Model Predictive Control for Automotive Engine Torque Considering Internal Exhaust Gas RecirculationHayakawa, Yoshikazu, Jimbo, Tomohiko 09 1900 (has links)
the 18th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, Milano (Italy), August 28 - September 2, 2011
OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SIZING AND PLACEMENT VIA SINGLE- AND MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION APPROACHESDarfoun, Mohamed 09 July 2013 (has links)
Numerous advantages attained by integrating Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution systems. These advantages include decreasing power losses and improving voltage profiles. Such benefits can be achieved and enhanced if DGs are optimally sized and located in the systems. In this thesis, the optimal DG placement and sizing problem is investigated using two approaches. First, the optimization problem is treated as single-objective optimization problem, where the system’s active power losses are considered as the objective to be minimized. Secondly, the problem is tackled as a multi-objective one, focusing on DG installation costs. These problems are formulated as constrained nonlinear optimization problems using the Sequential Quadratic Programming method. A weighted sum method and a fuzzy decision-making method are presented to generate the Pareto optimal front and also to obtain the best compromise solution. Single and multiple DG installation cases are studied and compared to a case without DG, and a 15-bus radial distribution system and 33-bus meshed distribution system are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Sigman, Matthew Stephen
19 April 2013
This paper explores how known machine learning techniques can be applied in unique ways to simplify software and therefore dramatically increase its usability. As software has increased in popularity, its complexity has increased in lockstep, to a point where it has become burdensome. By shifting the focus from the software to the user, great advances can be achieved by way of simplification. The example problem used in this report is well known: suggest local dining choices tailored to a specific person based on known habits and those of similar people. By analyzing past choices and applying likely probabilities, assumptions can be made to reduce user interaction, allowing the user to realize the benefits of the software faster and more frequently. This is accomplished with Java Servlets, Apache Mahout machine learning libraries, and various third party resources to gather dimensions on each recommendation. / text
This thesis consists of four independent papers concerningdifferent aspects of interior methods for optimization. Threeof the papers focus on theoretical aspects while the fourth oneconcerns some computational experiments. The systems of equations solved within an interior methodapplied to a convex quadratic program can be viewed as weightedlinear least-squares problems. In the first paper, it is shownthat the sequence of solutions to such problems is uniformlybounded. Further, boundedness of the solution to weightedlinear least-squares problems for more general classes ofweight matrices than the one in the convex quadraticprogramming application are obtained as a byproduct. In many linesearch interior methods for nonconvex nonlinearprogramming, the iterates can "falsely" converge to theboundary of the region defined by the inequality constraints insuch a way that the search directions do not converge to zero,but the step lengths do. In the sec ond paper, it is shown thatthe multiplier search directions then diverge. Furthermore, thedirection of divergence is characterized in terms of thegradients of the equality constraints along with theasymptotically active inequality constraints. The third paper gives a modification of the analytic centerproblem for the set of optimal solutions in linear semidefiniteprogramming. Unlike the normal analytic center problem, thesolution of the modified problem is the limit point of thecentral path, without any strict complementarity assumption.For the strict complementarity case, the modified problem isshown to coincide with the normal analytic center problem,which is known to give a correct characterization of the limitpoint of the central path in that case. The final paper describes of some computational experimentsconcerning possibilities of reusing previous information whensolving system of equations arising in interior methods forlinear programming. <b>Keywords:</b>Interior method, primal-dual interior method,linear programming, quadratic programming, nonlinearprogramming, semidefinite programming, weighted least-squaresproblems, central path. <b>Mathematics Subject Classification (2000):</b>Primary90C51, 90C22, 65F20, 90C26, 90C05; Secondary 65K05, 90C20,90C25, 90C30.
2009 December 1900
Technology scaling has been the most obvious choice of designers and chip manufacturing companies to improve the performance of analog and digital circuits. With the ever shrinking technological node, process variations can no longer be ignored and play a significant role in determining the performance of nanoscaled devices. By choosing a worst case design methodology, circuit designers have been very munificent with the design parameters chosen, often manifesting in pessimistic designs with significant area overheads. Significant work has been done in estimating the impact of intra-die process variations on circuit performance, pertinently, noise margin and standby leakage power, for fixed transistor channel dimensions. However, for an optimal, high yield, SRAM cell design, it is absolutely imperative to analyze the impact of process variations at every design point, especially, since the distribution of process variations is a statistically varying parameter and has an inverse correlation with the area of the MOS transistor. Furthermore, the first order analytical models used for optimization of SRAM memories are not as accurate and the impact of voltage and its inclusion as an input, along with other design parameters, is often ignored. In this thesis, the performance parameters of a nano-scaled 6-T SRAM cell are modeled as an accurate, yield aware, empirical polynomial predictor, in the presence of intra-die process variations. The estimated empirical models are used in a constrained non-linear, robust optimization framework to design an SRAM cell, for a 45 nm CMOS technology, having optimal performance, according to bounds specified for the circuit performance parameters, with the objective of minimizing on-chip area. This statistically aware technique provides a more realistic design methodology to study the trade off between performance parameters of the SRAM. Furthermore, a dual optimization approach is followed by considering SRAM power supply and wordline voltages as additional input parameters, to simultaneously tune the design parameters, ensuring a high yield and considerable area reduction. In addition, the cell level optimization framework is extended to the system level optimization of caches, under both cell level and system level performance constraints.
Mudunuru, Maruti Kumar
2011 May 1900
This thesis focuses on the formulation and numerical implementation of a fully coupled continuum model for deformation-diffusion in linearized elastic solids. The mathematical model takes into account the affect of the deformation on the diffusion process, and the effect of the transport of an inert chemical species on the deformation of the solid. A robust computational framework is presented for solving the proposed mathematical model, which consists of coupled non-linear partial differential equations. It should be noted that many popular numerical formulations may produce unphysical negative values for the concentration, particularly, when the diffusion process is anisotropic. The violation of the non-negative constraint by these numerical formulations is not mere numerical noise. In the proposed computational framework we employ a novel numerical formulation that will ensure that the concentration of the diffusant be always non-negative, which is one of the main contributions of this thesis. Representative numerical examples are presented to show the robustness, convergence, and performance of the proposed computational framework. Another contribution is to systematically study the affect of transport of the diffusant on the deformation of the solid and vice-versa, and their implication in modeling degradation/healing of materials. It is shown that the coupled response is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from the uncoupled response.
The automotive industry is required to deal with increasingly stringent legislationfor greenhouse gases. Hybrid Electric Vehicles, HEV, are gaining acceptance as thefuture path of lower emissions and fuel consumption. The increased complexityof multiple prime movers demand more advanced control systems, where futuredriving conditions also becomes interesting. For a plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle,PIHEV, it is important to utilize the comparatively inexpensive electric energybefore the driving cycle is complete, this for minimize the cost of the driving cycle,since the battery in a PIHEV can be charged from the grid. A strategy with lengthinformation of the driving cycle from a global positioning system, GPS, couldreduce the cost of driving. This by starting to blend the electric energy with fuelearlier, a strategy called blended driving accomplish this by distribute the electricenergy, that is charged externally, with fuel over the driving cycle, and also ensurethat the battery’s minimum level reaches before the driving cycle is finished. Astrategy called Charge Depleting Charge Sustaining, CDCS, does not need lengthinformation. This strategy first depletes the battery to a minimum State of Charge,SOC, and after this engages the engine to maintain the SOC at this level. In thisthesis, a variable SOC reference is developed, which is dependent on knowledgeabout the cycle’s length and the current length the vehicle has driven in the cycle.With assistance of a variable SOC reference, is a blended strategy realized. Thisis used to minimize the cost of a driving cycle. A comparison between the blendedstrategy and the CDCS strategy was done, where the CDCS strategy uses a fixedSOC reference. During simulation is the usage of fuel minimized; and the blendedstrategy decreases the cost of the driving missions compared to the CDCS strategy.To solve the energy management problem is a model predictive control used. Thedesigned control system follows the driving cycles, is charge sustaining and solvesthe energy management problem during simulation. The system also handlesmoderate model errors. / Fordonsindustrin måste hantera allt strängare lagkrav mot utsläpp av emissioneroch växthusgaser. Hybridfordon har börjat betraktas som den framtida vägenför att ytterligare minska utsläpp och användning av fossila bränslen. Den ökadekomplexiteten från flera olika motorer kräver mera avancerade styrsystem. Begränsningarfrån motorernas energikällor gör att framtida förhållanden är viktigaatt estimera. För plug-in hybridfordon, PIHEV, är det viktigt att använda denvvijämförelsevis billiga elektriska energin innan fordonet har nått fram till slutdestinationen.Batteriets nuvarande energimängd mäts i dess State of Charge, SOC.Genom att utnyttja information om hur långt det är till slutdestinationen från ettGlobal Positioning System, GPS, blandar styrsystemet den elektriska energin medbränsle från början, detta kallas för blandad körning. En strategi som inte hartillgång till hur långt fordonet ska köras kallas Charge Depleting Charge Sustaining,CDCS. Denna strategi använder först energin från batteriet, för att sedanbörja använda förbränningsmotorn när SOC:s miniminivå har nåtts. Strategin attanvända GPS informationen är jämförd med en strategi som inte har tillgång tillinformation om körcykelns längd. Blandad körning använder en variabel SOC referens,till skillnad från CDCS strategin som använder sig av en konstant referenspå SOC:s miniminivå. Den variabla SOC referensen beror på hur långt fordonethar kört av den totala körsträckan, med hjälp av denna realiseras en blandad körning.Från simuleringarna visade det sig att blandad körning gav minskad kostnadför de simulerade körcyklerna jämfört med en CDCS strategi. En modellbaseradprediktionsreglering används för att lösa energifördelningsproblemet. Styrsystemetföljer körcykler och löser energifördelningsproblemet för de olika drivkällorna undersimuleringarna. Styrsystemet hanterar även måttliga modellfel.
Parameter identification problems for elastic large deformations - Part I: model and solution of the inverse problemMeyer, Marcus 20 November 2009 (has links) (PDF)
In this paper we discuss the identification of parameter functions in material models for elastic large deformations. A model of the the forward problem is given, where the displacement of a deformed material is found as the solution of a n onlinear PDE. Here, the crucial point is the definition of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor by using several material laws including a number of material parameters. In the main part of the paper we consider the identification of such parameters from measured displacements, where the inverse problem is given as an optimal control problem. We introduce a solution of the identification problem with Lagrange and SQP methods. The presented algorithm is applied to linear elastic material with large deformations.
Método previsor-corretor primal-dual de pontos interiores em problemas multiobjetivo de despacho econômico e ambiental /Stanzani, Amélia de Lorena. January 2012 (has links)
Orientador: Antonio Roberto Balbo / Banca: Helenice de Oliveira F. Silva / Banca: Edmea Cassia Baptista / Resumo: O presente trabalho apresenta o método primal-dual previsor-corretor de pontos interiores para programação quadrática, com restrições lineares e quadráticos e variáveis canalizadas, e a aplicação deste método na resolução de problemas multiobjetivo de despacho econômico e ambiental, encontrados na engenharia elétrica. Pretende-se determinar soluções que sejam eficientes em relação ao custo dos combustíveis empregados na geração termoelétrica de energia e ao controle da emissão de poluentes, investigando-se duas estratégias: a primeira estratégica considera na função objetivo a soma ponderada entre as funções objetivo econômica e objetivo ambiental; a segunda estratégia considera o problema de despacho econômico condicionado à restrição ambiental, limitada superiormente para níveis permissíveis de missão. Para a resolução destes, uma implementação computacional do método primal-dual foi realizada em linguagem de programação C++, considerando o procedimento previsor-corretor com uma estratégia de barreira modificada para as restrições quadráticas de desigualdade, quando consideramos a segunda estratégia. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a eficiência do método em destaque em comparação a outros métodos como algoritmos genéticos co-evolutivo, atávico híbrido e cultural, bem como ao método primal-dual de pontos interiores, com procedimento de busca unidimensional, que estão divulgados na literatura / Abstract: This paper presents the primal-dual predictor-corrector interior point method for quadratic programming with linear and quadratic constraints and bounded variables, and its application in multiobjective problems of economic and environmental dispatch, found in electrical engineering. It is intended to determine effective solutions to the fuel cost used in thermal power generation and emissions control, by investigating two strategy; the first strategy considers the objective function as weighted sum of economic and environmental objective functions; the second strategy considers the economic dispatch problem subject to environmental constraint, upper bounded for allowable emission levels. To solve them, a computational implementation of primal-dual methods was performed in C++ programming language, considering the predictor-corrector procedure with a strategy of modified barrier for the quadratic inequality constraints, when we considerer the second strategy. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of the method highlighted in comparison with the co-evolutive genetic algorithms, hybrid and atavistic cultural, as well the primal-dual interior point method with one-dimensional search procedure, which are found in the literature / Mestre
Um método previsor-corretor primal-dual de pontos interiores barreira logarítmica modificada, com estratégias de convergência global e de ajuste cúbico, para problemas de programação não-linear e não-convexa /Pinheiro, Ricardo Bento Nogueira. January 2012 (has links)
Orientador: Antonio Roberto Balbo / Banca: Edilaine Martins Soler / Banca: Leonardo Nepomuceno / Resumo: Neste trabalho apresentamos o método previsor-corretor primal-dual de pontos interiores, com barreira logarítmica modificada e estratégia de ajuste cúbico (MPIBLM-EX) e o método previsor-corretor primal-dual de pontos interiores, com barreira logarítmica modificada, com estratégias de ajuste cúbico e de convergência global (MPIBLMCG-EX). Na definição do algoritmo proposto, a função barreira logarítmica modificada auxilia o método em sua inicialização com pontos inviáveis. Porém, a inviabilidade pode ocorrer em pontos tais que o logaritmo não está definido, consequentemente, isso implica na não existência de função barreira logarítmica modificada. Para suprir essa dificuldade um polinômio cúbico ajustado ao logaritmo, que preserva as derivadas de primeira e segunda do mestre definido a partir de um ponto da região ampliada ao método previsor-corretor primal-dual de pontos interiores com barreira logarítmica modificada (MPIBML); no processo previsor são realizadas atualizações do parâmetro de barreira nos resíduos das restrições de complementaridade, considerando aproximações de primeira ordem do sistema de direções de busca, enquanto que no procedimento corretor, incluímos os termos quadráticos não-lineares dos resíduos citados, que foram desprezados no procedimento previsor. Considerando também a estratégia de convergência global para o MPIBLM-EX, a qual utiliza uma variante do método de Levenberg-Marquardt para ajustar a matriz dual normal da função lagrangiana, caso esta não seja definida positiva. A matriz dual normal é redefinida para as restrições primais de igualdade, de desigualdade e para as variáveis canalizadas, incorporando variáveis duais e matrizes diagonais relativas às restrições de complementariade. Desse estudo, o MPIBLM-EX é transformado no MPIBLMCG-EX e mostramos... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: This work presents a predictor primal-dual interior point method with modified log-barrier and third order extrapolation strategy (IPMLBM-EX) and also and extension of this method with the inclusion of the global convergence strategy (IPMLBGCM-EX). In the definition of the proposed algorithm, the modified log-barrier function helps the method initialize with infeasible points. However, infeasibility may occur for some point where the logarithm is not defined. The implicates in non-existence of the modified log-barrier function. To cope with such as problem, a cubic polynomial function is adjusted to the logarithmic function. Sucha polynomial function preserves first and second order derivatives in certain point defined in the extended region. This function is applied to the predictor-corretor primal-dual interior point method with modified log-barrier function. In the predictor procedure, the barrier parameter is updated in the complementarity conditions considering first-order approximations of the search direction, while the corrector procedure includes the nonlinear quadratic terms of the mentioned residuals, which were neglected in the predictor procedure. We also consider the global convergence strategy for the method, which uses a variant of the Levenberg-Marquardt method to update the normal dual matrix of the Langrangian function, should it fail to be positively defined. In this case, this matrix is redefined for equality primal constraints, bounded inequality primal constraints and bounded variables, incorporating dual variables and diagonal matrices of the complementarity constraints. From such studies, the IPMLBM-EX method is extended to include the global convergence strategy (IPMLBGCM-EX). We have show that both methods are projected gradient methods. An implementation performed with Matlab 6.1 has shown the... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Mestre
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