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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de técnicas miniaturizadas de preparo de amostras para análises ambientais via GC-MS / Development and application of miniaturized sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis via GC-MS

Paula Grossi 17 July 2009 (has links)
Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e aplicação de técnicas miniaturizadas de preparo de amostras para análises ambientais via GC-MS. Dentre elas aplicou-se a técnica de Extração em Fase Sólida (SPE) na análise do regulador de crescimento de plantas, paclobutrazol (PBZ), em amostras de solo. Um método foi desenvolvido, otimizado e validado para o emprego da técnica acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (GC-MS) na análise de PBZ em solo. Foram desenvolvidas também barras in-house, para Extração por Sorção em Barras de Agitação (SBSE), preparadas com PDMS, otimizadas, validadas e aplicadas na extração de pesticidas organoclorados no modo headspace acoplado a GC-MS. Adicionalmente, novos recobrimentos para SBSE a partir da modificação do PDMS comumente utilizado visando mudanças nas características de polaridade das fases sortivas foram desenvolvidos. Seguindo a tendência de miniaturização desenvolveu-se um novo sistema nomeado de Extração Sortiva Refrigerada (RSE), a qual considera a teoria de equilíbrio da HSSE e da SPME refrigerada. A técnica foi otimizada e aplicada em amostras de água do rio de Atibaia, coletadas na região de Paulínia-SP. / This study describes the development and application of different miniaturized sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among those techniques, the Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was applied to the analysis of plant growth regulator, called paclobutrazol (PBZ), in soil samples. A method was developed, optimized and validated for the application of the technique coupled to GC-MS for the analysis of PBZ in soil. In-house Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) was also developed, optimized, validated and applied to organochlorine pesticides extraction in water samples in headspace mode followed by GC-MS. Additionally, new coatings for SBSE based on the PDMS modification commonly used to change the polarity characteristics of the sorptive phases were developed. Following the miniaturization trend, a new system called Refrigerated Sorptive Extraction (RSE) was successfully developed. This system was built with similar refrigerated SPME and HSSE equilibrium. Such technique was optimized and applied on water samples from Atibaia´s river, collected in the region of Paulínia-SP.
2

Um framework de apoio à instanciação de técnicas de seleção de tecnologias de software baseadas em estratégias de busca / A framework to support instantiation of software technologies selection techniques using search-based strategies

Grande, Aurélio da Silva 26 March 2013 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2015-04-11T14:02:44Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 aurelio.pdf: 7052556 bytes, checksum: 209649285da9d7e9789f5576368e72c7 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-03-26 / The quality of software design is directly related to the decisions taken during its execution, because wrong decisions may cause significant damage in a software project. Among the decisions to be performed by a software engineer, an important one would be the selection of technologies to be applied to software projects. Usually, these decisions are made taking into account the experience of the professionals involved in the task. Thus, we limit the exploration of other possibilities that could be most appropriate for such scenario, what could be offered by a scientific approach to support this decision making. This thesis presents a framework for instantiation of software technologies selection techniques by using search-based strategies. For this, the Software Technologies Selection Problem (STSP) was modeled as a combinatorial optimization problem (Minimum Dominanting Set) with the purpose of to attend different and real scenarios of Software Engineering. The proposed framework for the STSP was idealized as a mechanism to support software engineers who are not able to use other generic optimization frameworks in a software project due to tight deadlines and limited resources. It was designed to be integrated with the main meta-heuristic optimization frameworks, such as JMetal and Opt4J, that implement a large number of meta-heuristics. To analyze the feasibility of the proposed modeling and the developed framework, two case studies were conducted in complex and real optimization problems: (i) selection of model-based testing techniques; (ii) selection of requirements elicitation technique for critical embedded systems. The studies were performed using different meta-heuristics and their results indicate their feasibility to support the selection of software technologies. / A qualidade de um projeto de software está diretamente relacionada com as decisões tomadas durante suas diversas fases, pois decisões equivocadas podem causar danos significativos no projeto. Entre as decisões de um engenheiro de software, pode ser citada a escolha de tecnologias a serem aplicadas em um projeto de software. Geralmente estas decisões são tomadas levando-se em conta a experiência dos profissionais envolvidos nas tarefas. Assim, deixa-se de explorar outras soluções mais adequadas para tal cenário, algo que uma abordagem científica de apoio a tal seleção poderia oferecer. O trabalho apresenta um framework para instanciação de técnicas de seleção de tecnologias de software baseado em estratégias de busca. Para isso, o Problema de Seleção de Tecnologias de Software, do inglês Software Technologies Selection Problem (STSP) foi modelado como um problema de otimização combinatória (Conjunto Dominante Mínimo) com o objetivo de atender diferentes cenários reais de Engenharia de Software. O framework proposto para STSP foi idealizado como um mecanismo de apoio aos engenheiros de software que possuiriam dificuldades em usar outros frameworks de otimização genéricos durante um projeto de software, devido a prazos curtos e recursos limitados. Tal framework foi desenvolvido para ser integrado com os principais frameworks de meta-heurística de otimização identificados na literatura técnica, como JMetal e Opt4J, que implementam um grande número de meta-heurísticas. Para analisar a viabilidade da modelagem proposta para o STSP e do framework desenvolvido, foram realizados dois estudos de casos em problemas de otimização do mundo real: (i) seleção de técnicas de teste baseado em modelos; (ii) seleção de técnicas de elicitação de requisitos para sistemas embarcados. Os estudos foram realizados utilizando diferentes meta-heurísticas. Os resultados indicam sua viabilidade de apoio à seleção de tecnologias de software.
3

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de técnicas miniaturizadas de preparo de amostras para análises ambientais via GC-MS / Development and application of miniaturized sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis via GC-MS

Grossi, Paula 17 July 2009 (has links)
Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e aplicação de técnicas miniaturizadas de preparo de amostras para análises ambientais via GC-MS. Dentre elas aplicou-se a técnica de Extração em Fase Sólida (SPE) na análise do regulador de crescimento de plantas, paclobutrazol (PBZ), em amostras de solo. Um método foi desenvolvido, otimizado e validado para o emprego da técnica acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (GC-MS) na análise de PBZ em solo. Foram desenvolvidas também barras in-house, para Extração por Sorção em Barras de Agitação (SBSE), preparadas com PDMS, otimizadas, validadas e aplicadas na extração de pesticidas organoclorados no modo headspace acoplado a GC-MS. Adicionalmente, novos recobrimentos para SBSE a partir da modificação do PDMS comumente utilizado visando mudanças nas características de polaridade das fases sortivas foram desenvolvidos. Seguindo a tendência de miniaturização desenvolveu-se um novo sistema nomeado de Extração Sortiva Refrigerada (RSE), a qual considera a teoria de equilíbrio da HSSE e da SPME refrigerada. A técnica foi otimizada e aplicada em amostras de água do rio de Atibaia, coletadas na região de Paulínia-SP. / This study describes the development and application of different miniaturized sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among those techniques, the Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was applied to the analysis of plant growth regulator, called paclobutrazol (PBZ), in soil samples. A method was developed, optimized and validated for the application of the technique coupled to GC-MS for the analysis of PBZ in soil. In-house Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) was also developed, optimized, validated and applied to organochlorine pesticides extraction in water samples in headspace mode followed by GC-MS. Additionally, new coatings for SBSE based on the PDMS modification commonly used to change the polarity characteristics of the sorptive phases were developed. Following the miniaturization trend, a new system called Refrigerated Sorptive Extraction (RSE) was successfully developed. This system was built with similar refrigerated SPME and HSSE equilibrium. Such technique was optimized and applied on water samples from Atibaia´s river, collected in the region of Paulínia-SP.
4

User directed search based reverse engineering

Schmidt, Frederik January 2009 (has links)
The current research represents the planning, design, implementation and evaluation of a user directed software clustering approach that utilizes Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE). The aim of this research is to examine if a user directed software clustering approach contributes to the quality of software clustering. Because of the explorative and constructive character this research project utilises the System Development Research Methodology. This research is enabled by the implementation of the Search Based Reverse Engineering (SBRE) component. The SBRE component features multiple similarity measurements and the inclusion of user constraints in the clustering process to create different implementation perspectives of the software system depending on the requirements and preferences of the stakeholders. These similarity measurements are based on software metrics, which measure different software-attributes. The SBRE component utilizes a greedy and tabu search algorithm for the identification of the cluster landscape of the analyzed software systems. The evaluation showed that a user controlled SBSE cluster approach is able to adapt to different user configurations and derive corresponding cluster landscapes from software systems. Different measures are introduced to control the cluster process. It has been shown how these measures contribute to the quality of the clustering. It is demonstrated that tabu search is applicable in the field of software clustering. Finally, it has been examined that a multiple metric approach allows adapting the clustering process to the requirements of the stakeholders and the design of the software system to optimize the clustering result.
5

User directed search based reverse engineering

Schmidt, Frederik January 2009 (has links)
The current research represents the planning, design, implementation and evaluation of a user directed software clustering approach that utilizes Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE). The aim of this research is to examine if a user directed software clustering approach contributes to the quality of software clustering. Because of the explorative and constructive character this research project utilises the System Development Research Methodology. This research is enabled by the implementation of the Search Based Reverse Engineering (SBRE) component. The SBRE component features multiple similarity measurements and the inclusion of user constraints in the clustering process to create different implementation perspectives of the software system depending on the requirements and preferences of the stakeholders. These similarity measurements are based on software metrics, which measure different software-attributes. The SBRE component utilizes a greedy and tabu search algorithm for the identification of the cluster landscape of the analyzed software systems. The evaluation showed that a user controlled SBSE cluster approach is able to adapt to different user configurations and derive corresponding cluster landscapes from software systems. Different measures are introduced to control the cluster process. It has been shown how these measures contribute to the quality of the clustering. It is demonstrated that tabu search is applicable in the field of software clustering. Finally, it has been examined that a multiple metric approach allows adapting the clustering process to the requirements of the stakeholders and the design of the software system to optimize the clustering result.
6

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de uma nova fase para extração por sorção em barra de agitação (SBSE) / Development and application of a new phase for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)

Juliana Yamashita Barletta 17 December 2010 (has links)
Uma fase polimérica inédita de polidimetilsiloxano/carvão ativado (PDMS-ACB) é proposta como fase extratora para extração por sorção em barras de agitação (SBSE). A barra de PDMS-ACB foi desenvolvida no laboratório usando um molde de teflon simples, demonstrando estabilidade e resistência aos solventes orgânicos. Utilizando uma única barra de PDMS-ACB mais de 150 extrações foram realizadas sem qualquer dano. A barra de SBSE contém aproximadamente 100 µL de revestimento polimérico, 2,36 mm de diâmetro e 2,2 cm de comprimento. A barra PDMS-ACB foi aplicada na extração de seis pesticidas (ametrina, atrazina, bifentrina, carbofurano, metribuzim e tebutiurom), com propriedades predominantemente polares, comumente aplicados em plantações de cana-de-açúcar. A barra PDMS-ACB foi utilizada na determinação de pesticidas em garapa através de cromatografia gasosa hifenada à espectrometria de massa (GC-MS). O planejamento experimental foi empregado na etapa de otimização da extração SBSE, um planejamento fatorial fracionado avaliou a influência dos principais parâmetros envolvidos. Posteriormente, o planejamento composto central (CCD) com conformação estrela foi explorado para otimizar os fatores significativos na extração. Apenas 200 µL de acetato de etila foram utilizados como solvente na dessorção líquida (LD). Para os compostos avaliados, o método apresentou limite de quantificação (LOQ) no intervalo de 0,5 - 40 µg L-1, as recuperações variaram entre 0,18 - 49,50 % e a precisão intra-dia variou de 0,072 - 8,40 %. Concluída a etapa de validação, o método foi aplicado em amostras reais de garapa disponíveis comercialmente em São Carlos-SP. / A novel polydimethylsiloxane/activated carbon (PDMS-ACB) is proposed as new polymeric phases for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The PDMS-ACB was developed in lab using simple teflon\'s mold, demonstrating remarkable stability and resistance to organic solvents, over 150 extractions without any damage. SBSE bar contained 100 µL of polymeric coating, a diameter of 2.36 mm and a length of 2.2 cm. It was applied to the determination of pesticides (ametryn, atrazine, bifenthrin, carbofuran, metribuzine and tebuthiuron) having predominantly polar properties, applied in sugarcane crops. PDMS-ACB was employed in the determination of pesticides in sugarcane juice using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental design was employed in the optimization step, a fractional factorial evaluated the main parameters involved in the extraction procedure. Afterwards, central composite design (CCD) was exploited to optimize the significant factors on the extraction. About 200 µL of ethyl acetate were employed as solvent in the liquid desorption (LD). The method presented limit of quantification (LOQ) from 0.5 to 40 µg L-1, recoveries varied 0.18 - 49.50% and precision intra-day 0.072 - 8.40%. Hence, the method was applied to the analysis of real sugarcane juice samples commercially available in São Carlos-SP.
7

Novel Solid-Phase Extraction Techniques for Biological and Environmental Analysis Using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

Boggess, Andrew 18 May 2016 (has links)
Awareness and study of the ways in which the environment can interact with the personal genetics and epigenetics of an individual has grown substantially in recent years, resulting in the field of Exposomics. In an era of increasingly personalized medicine, novel techniques are necessary to ensure the accurate and sensitivity measurement of clinically and environmentally relevant molecules in biological and environmental samples. Addressing existing shortcomings cited in literature, methods were developed and optimized for the extraction, separation, mass analysis, and quantification of a suite of environmental organic pollutants in both biological and environmental samples, with the primary objective of improving accuracy, increasing sensitivity, and reducing sample and reagent consumption. The secondary objective of this research was the production of validated methods capable of inter-laboratory method transfer with minimal training required in the receiving laboratory. Two novel methods have been developed, optimized, validated, and applied to collaborative environmental research. These novel methods represented a demonstrative improvement upon existing methods in both analytical quality and capability for inter-laboratory method transfer. Both developed methods were utilized in two collaborative clinical research studies investigating the impact of environmentally-sources agents on children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The high-quality data obtained in these studies yielded results that may have provided valuable insight into the development and maintenance of autism spectrum disorders. These novel methods allowed for the discovery of a first-of-its-kind variable in the children with ASD, compared with controls. This variable was statistically predictive for the probability of an individual being diagnosed with the most behaviorally severe autism disorder, with a statistically significant overall model fit. This novel analytical method was then expanded in breadth through application to industrial and municipal wastewater to aid in updating EPA Method 625 for wastewater analysis. Applying this novel method to wastewater produced data of higher analytical quality, in both accuracy and precision, compared with all other collaborative laboratories. The methods developed in this work for the quantification of organic molecules implicated in environmental human health in biological and environmental samples have significantly improved analytically upon existing methods and have yielded clinically relevant findings in collaborative clinical research studies. / Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences; / Chemistry and Biochemistry / PhD; / Dissertation;
8

Développements méthodologiques pour l’extraction et l’analyse des polluants organiques d’intérêt pour l’environnement marin : application aux hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques

Kanan, Rami 20 December 2012 (has links)
La présence d’hydrocarbures dans l’environnement que ce soit suite à un déversement accidentel de pétrole en mer ou suite à des apports chroniques, est une préoccupation majeure en raison de leur écotoxicité et de leur potentiel à être bioaccumulés, et ainsi, pénétrer la chaîne alimentaire. Par conséquent, ces molécules sont sous haute surveillance et il est nécessaire de disposer de méthodes analytiques permettant de les identifier et de les quantifier, et ceci, pour des concentrations allant du mg/L au ng/L. Cependant et dans la plupart des cas, les analyses en laboratoire des hydrocarbures, notamment aromatiques, se limitent à la quantification des 16 hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) identifiés par l’Agence américaine de Protection Environnementale (US-EPA) comme étant dangereux pour l’environnement du fait de leur caractère cancérigène. Or, les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques soufrés (HAPS) ainsi que leurs homologues substitués sont, sur le plan chimique, structurellement proches des HAP, et peuvent donc présenter des risques environnementaux similaires, à savoir être cancérigènes ou mutagènes. Le travail de recherche réalisé s’inscrit dans ce contexte avec pour objectif des développements méthodologiques permettant l’extraction et l’analyse d’une gamme plus large de HAP, des HAPS et leurs dérivés alkylés directement dans les produits pétroliers ou dissous en phase aqueuse. Des protocoles d’extraction par "stir bar sorptive extraction" (SBSE) et par microextraction sur phase solide (SPME), et des méthodes d’analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse simple (GC-MS) et en tandem (GC-MS-MS) ont été développés. Les résultats obtenus plaident en faveur de ces méthodologies aussi bien en termes de linéarité de la réponse qu’en termes de sensibilité, méthodologies qui ont été appliquées avec succès pour la détermination des analytes d’intérêt dans des fractions solubles préparées au laboratoire (WAF et WSF). Pour la CG-MS-MS, si elle se révèle particulièrement adaptée car elle apporte un degré de certitude élevé, elle n’en reste pas moins une technique délicate à mettre en oeuvre, notamment dans le cas des composés alkylés pour lesquels des solutions étalons ne sont pas disponibles. Pour pallier cette difficulté, un produit de référence contenant l’ensemble des analytes d’intérêt a été caractérisé. Pour les composés alkylés non disponibles commercialement, des appro-ximations ont été effectuées par MS simple en se basant sur une analyse comparée des coefficients de réponse en mode MRM et SIM. La méthodologie ainsi mise au point a permis de caractériser le fioul de l’Erika avec une faible variabilité des résultats. Ce produit peut servir de référence pour l’analyse quantitative de l’ensemble des familles de composés identifiés dans cette étude. / The presence of hydrocarbons in the environment either as a result of oil spills at sea or due to chronic discharge is a major concern because of their ecotoxicity and their potential to bioaccumulate and thus enter the food chain. Therefore, these molecules are closely monitored and reliable analytical methods are required to identify and quantify them, for concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L. However, in most cases, laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, especially aromatic hydrocarbons, are limited to the quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as hazardous to the environment due to their carcinogenic nature. However, polycyclic aromatic sulphur heterocycles (PASHs) and their substituted homologs are, in chemical terms, structurally similar to PAHs, and therefore can pose similar environmental risks, i.e. they can be carcinogenic or mutagenic. In this context, the research work carried out aims to develop methodologies for the extraction and analysis of a wider range of PAHs, PASHs and their alkyl derivatives directly in oil or dissolved in the aqueous phase. Extraction protocols by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME), and methods of analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) have been developed. The results argue in favor of these methodologies both in terms of linearity of the response and in terms of sensitivity. These methodologies that have been successfully applied for the determination of analytes of interest in the water accommodated fraction and water soluble fraction prepared in the laboratory (WAF and WSF). For GC-MS-MS, while it is particularly suitable because it provides an additional level of selectivity, it is a difficult technique to implement, in particular in the case of molecules for which no calibration solutions are available. To overcome this difficulty, a reference oil containing all the target molecules was characterized. For alkylated compounds that are not commercially available, approximations were made by simple MS, based on comparative analysis of response coefficients in MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) and SIM (Single Ion Monitoring) modes. The finalized method was used to characterize the Erika fuel oil, with low variability in the results. This product can be used as a reference for the quantitative analysis of all the families of molecules identified in this study.
9

Estudo de alcaloides dos frutos de Passiflora alata e de Passiflora edulis por SBSE, CLAE-Flu e identificação por CLUE-EM / Alkaloids studies from Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis fruits analyzed by SBSE, CLAE-Flu, and identified by CLUE-EM.

Gabriela Ribeiro Silva 15 May 2015 (has links)
O maracujá, nome popular atribuído ao fruto das diversas espécies do gênero Passiflora, da família Passifloraceae, é amplamente comercializado e consumido no mundo, sendo o Brasil um dos maiores produtores do fruto. Alguns estudos apontam possível toxicidade relacionada às espécies de Passiflora, principalmente P. incarnata. No entanto, há pouco conhecimento acerca das espécies P. edulis e P. alata, sobretudo em relação à polpa e sementes. Os extratos da polpa e das sementes dos frutos dessas duas espécies de \"maracujá\", Passiflora alata e Passiflora edulis, foram estudados com o objetivo de identificar alcaloides harmânicos, pelo preparo das amostras por extração por sorção em barra magnética recoberta com polidimetilsiloxano (SBSE-PDMS) e SBSE recoberta com polietilenoglicol silicone (SBSE-EG Silicone) e análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector por fluorescência (CLAE-Flu) e cromatografia líquida de ultra eficiência acoplada à espectrometria de massas sequencial (CLUE-EM/EM). A análise dos alcaloides harmana e harmina nos extratos da polpa de P. alata foi feita por meio do método de adição de padrão e mostrou menor quantidade destes alcaloides, em comparação com os resultados da análise dos extratos da polpa dos frutos de P. edulis, no trabalho de Pereira e colaboradores. As análises CLUE-EM e CLUE-EM/EM possibilitaram a identificação dos alcaloides nos extratos: nas sementes de P. alata, os alcaloides harmana, harmina, harmol, harmalol e harmalina foram identificados, enquanto que na polpa, harmana e harmina tiveram a confirmação da sua presença. Nos extratos da polpa dos frutos de P. edulis observou-se os alcaloides harmana, harmina e harmalina. E nas sementes de P. edulis harmina foi encontrada, porém há indícios da presença de harmana. A literatura sobre as barras de SBSE-EG Silicone Twister&®; não relata nenhum estudo relacionado ao seu uso para extração e concentração de alcaloides harmânicos nos extratos de P. alata e P. edulis. Por isso foi proposto inicialmente a aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para otimização do método de extração, utilizando os padrões comerciais dos alcaloides harmana e harmina. O planejamento experimental revelou as variáveis principais e seus níveis de importância, e a partir destes resultados foi realizado o estudo cinético dos tempos de extração e de dessorção das barras de SBSE-EG Silicone. Porém, os resultados mostraram que as barras de SBSE-EG Silicone não são adequadas para a extração dos alcaloides harmana e harmina, uma vez que a recuperação obtida foi baixa, na ordem de 30%. / \"Maracujá\" is the popular name given to the fruit of several species of Passiflora genus, from Passifloraceae family, it is widely commercialized and consumed around the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers of this fruit. Some studies pointed out the possible toxicity related to Passiflora species, mainly P. incarnata. Although, there is a lack of knowledge about the P. edulis and P. alata species, especially with regards to the pulp and seeds. The extracts of pulp and seeds from the \"maracujá\" species Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis, were studied in order to identify harman alkaloids. The samples were prepared by extraction with sorptive stir bar coated with polydimethylsiloxane (SBSE-PDMS) and SBSE coated with polyethylene glycol silicon (SBSE-EG Silicone). The samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-Flu), and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Harmane and harmine alkaloids in P. alata pulp extracts were analyzed using the standard addition method and the results showed a lower amount of these alkaloids, compared with the test results for the extracts from the P. edulis pulp in the work of Pereira et al. UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis enabled to identify the alkaloids amount present in the extracts. In the P. alata seeds extract the following alkaloids were identified harmane, harmine, harmol, harmalol and harmaline, while in the pulp extract, harmane and harmine were confirmed. In the extracts of P. edulis pulp the alkaloids identified were harmane, harmine and harmaline. And in the P. edulis seeds extract the harmine alkaloid was found, some indications of the presence of harmana were observed. The literature about SBSE-EG Silicone Twister® bars reports no study related to their use for extraction and concentration of harman alkaloids in P. alata and P. edulis. Thus, it was initially proposed the application of fractional factorial design to optimize the extraction method using commercial standards of harmane and harmine alkaloids. The experimental design revealed the main variables and their importance levels, and from these results kinetic studies were performed for the extraction and desorption times of SBSE-EG Silicone bars. However, the results showed SBSE-EG Silicone bars are not suitable for the extraction of harmane and harmine alkaloids, since the recovery obtained was low, on the order of 30%.
10

Estudo de alcaloides β-carbolínicos dos  frutos de Passiflora alata e de Passiflora edulis utilizando SBSE, LC/Flu e LC/MS / Study of β-carboline alkaloids in Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis fruits using SBSE, LC/Flu and LC/MS

Vítor Fernandes Freire 22 February 2017 (has links)
O maracujá azedo, Passiflora edulis, e o maracujá doce, Passiflora alata, são as duas espécies pertencentes à família Passifloraceae de maior importância econômica para o Brasil, sendo seus frutos amplamente comercializados como alimentos. Um grupo de substâncias conhecido como alcaloides β-carbolínicos são componentes minoritários desses frutos, no entanto, a literatura indica que substâncias pertencentes a esse grupo podem ter atividade tóxica. Este trabalho apresentou três objetivos específicos, com o intuito de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a fitoquímica dos frutos de P. edulis e de P. alata e da aplicação da SBSE como método de preparo de amostra: quantificação de harmana e de harmina na polpa e nas sementes de P. alata utilizando SBSE-PDMS e análise por HPLC/Flu; identificação de alcaloides β-carbolínicos nas cascas de P. edulis através de análises por HPLC/Flu e por UHPLC/MS; estudo do processo de extração de norharmana por SBSE com duas fases extratores diferentes (PDMS e EG-Silicone) por HPLC/Flu. A quantificação de harmana e harmina na polpa e nas sementes de P. alata foi realizada após preparo de amostra por SBSE-PDMS e análises por HPLC/Flu. A concentração de harmana encontrada foi 1,0328 . 10-1 ± 3,1217 . 10-3 μg L-1 na polpa, enquanto que nas sementes foi encontrada a concentração de 7,4391 . 10-5 ± 2,5501 . 10-6 μg g-1. As concentrações de harmina ficaram abaixo do LOD e do LOQ na polpa e nas sementes de P. alata, respectivamente. Na identificação dos alcaloides β-carbolínicos nas cascas de P. edulis, os extratos para análises por HPLC/Flu e por UHPLC/MS foram preparados pelo método clássico, sendo identificados os alcaloides norharmana, harmana, harmina, harmol e harmalol. Nas análises por HPLC/Flu de extrato das cascas de P. edulis preparado utilizando SBSE-PDMS, o alcaloide norharmana foi identificado como majoritário e por esse motivo, foi realizado o estudo do processo de extração de norharmana por SBSE com duas fases extratoras diferentes, PDMS e EG-Silicone, utilizando planejamento fatorial fracionário, tendo como objetivo obter a melhor recuperação percentual possível. Com as melhores condições para extração definidas, os ensaios utilizando PDMS e EG-Silicone apresentaram recuperação percentual de cerca de 50 % e 80 %, respectivamente. A quantificação de harmana na polpa e nas sementes do maracujá doce, P. alata, indicou quantidades muito pequenas desse alcaloide nessas partes dos frutos, levando à conclusão que um fruto de P. alata, apresenta cerca de 140 vezes menos alcaloides β-carbolínicos do que o fruto de P. edulis, levando em consideração as quantidades de harmana e harmina no maracujá azedo relatadas na literatura. A identificação dos alcaloides β-carbolínicos nas cascas de P. edulis é um importante passo para a compreensão sobre a fitoquímica dessa parte do fruto, que, nos últimos anos, deixou de ser apenas resíduo industrial e passou a ser produto alimentício com valor agregado, comercializadas como farinhas das cascas de maracujá. O estudo sobre a utilização da SBSE como técnica de extração de norharmana mostrou-se promissor, atingindo recuperação percentual aceitável para o futuro desenvolvimento de um método de quantificação de norharmana nas cascas de maracujá. / Sour passion fruit, Passiflora edulis, and sweet passion fruit, Passiflora alata, are the two species of Passifloraceae of greater economic importance to Brazil, and their fruits are widely marketed as food. A class of compounds known as β-carboline alkaloids is a minor component of these fruits, however, the literature indicates that substances belonging to this group may have toxic activity. This work presents three specific objectives, in order to increase knowledge about the phytochemistry of P. edulis and P. alata and the application of SBSE as a sample preparation method: quantification of harmane and harmine in the pulp and in the seeds of P. alata using SBSE-PDMS and HPLC/Flu analysis; identification of β-carboline alkaloids in P. edulis peels using HPLC/Flu and UHPLC/MS analysis; study of the SBSE extraction process of norharmane using two different phases (PDMS and EG-Silicone), by HPLC/Flu analysis. Quantification of harmane and harmine in the pulp and the seeds of P. alata was performed after sample preparation by SBSE-PDMS and analysis by HPLC/Flu. The concentration of harmane was 1,0328 . 10-1 ± 3,1217 . 10-3 μg L-1 in the pulp while the in the seeds it was found 7.4391 . 10-5 ± 2.5501 . 10-6 μg g-1 harmane. The concentrations of harmine were below the LOD and LOQ in the pulp and in the seeds of P. alata, respectively. For the identification of the β-carboline alkaloids in the peels of P. edulis, the extracts were prepared by using the classic method and analyzed by HPLC/Flu and UHPLC/MS, and the alkaloids norharmane, harmane, harmine, harmol and harmalol were identified. In the HPLC/Flu analysis of the extract of P. edulis peels prepared using SBSE-PDMS, the alkaloid norharmane was identified as a major constituent and, for this reason, it was performed a study about the extraction process of norharmane by SBSE, evaluating two different phases, PDMS and EG-Silicone, by using fractional factorial design, aiming to get the best percentage recovery. Defined the best conditions for extraction, the experiments performed by using PDMS and EG-Silicone bars showed percentage recovery about 50% and 80%, respectively. Quantification of harmane in the pulp and seeds of sweet passionfruit, P. alata, indicated very small amounts of this alkaloid in these parts of the fruits, leading to the conclusion that the fruits of P. alata, has around 140 times less β-carboline alkaloid than the fruits of P. edulis, taking into account the amounts of harmana and harmine on sour passionfruit reported in the literature. Identification of β-carboline alkaloids in P. edulis peels is an important step for understanding the phytochemistry of this part of the fruits, which, in recent years, is no longer just an industrial waste and became a food product with added value, marketed as passion fruit peels flour. The study about the utilization of SBSE as extraction technique of norharmane showed to be promising, reaching acceptable recovery percentage, for the future development of a method for quantification of norharmane in passion fruit peels.

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