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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Static Analysis to improve RTL Verification

Agrawal, Akash 06 March 2017 (has links)
Integrated circuits have traveled a long way from being a general purpose microprocessor to an application specific circuit. It has become an integral part of the modern era of technology that we live in. As the applications and their complexities are increasing rapidly every day, so are the sizes of these circuits. With the increase in the design size, the associated testing effort to verify these designs is also increased. The goal of this thesis is to leverage some of the static analysis techniques to reduce the effort of testing and verification at the register transfer level. Studying a design at register transfer level gives exposure to the relational information for the design which is inaccessible at the structural level. In this thesis, we present a way to generate a Data Dependency Graph and a Control Flow Graph out of a register transfer level description of a circuit description. Next, the generated graphs are used to perform relation mining to improve the test generation process in terms of speed, branch coverage and number of test vectors generated. The generated control flow graph gives valuable information about the flow of information through the circuit design. We are using this information to create a framework to improve the branch reachability analysis mainly in terms of the speed. We show the efficiency of our methods by running them through a suite of ITC'99 benchmark circuits. / Master of Science

Surveillance des processus dynamiques évènementiels / Monitoring of the event-driven dynamic processes

Karoui, Mohamed 31 October 2011 (has links)
Dans le cadre de ce sujet de thèse, on s'intéresse à la surveillance des systèmes hybrides à forte dynamique événementielle. L'objectif est de détecter les défauts permanents et intermittents qui causent l'accélération et le ralentissement des tâches des systèmes. C'est dans ce contexte que se situent les principales contributions suivantes des travaux consignés dans la présente thèse : - Le développement d'une méthode de surveillance des processus basée sur les automates hybrides linéaires (AHL). Cette méthode consiste en premier lieu à l'établissement du modèle AHL du système dynamique en tenant compte des contraintes physiques et dynamiques de celui-ci. - La réalisation d'une analyse d'atteignabilité qui consiste à définir toutes les trajectoires pouvant amener le système à son objectif tout en respectant le cahier des charges qui lui est imposé. L'extension de l'approche en utilisant les automates hybrides rectangulaires. Cette sous-classe d'automates nous a permis de modéliser des systèmes plus complexes donc une modélisation hybride riche et a permis également une analyse formelle. Cette partie a été ponctuée par l'implémentation du système de surveillance qui consiste à déterminer les équations caractérisant chaque sommet de l'automate qui modélise le système. / As part of this thesis, we focus on the monitoring of hybrid systems with high dynamic event. The aim is to detect faults that cause permanent and intermittent acceleration and deceleration systems tasks. It is in this context that the following are the main contributions of the work reported in this thesis: - The development of a method for process monitoring based on linear hybrid automata (AHL). This method involves first the establishment of the AHL model the dynamic system taking into account the physical and dynamic one. - The realization of a reachability analysis of defining all paths that can cause the system to its target while respecting the specifications imposed on it. The extension of the approach using the rectangular hybrid automata. This class of controllers has allowed us to model more complex systems, therefore, a hybrid modeling rich and also allowed a formal analysis. This part was punctuated by the implementation of the monitoring system by determining equations characterizing each summit of the automaton that models the system.

Sur-approximations non régulières et terminaison pour l’analyse d’accessibilité / Non-regular over-approximations and termination for reachability analysis

Pelletier, Vivien 23 October 2017 (has links)
L’analyse d’accessibilité est une des composantes de l’analyse de modèles. Elle consiste à modéliser un système complexe par trois ensembles : le langage initial, le langage des configurations indésirables et un système de réécriture. Le langage initial et le langage des configurations indésirables sont des ensembles de termes. Un terme est un mot mais construit à partir de symboles d’arités supérieures à 1. Le système de réécriture représente la dynamique du système complexe. C’est un ensemble de règles qui permettent d’obtenir un nouveau terme à partir d’un terme original. Pour effectuer une analyse d’accessibilité à partir de cette modélisation, on peut calculer l’ensemble des configurations accessibles. Cet ensemble aussi appelé ensemble des descendants est obtenu en appliquant le système de réécriture sur le langage initial jusqu’à ne plus obtenir de nouveaux termes. Une fois l’ensemble des descendants calculé, il reste à faire l’intersection entre celui-ci et l’ensemble des configurations indésirables. Si cette intersection est vide, alors il n’y a pas de configuration indésirable accessible, sinon les configurations présentes dans cette intersection sont accessibles. Cependant, l’ensemble des descendants n’est pas calculable dans le cas général. Pour contourner ce problème, nous calculons une sur-approximation des descendants. Ainsi, si l’intersection est vide, cela signifie toujours qu’aucune configuration indésirable n’est accessible. A contrario, s’il existe un terme dans l’intersection, il n’est pas possible de déterminer s’il s’agit d’un faux positif ou d’une configuration indésirable accessible. La précision de la sur-approximation est alors déterminante. / Reachability analysis is part of model checking. It consists to model complex systems by three sets : initial language, unwanted configurations and rewrite system. The initial language and the unwanted configurations language are sets of terms. Terms are words which are construct with symbols that have an arity that can be greater than 1. The rewrite system represent the dynamic of the complex system. It is a set of rules that permit from a initial term to obtain a new term. One of the approaches to analyze reachability from this modelling is to compute the set of reachable configurations. This set which is called set of descendants is obtained by applying the rewrite system on the initial language until obtaining no more new terms. After the set of descendants is computed, we need to compute the intersection between this set and the unwanted configurations set. If this intersection is empty then there is no unwanted configuration reachable, else the configurations in this intersection are reachable. However, the set of descendants is not computable in the general case. To bypass this problem, we compute an over-approximation of descendants.Now, if the intersection is empty, we keep proving that no unwanted configuration is reachable. Nevertheless, if the intersection is not empty, it is not possible to know if it comes from false-positives or form unwanted reachable configurations. So, the precision of the over-approximation is decisive.

Discrete Transition System Model and Verification for Mitochondrially Mediated Apoptotic Signaling Pathways

Lam, Huy Hong 13 July 2007 (has links)
Computational biology and bioinformatics for apoptosis have been gaining much momentum due to the advances in computational sciences. Both fields use extensive computational techniques and modeling to mimic real world behaviors. One problem of particular interest is on the study of reachability, in which the goal is to determine if a target state or protein concentration in the model is realizable for a signaling pathway. Another interesting problem is to examine faulty pathways and how a fault can make a previously unrealizable state possible, or vice versa. Such analysis can be extremely valuable to the understanding of apoptosis. However, these analyses can be costly or even impractical for some approaches, since they must simulate every aspect of the model. Our approach introduces an abstracted model to represent a portion of the apoptosis signaling pathways as a finite state machine. This abstraction allows us to apply hardware testing and verification techniques and also study the behaviors of the system without full simulation. We proposed a framework that is tailor-built to implement these verification techniques for the discrete model. Through solving Boolean constraint satisfaction problems (SAT-based) and with guided stimulation (Genetic Algorithm), we can further extract the properties and behaviors of the system. Furthermore, our model allows us to conduct cause-effect analysis of the apoptosis signaling pathways. By constructing single- and double-fault models, we are able to study what fault(s) can cause the model to malfunction and the reasons behind it. Unlike simulation, our abstraction approach allows us to study the system properties and system manipulations from a different perspective without fully relying on simulation. Using these observations as hypotheses, we aim to conduct laboratory experiments and further refine our model. / Master of Science

Paskirstytųjų sistemų agregatinių specifikacijų validavimas analizuojant būsenų pasiekiamumą / Graph models for reachability analysis of distributed systems’ aggregate specifications

Otčeskich, Olga 17 May 2005 (has links)
The problem of analyzing concurrent systems has been investigated by many researchers, and several solutions have been proposed. Among the proposed techniques, reachability analysis—systematic enumeration of reachable states in a finite-state model—is attractive because it is conceptually simple and relatively straightforward to automate and can be used in conjunction with model-checking procedures to check for application-specific as well as general properties. The system validation problem considered here is the problem of verifying that the original specification is itself logically consistent. If, for instance, the specification has a design error, an implementation is expected to pass a conformance test if it contains the same error. A validation for the logical consistency of the system, however, must reveal the design error. An automated analysis of all reachable states in a distributed system can be used to trace obscure logical errors that would be very hard to find manually. This type of validation is traditionally performed by the symbolic execution of a finite state machine model of the system studied. The author presents an overview of the existing validation techniques and methods. Specified and analyzed systems are presented as reachable state graph. The implementation of the aggregate specifications validation system is also presented.

Directed unfolding: reachability analysis of concurrent systems & applications to automated planning.

Hickmott, Sarah Louise January 2008 (has links)
The factored state representation and concurrency semantics of Petri nets are closely related to those of classical planning models, yet automated planning and Petri net analysis have developed independently, with minimal and mainly unconvincing attempts at crossfertilisation. This thesis exploits the relationship between the formal reachability problem, and the automated planning problem, via Petri net unfolding, which is an attractive reachability analysis method for highly concurrent systems as it facilitates reasoning about independent sub-problems. The first contribution of this thesis is the theory of directed unfolding: controlling the unfolding process with informative strategies, for the purpose of optimality and increased efficiency. The second contribution is the application of directed unfolding to automated planning. Inspired by well-known planning heuristics, this thesis shows how problem specific information can be employed to guide unfolding, in response to the formal problem of developing efficient, directed reachability analysis methods for concurrent systems. Complimenting this theoretical work, this thesis presents a new forward search method for partial order planning which can be exponentially more efficient than state space search. Our suite of planners based on directed unfolding can perform optimal and suboptimal classical planning subject to arbitrary action costs, optimal temporal planning with respect to arbitrary action durations, and address probabilistic planning via replanning for the most likely path. Empirical results reveal directed unfolding is competitive with current state of the art automated planning systems, and can solve Petri net reachability problems beyond the reach of the original “blind” unfolding technique. / Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2008

Allocation de fonctions de commande de systèmes critiques par recherche d'atteignabilité dans un réseau d'automates communicants / Mapping of control functions of critical systems by reachability analysis in a network of communicating automata

Lemattre, Thibault 09 July 2013 (has links)
La conception d'architectures opérationnelles d'un système de contrôle-commande est une phase très importante lors de la conception de systèmes de production d'énergie. Cette phase consiste à projeter l'architecture fonctionnelle sur l'architecture organique tout en respectant des contraintes de capacité et de sûreté, c'est-à-dire à allouer les fonctions de commande à un ensemble de contrôleurs tout en respectant ces contraintes. Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse proposent : i)une formalisation des données et contraintes du problème d'allocation de fonctions - ii)une méthode d'allocation, par recherche d'atteignabilité, basée sur un mécanisme d'appel/réponse dans un réseau d'automates communicants à variables entières - iii)la comparaison de cette méthode à une méthode de résolution par programmation linéaire en nombres entiers. Les résultats de ces travaux ont été validés sur des exemples de taille réelle et ouvrent la voie à des couplages entre recherche d'atteignabilité et programmation linéaire en nombres entiers pour la résolution de problèmes de satisfaction de systèmes de contraintes non linéaires. / The design of operational control architectures is a very important step of the design of energy production systems. This step consists in mapping the functional architecture of the system onto its hardware architecture while respecting capacity and safety constraints, i.e. in allocating control functions to a set of controllers while respecting these constraints. The work presented in this thesis presents: i) a formalization of the data and constraints of the function allocation problem- ii) a mapping method, by reachability analysis, based on a request/response mechanism in a network of communicating automata with integer variables- iii) a comparison between this method and a resolution method by integer linear programming. The results of this work have been validated on examples of actual size and open the way to the coupling between reachability analysis and integer linear programming for the resolution of satisfaction problems for non-linear constraint systems.

Formal methods for modelling and validation of biological models / Méthodes formelles pour la construction et la validation de modèles biologiques

Rocca, Alexandre 07 May 2018 (has links)
L’objectif de cette thèse est la modélisation et l’étude de systèmes biologiques par l’intermédiaire de méthodes formelles. Les systèmes biologiques démontrent des comportements continus mais sont aussi susceptibles de montrer des changements abrupts dans leur dynamiques. Les équations différentielles ordinaires, ainsi que les systèmes dynamiques hybrides, sont deux formalismes mathématiques utilisés pour modéliser clairement de tels comportements. Un point critique de la modélisation de systèmes biologiques est la recherche des valeurs des paramètres du modèle afin de reproduire de manière précise un ensemble de données expérimentales. Si aucun jeu de paramètres valides n’est trouvé, il est nécessaire de réviser le modèle. Une possibilité est alors de remplacer un paramètre, ou un ensemble de paramètres, définissant un processus biologique par une fonctiondépendante du temps.Dans le cadre de cette thèse, nous exposons tout d’abord une méthode pour la révision de modèles hybrides. Pour cela, nous proposons une approche gloutonne appliquée à une méthode de contrôle optimal utilisant les mesures d’occupations etla relaxation convexe. Ensuite, nous étudions comment analyser les propriétés dynamiques d’un modèle à temps discret en utilisant la simulation ensembliste. Dans cet objectif, nous proposons deux méthodes basées sur deux outils mathématiques.La première méthode, qui se repose sur les polynômes de Bernstein, est une extension aux systèmes dynamiques hybrides, de l’outil de calcul ensembliste Sapo [1]. La seconde méthode utilise les représentations de Krivine-Stengle [2] pour permettre l’analyse d’atteignaiblité de systèmes dynamiques polynomiaux. Enfin, nous proposons aussi une méthodologie pour générer des systèmes dynamiques hybrides modélisant des protocoles biologiques expérimentaux. Les méthodes précédemment proposées sont appliquées sur divers études biologiques. Nous étudions tout d’abord un modèle de la production d’hémoglobinedurant la différentiation des érythrocytes dans la moelle [3]. Pour permettre la construction de ce modèle, nous avons dans un premier temps généré un ensemble de jeux de paramètres valides à l’aide d’une méthode de type Monte-Carlo. Dans un second temps, nous avons appliqué la méthode de révision de modèle afin de reproduire plus précisément les données expérimentales [4]. Nous proposons aussi un modèle préliminaire des effets à faibles doses du Cadmium sur la réponse du métabolisme à différentes étapes de la vie d’un rat. Enfin, nous appliquons les techniques d’analyse ensembliste pour la validation d’hypothèses sur un modèle d’homéostasie du fer [6] dans le cas où des paramètres varient dans de larges intervalles.Dans cette thèse, nous montrons aussi que le protocole associé à l’étude de la production d’hémoglobine, ainsi que le protocole étudiant l’intégration du Cadmium durant la vie d’un rat, peuvent être formalisés comme des systèmes dynamiques hybrides, et servent ainsi de preuves de concepts pour notre méthode de modélisation de protocoles expérimentaux / The purpose of this thesis is the modelling and analysis of biological systems with mechanistic models (in opposition with black-box models).In particular we use two mathematical formalisms for mechanism modelling: hybrid dynamical systems and polynomial Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs).Biological systems modelling give rise to numerous problem and in this work we address three of them.First, the parameters in the differential equations are often uncertain or unknown.Consequently, we aim at generating a subset of valid parameter sets such that the models satisfy constraints deducted from some experimental data.This problem is addressed in the literature under the denomination of parameter synthesis, parameter estimation, parameter fitting, or parameter identification following the context.Then, if no valid parameter is found, one solution is to revise the model. This can be done by substituting a law in place of a constant parameter.In the literature, models with uncertain parts are known as grey models, and their studies can be found under the term of model identification.Finally, it may be necessary to ensure the correctness of the built models using validation, or verification, methods for a continuous over-approximation of the determined valid parameters.In this thesis we study the parameter synthesis problem, in the Haemoglobin production model case study, using an adaptation of the classical method based on Monte-Carlo sampling, and numerical simulations.To perform model revision of hybrid dynamical systems we propose an iterative scheme of an optimal control method based on occupation measures, and convex relaxations.Finally, we assess the quality of a model using set-based simulations, and reachability analysis.For this purpose, we propose two methods: the first one, which relies on Bernstein expansion, is an extension for hybrid dynamical systems of the reachability tool sapo , while the other uses Krivine-Stengle representations to perform the reachability analysis of polynomial ODEs.We also provide a methodology to generate hybrid dynamical systems modelling biological experimental protocols.All of these proposed methods were applied in different case studies.We first propose a model of haemoglobin production during the differentiation of an erythrocyte in the bone marrow.To develop this model we first applied the Monte-Carlo based parameters synthesis, followed by the model revision to correctly fit to the experimental data.We also propose a hybrid model of Cadmium flux in rats in the context of an experimental protocol, as well as a preliminary study of the effect of low dose Cadmium on a Glucose response.Finally, we apply the reachability analysis techniques for the validation on large parameters set of the iron homoeostasis model developed by Nicolas Mobilia during his Phd.We note the haemoglobin production model, as well as the glucose reponse model can be formalised, in their experimental context, as hybrid dynamical systems. Thus, they serve as proof of concept for the methodology of biological experimental protocols modelling.

Algorithms and Data Structures for Efficient Timing Analysis of Asynchronous Real-time Systems

Zhang, Yingying 01 January 2013 (has links)
This thesis presents a framework to verify asynchronous real-time systems based on model checking. These systems are modeled by using a common modeling formalism named Labeled Petri-nets(LPNs). In order to verify the real-time systems algorithmically, the zone-based timing analysis method is used for LPNs. It searches the state space with timing information (represented by zones). When there is a high degree of concurrency in the model, firing concurrent enabled transitions in different order may result in different zones, and these zones may be combined without affecting the verification result. Since the zone-based method could not deal with this problem efficiently, the POSET timing analysis method is adopted for LPNs. It separates concurrency from causality and generates an exactly one zone for a single state. But it needs to maintain an extra POSET matrix for each state. In order to save time and memory, an improved zone-based timing analysis method is introduced by integrating above two methods. It searches the state space with zones but eliminates the use of the POSET matrix, which generates the same result as with the POSET method. To illustrate these methods, a circuit example is used throughout the thesis. Since the state space generated is usually very large, a graph data structure named multi-value decision diagrams (MDDs) is implemented to store the zones compactly. In order to share common clock value of dierent zones, two zone encoding methods are described: direct encoding and minimal constraint encoding. They ignore the unnecessary information in zones thus reduce the length of the integer tuples. The effectiveness of these two encoding methods is demonstrated by experimental result of the circuit example.

Soluções eficientes para processos de decisão markovianos baseadas em alcançabilidade e bissimulações estocásticas / Efficient solutions to Markov decision processes based on reachability and stochastic bisimulations

Felipe Martins dos Santos 09 December 2013 (has links)
Planejamento em inteligência artificial é a tarefa de determinar ações que satisfaçam um dado objetivo. Nos problemas de planejamento sob incerteza, as ações podem ter efeitos probabilísticos. Esses problemas são modelados como Processos de Decisão Markovianos (Markov Decision Processes - MDPs), modelos que permitem o cálculo de soluções ótimas considerando o valor esperado de cada ação em cada estado. Contudo, resolver problemas grandes de planejamento probabilístico, i.e., com um grande número de estados e ações, é um enorme desafio. MDPs grandes podem ser reduzidos através da computação de bissimulações estocásticas, i.e., relações de equivalência sobre o conjunto de estados do MDP original. A partir das bissimulações estocásticas, que podem ser exatas ou aproximadas, é possível obter um modelo abstrato reduzido que pode ser mais fácil de resolver do que o MDP original. No entanto, para problemas de alguns domínios, a computação da bissimulação estocástica sobre todo o espaço de estados é inviável. Os algoritmos propostos neste trabalho estendem os algoritmos usados para a computação de bissimulações estocásticas para MDPs de forma que elas sejam computadas sobre o conjunto de estados alcançáveis a partir de um dado estado inicial, que pode ser muito menor do que o conjunto de estados completo. Os resultados experimentais mostram que é possível resolver problemas grandes de planejamento probabilístico com desempenho superior às técnicas conhecidas de bissimulação estocástica. / Planning in artificial intelligence is the task of finding actions to reach a given goal. In planning under uncertainty, the actions can have probabilistic effects. This problems are modeled using Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), models that enable the computation of optimal solutions considering the expected value of each action when applied in each state. However, to solve big probabilistic planning problems, i.e., those with a large number of states and actions, is still a challenge. Large MDPs can be reduced by computing stochastic bisimulations, i.e., equivalence relations over the original MDP states. From the stochastic bisimulations, that can be exact or approximated, it is possible to get an abstract reduced model that can be easier to solve than the original MDP. But, for some problems, the stochastic bisimulation computation over the whole state space is unfeasible. The algorithms proposed in this work extend the algorithms that are used to compute stochastic bisimulations for MDPs in a way that they can be computed over the reachable set of states with a given initial state, which can be much smaller than the complete set of states. The empirical results show that it is possible to solve large probabilistic planning problems with better performance than the known techniques of stochastic bisimulation.

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