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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Prevalence and correlates of anxiety disorders in psychotic illness

Reid, Kirsten 2017 (has links)
Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders in psychotic illness are reported in the international literature as highly prevalent and have a significant negative impact on patient outcomes. Local literature describing such comorbidity in the South African population is limited and clinically, anxiety symptoms are seldom recognised or treated in patients with psychotic disorders. More data on prevalence rates across psychotic disorder diagnoses, as well as sociodemographic correlates would aid recognition, diagnosis, and treatment, and potentially improve clinical outcomes in this population. Method: We performed a secondary analysis of an existing database which comprised data from participants of three previous studies. The sample was made up of patients from Valkenberg Hospital and healthcare facilities in its catchment area. All patients had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical information and diagnosis was determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I). Rates of comorbid anxiety disorders were compared across various sociodemographic categories. Results: The overall prevalence of any anxiety disorder in the entire sample (N=226) was 14.6% (n=33), 95% CI [10.27-19.89%]. The most common anxiety disorder comorbidities were, in descending order, panic disorder (n=12, 5.31%; 95% CI [2.77-9.09%]), PTSD (n=9, 3.98%; 95% CI [1.84-7.42%]), specific phobia (n=7, 3.10%; 95% CI [1.25-6.28%]), anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=7, 3.10%; 95% CI [1.25-6.28%]), social phobia (n=4, 1.77%; 95% CI [0.48%-4.47%]), generalised anxiety disorder (n=4, 1.77%; 95% CI [0.48-4.47%]), substance-induced anxiety disorder (n=4, 1.77%; 95% CI [0.48-4.47%]) and obsessive compulsive disorder (n=2, 0.88%; 95% CI [0.11-3.16%]). There was a significant association between diagnosis and the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with the schizoaffective disorder group having a higher rate of PTSD (13.3% vs. 3.3% in schizophrenia, 3.2% in substance-induced mood/psychotic disorder and 0% in bipolar I disorder) (Fisher's exact test, p=0.039). In turn, there was a trend level association between diagnosis and the presence of panic disorder (PD), with schizoaffective disorder patients having higher rates of PD (16.6% vs. 4.1% in schizophrenia spectrum, 3.2% in substance-induced mood/psychotic disorder and 2.2% in bipolar I disorder) (Fisher's exact test, p=0.052). A significant association was found between level of education and the presence of PTSD, with higher rates of PTSD in patients with seven or less years of education (8.8%) compared to lower rates in those with 8-12 years of education (5.3%) and > 12years of education (0%) (Fisher's exact test, p=0.020). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders in psychotic illness was lower than what has been described in previous literature. Prevalence rates of individual anxiety disorders were also lower than previously published literature. Possible reasons for this include use of the SCID which utilises a strict diagnostic hierarchy, that the majority of the sample were in-patients, no use of self-report questionnaires or other anxiety-specific diagnostic instruments, or possible geographical and/or ethnic differences in South African patients. The most frequent comorbid anxiety disorders in our study were panic disorder and PTSD. This is out of keeping with other literature which has mostly found obsessive compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder to be the most common anxiety comorbidities in psychotic illness. Further research into comorbid anxiety in psychotic disorders is needed, particularly amongst South African populations.
42

Emanuel Mendel (1839 - 1907) : Leben und Werk eines Psychiaters im Deutschland der Jahrhundertwende

Fleckner, Uta 1994 (has links)
Thesis (doctoral)--Freie Universität Berlin, 1994. Includes bibliographical references.
43

Experiences and reactions of the psychologically distressed among the general help-seeking population

Young, Theresa Brenchley. 1979 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison. Typescript. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-56).
44

Trauma and resiliency : a study of refugees from Iran resettled in Sweden

Ghazinour, Mehdi 2003 (has links)
Several single factors have been identified as related to coping with trauma and as protective factors. Several studies emphasize the importance of personality, core beliefs, coping strategies and social support. However little attention has been paid to resiliency. The aim of the study was to identify some determinants of an individual’s resiliency after experienced traumatic life events, and to address the issue of its relationship to personality characteristics, psychopathology, coping resources and strategies, social support, sense of coherence and quality of life. In the present study, a convenience sample of 100 Iranian refugees, 66 males and 34 females in the age range of 18-65 were investigated. All the subjects have experienced one or several traumatic life events as soldiers, political prisoners or have been victims of torture or have escaped from the country in a stressful way. At the time of the present investigation the mean time living in Sweden was for male subject’s 12.8 years and for female 11.8. Nine instruments were administered during individual sessions, Temperament, Character Inventory (TCI), The EMBU (Swedish acronym for own memories concerning upbringing), The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90 – R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Interview Schedule of Social Interaction (ISSI), Coping Resources Inventory (CRI), The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), WHOQoL Group, 1995 (WHOQoL-100), The Sense of Coherence Scale (SoC). Several significant associations were found between personality temperament and character, parental rearing and psychopathology. When experiences of parental rearing were investigated in relation to psychopathology, male subjects scored high on parental rejection and were also more depressed compared to females. Although the individuals in the sample suffered from depression or anxiety, there were individuals that had adapted them-self well with the new life in Sweden and its demands. Nineteen percent of subjects who had low harm avoidance and high self directedness received more social support, had better coping strategies, higher sense of coherence and finally a better quality of life. This dissertation underscores the importance of multiple indicators when trying to understand resiliency. Personality traits, parental rearing, coping resources, social support and sense of coherence were the strongest predictors for resiliency. Having a systemic perspective helps to explain why some individuals are healthy and resilient despite traumatic life events, escaping from home country, applying for asylum, establishing a new home, learning new languages, to study and stablish and develop new bonds.
45

Structural violence and schizophrenia : psychosocial, economic and cultural impacts on the onset of psychoses.

Burns, Jonathan Kenneth. 2010 (has links)
Schizophrenia is a common and serious mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population (WHO, 1973). That genetic and other developmental factors give rise to a predisposition or vulnerability to schizophrenia is well recognized. However, the role of the environment in conferring risk for the disorder is now indisputable. Psychosocial, economic and cultural factors all impact on risk as evidenced by recent epidemiological studies reporting variable incidence in relation to factors including unemployment, urbanicity, migration and trauma. Complex gene-gene and gene-environment (GxE) interactions lie at the origin of this common human disorder and account for the diversity of epidemiological findings and clinical presentations that we encounter in research and clinical practice. This thesis comprises of six research papers and includes data from two separate studies of first-episode psychosis (FEP) conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The first study (Chapter 2) explored the impact of income inequality and poverty on the incidence of FEP and the results provide the first evidence for an association between increasing income inequality and increased incidence of FEP. The second study (Chapter 3) investigated the impact of a number of psychosocial, economic and cultural factors on the clinical presentation of FEP. Previous experiences of trauma were associated with positive and affective symptoms at psychosis onset, while cannabis use was associated with clinical features of FEP that previously have been associated with better outcome. Cultural factors such as spiritual attributions of cause and previous consultation with traditional healers may delay entry to psychiatric care and thereby negatively impact on prognosis of FEP. Chapter 4 addresses the issue of how the environment acts through GxE interactions to modify risk and alter the clinical presentation and course of schizophrenia. In this paper, new epidemiological findings are integrated with an evolutionary genetic theory of schizophrenia. In Chapter 5, I present a human rights perspective on the inequities and inequalities that characterize the lives of those with serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia, resulting from psychosocial, political, economic and cultural forces in the environment. The concluding chapter draws all of the data together, highlights key findings and conclusions from the thesis, addresses weaknesses and limitations of these conclusions and identifies priority areas for future research in this field. Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2010.
46

Yleissairaalapsykiatrinen konsultaatio Suomessa:yleissairaalapsykiatriseen konsultaatioon ohjautuvat työikäiset ja vanhukset

Hiltunen, P. (Pirkko) 24 November 1999 (has links)

Abstract

General hospital psychiatry operates between the somatic and psychiatric approaches concerning the treatment of patients, combining knowledge from both somatic and psychiatric medicine. To establish its position, the general hospital psychiatry has to specify its role and means when rendering services.

This study revealed how consultation had been arranged in six Finnish polyclinics of general hospitals. The goal was to find out which types of patients were referred to the consultation of the general hospital psychiatry and the extent of collaboration of the consulting psychiatrist with colleagues from other medical disciplines. Moreover, the focus of attention was on whether there were operational differences between the polyclinics of the University Hospital of Oulu and other hospitals. The work was also addressed to probing operational differences, if any, pertaining to people under or over 65. Additionally, one aspect to be clarified was how requests for psychogeriatric consultations and the responses of the consulting psychiatrists had developed during the five years period of the study.

This study was part of a broad European Consultation Liaison Working Group effort aimed at clarifying the organization of general hospital psychiatry in 56 units in 11 European countries. The Finnish material consisted of 1255 patients, of whom 202 were over 65. The research methods applied here were psychiatric interviewing of clinical patients, and filling in of data collection forms following the instructions of the ECLW Group.

The current work revealed that the number of psychiatric consultations was less than expected considering the incidence of psychiatric symptoms among somatically ill patients. Of the general hospital patients, elderly people were especially underrepresented. More than 90% of the patients who had a psychiatric consultation were diagnosed with a psychiatric problem. Thus the general hospital made available psychiatric treatment via psychiatric consultation, with a recommendation for future psychiatric care for more than half of the patients. However, one third of the patients under 65 and quarter of those above that age had already had on going psychiatric treatment. In view of this type of situation the position of the general hospital appears problematic. The object of consultation was in 90% of the cases the patients themselves, but in Oulu, almost half of the consultations were due to the personnel of the somatic disciplines in charge of the of the patients. The action mode in separate general hospitals was connected to established traditions, although the history of general hospital psychiatry is short and faces constraints put forward by the somatic hospitals. Collaboration between psychiatric and somatic disciplines was facing increasing difficulties during the five years observation period, probably due to economic recession.

47

Yleissairaalapsykiatrinen konsultaatio Suomessa:yleissairaalapsykiatriseen konsultaatioon ohjautuvat työikäiset ja vanhukset

Hiltunen, P. (Pirkko) 24 November 1999 (has links)
Abstract General hospital psychiatry operates between the somatic and psychiatric approaches concerning the treatment of patients, combining knowledge from both somatic and psychiatric medicine. To establish its position, the general hospital psychiatry has to specify its role and means when rendering services. This study revealed how consultation had been arranged in six Finnish polyclinics of general hospitals. The goal was to find out which types of patients were referred to the consultation of the general hospital psychiatry and the extent of collaboration of the consulting psychiatrist with colleagues from other medical disciplines. Moreover, the focus of attention was on whether there were operational differences between the polyclinics of the University Hospital of Oulu and other hospitals. The work was also addressed to probing operational differences, if any, pertaining to people under or over 65. Additionally, one aspect to be clarified was how requests for psychogeriatric consultations and the responses of the consulting psychiatrists had developed during the five years period of the study. This study was part of a broad European Consultation Liaison Working Group effort aimed at clarifying the organization of general hospital psychiatry in 56 units in 11 European countries. The Finnish material consisted of 1255 patients, of whom 202 were over 65. The research methods applied here were psychiatric interviewing of clinical patients, and filling in of data collection forms following the instructions of the ECLW Group. The current work revealed that the number of psychiatric consultations was less than expected considering the incidence of psychiatric symptoms among somatically ill patients. Of the general hospital patients, elderly people were especially underrepresented. More than 90% of the patients who had a psychiatric consultation were diagnosed with a psychiatric problem. Thus the general hospital made available psychiatric treatment via psychiatric consultation, with a recommendation for future psychiatric care for more than half of the patients. However, one third of the patients under 65 and quarter of those above that age had already had on going psychiatric treatment. In view of this type of situation the position of the general hospital appears problematic. The object of consultation was in 90% of the cases the patients themselves, but in Oulu, almost half of the consultations were due to the personnel of the somatic disciplines in charge of the of the patients. The action mode in separate general hospitals was connected to established traditions, although the history of general hospital psychiatry is short and faces constraints put forward by the somatic hospitals. Collaboration between psychiatric and somatic disciplines was facing increasing difficulties during the five years observation period, probably due to economic recession.
48

Effect of psychiatric training course on general practitioner's ability to detect psychiatric disorders, and their attitudes towards these disorders : Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ferwana, Mazen Saleh 2000 (has links)
No description available.
49

The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia

McGrath, J. J. Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.
50

The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia

McGrath, J. J. Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.

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