relationship between demographic variables and behaviours and medication use.
Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-74). Suicide attempts are associated with an increased risk of repeat attempts, completed suicide, chronic psychiatric symptoms, and ongoing psychosocial difficulties. Data is lacking in several areas in the field of suicide prevention and it is vital that clinicians identify factors that increase treatment adherence among patients that attempt suicide. This study aims to examine adherence rates and predictors of adherence to follow-up after a suicide attempt among the patient population of the PEU of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that sociodemographic factors and the nature of the suicide attempt predict adherence with follow-up subsequent to a suicide attempt.
Freeman, Carla Patricia
Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acetylcholine receptor antibody- mediated disease targeting the neuromuscular junction resulting in fatigable muscle weakness. A number of reports have suggested a high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms amongst MG patients. Approximately 10% of MG subjects are found to have an associated thymoma and despite thymomectomy, the MG persists. The presence of thymoma may lead to other antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric manifestations including limbic encephalitis. We hypothesized that the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be higher in MG subjects with thymoma-associated MG when compared with those who have non-thymoma MG. This study aims to compare the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a South African population of non-thymoma MG and thymoma-associated MG.
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