Campbell, Charlotte, Van Allen, Ashley, Vincent, Erin
Class of 2009 Abstract / OBJECTIVES: Skin cancer is particularly prevalent in Arizona, with incidence rates ranking number two worldwide. Pharmacists are useful advocates for educating patients about the risks of skin cancer and methods of prevention. This study was conducted to assess pharmacists’ knowledge of skin cancer and their demographics and to evaluate how these factors impact skin cancer prevention patient counseling. METHODS: Participants were recruited using a listserv from pharmacists that were members of the Arizona Pharmacy Alliance or preceptors of the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Subjects completed an online questionnaire consisting of knowledge- based questions, questions about patient counseling preferences and subject demographics. RESULTS: The average score by pharmacists on the Skin Cancer and Sun Exposure Knowledge Indicator was 5.8 + 1.9. Pharmacists living in Arizona for longer times were more likely to know the minimum recommended SPF of sunscreen for adults to use when outdoors (p=0.003) and the factors associated with malignant melanoma prognosis/survival (p=0.004), but were less likely to know the definition of ABCD acronym (p=0.027). Having a family or friend diagnosed with any form of skin cancer or precancerous skin condition led to more pharmacists knowing the risk factors for developing melanoma (p=0.046) and knowing how often to apply water resistant sunscreen (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The length of pharmacy practice in Arizona and having a family member or close friend affected by skin cancer significantly impacted a pharmacists’ knowledge of skin cancer.
Carlson, Joanne Landau.
No description available.
Turrisi, Rob, Hillhouse, Joel, Heavin, Sarah, Robinson, June, Adams, Malissa, Berry, Jessica
01 August 2004
The research evaluated an intervention strategy designed to prevent skin cancer in young adolescents. The intervention used parents as change agents to effectively communicate the risks of skin cancer and encourage their children to avoid high-risk sun-related behaviors while increasing positive sun-safe behaviors. Three hundred and forty parents in two regions of the United States were educated about the dangers of risky sun behaviors and how to convey information about skin cancer prevention to their children. Parents were then encouraged to talk with their children about these issues over a 1-month period prior to the onset of summer. Following this time period, children whose parents received and implemented the intervention materials were compared with a control sample of 129 children. These two groups were matched on age, gender, and school on number of sunburns and sunburn severity, attitudes and beliefs, and sunbathing behavior. Children in the treatment condition differed significantly from controls in the predicted directions on all outcome variables. The findings are discussed in terms of reducing skin cancer risk behaviors of children via parent-based intervention approaches.
A Brief Educational Intervention to Enhance Nurse Practitioners' Knowledge, Attitudes and Skin Cancer Counseling BehaviorsGoodman, Hope Ann, Goodman, Hope Ann January 2016 (has links)
Background: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a public health concern. There are over 5 million new cases of keratinocyte skin cancer (KC) (previously known as non-melanoma skin cancer) and over 65,000 new cases of melanoma annually in the United States. Skin cancer is highly preventable, although prevention methods are not commonly practiced. Nurse practitioners have a key role in educating and encouraging patients to practice skin cancer prevention methods. Purpose/Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine whether a brief educational video can improve nurse practitioner knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding skin cancer and skin cancer prevention counseling. Methods: A single subject pre-test post-test design guided this project. Participants completed an online pretest assessing skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Following the pretest participants were given access to the video intervention. The intervention included information about skin cancer and published guidelines about skin cancer prevention counseling. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and satisfaction with the intervention were assessed through a post-test. Results: A total of 30 eligible Arizona nurse practitioners completed both the pretest and posttest surveys. There was a statistically significant increase (p=.000) in knowledge from 64.17% on the pretest to 87.5% on the posttest. Attitudes about skin cancer and skin cancer counseling were fair on the pretest and significantly improved (p=.000) on the posttest. On the pretest, nurse practitioners had poor attitudes regarding skin cancer prevention counseling practice behaviors. These attitudes favorably increased (p=.009) on the posttest. Self-reported practice behaviors also improved significantly following the intervention (p=.000). Participants' attitudes regarding the intervention were generally favorable. Conclusions: A brief educational intervention offered online to nurse practitioners is highly effective for improving their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding skin cancer and skin cancer prevention counseling. The intervention is feasible to administer and is acceptable to nurse practitioners.
Taylor, Anne, 1950-
(has links) (PDF)
Includes tables and graphs. Includes bibliographic references : p 160-168.
Results of a Social Media Campaign to Prevent Indoor Tanning by Teens: A Randomized Controlled TrialBuller, David B., Pagoto, Sherry, Baker, Katie, Walkosz, Barbara J., Hillhouse, Joel, Henry, Kimberly L., Berteletti, Julia, Bibeau, Jessica 01 June 2021 (has links)
Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk of developing skin cancer. A social media campaign to reduce mother's permissiveness toward their teenage daughters IT was evaluated. Mothers (N = 869) of daughters aged 14–17 in 34 states without bans on IT by minors were enrolled in a randomized trial with assessments at baseline and 12-months follow-up in 2017–19. A year-long adolescent health campaign was delivered to all mothers. The intervention group received posts on preventing IT and the control group, posts about preventing prescription drug misuse. Daughters (n = 469; 54.0%) completed the assessments at baseline and 12 months. At 12-month follow-up, intervention-group mothers were less permissive of IT by daughters (unadjusted means = 1.70 [95% CI: 1.59, 1.80] v. 1.85 [1.73, 1.97] [5-point Likert scale], b = -0.152), reported more communication about avoiding IT with daughters (4.09 [3.84, 4.35] v. 3.42 [3.16, 3.68] [sum of 7 yes/no items], b = 0.213), and had lower intentions to indoor tan (1.41 [1.28, 1.55] v. 1.60 [1.43, 1.76] [7-point likelihood scale], b = -0.221) than control-group mothers. Daughters confirmed intervention-group mothers communicated about IT (3.81 [3.49, 4.14] v. 3.20 [2.87, 3.53] [sum of 7 yes/no items], b = 0.237) and shared IT posts (unadjusted percentages = 52.4% v. 36.4%, b = 0.438) more than control-group mothers. No differences were found in IT behavior, self-efficacy to refuse permission, and negative attitudes toward IT. A social media campaign may be an effective strategy to convince mothers to withhold permission for IT, which may help increase the effectiveness of state laws designed to reduce IT by minors by requiring parental permission.
Turrisi, Rob, Hillhouse, Joel, Robinson, June K., Stapleton, Jerod
01 October 2007
The present study examined theoretical mediators of a parent-based intervention on sunbathing tendencies and sunburn frequencies based on the work of Turrisi et al. [Turrisi, R., Hillhouse, J., Heavin, S., Robinson, J., Adams, M., & Berry, J. (2004). Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 393-412.]. Three hundred and forty parents in two regions of the United States were educated about the dangers of risky sun behavior and how to convey information about skin cancer prevention to their children. Attitudes toward sunbathing, health beliefs, appearance beliefs, and social normative beliefs were examined and found to be significant mediators of program effects on sunbathing tendencies and sunburn frequencies. The findings are discussed with respect to maximizing the effectiveness of future skin cancer interventions with children.
In western societies, skin cancer incidence has increased dramatically over recent decades, due predominantly to increased sun exposure habits. Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and individual light sensitivity of the skin constitute two important factors affecting the risk for skin cancer development. Individuals with a heightened propensity to get sunburnt have a higher risk for skin malignancies, and need to protect themselves more systematically from the sun. Individual UVlight sensitivity can be determined either by self-estimation of tendency to burn and tan, as in the Fitzpatrick’s classification, or by use of a phototest. Although phototesting constitutes a considerably more objective method, it is only sparsely used, chiefly due to financial and resource related factors, and is mainly limited to investigation of photodermatoses or dose-management in photo therapy. The general aim of this thesis was to develop and improve aspects of the phototest procedure in rder to broaden the utilisation of phototesting within the fields of research, clinical practice and skin cancer prevention. As a first step, a new phototesting technique, using a divergent UVB beam was evaluated. The principle of the method is to provoke a circular UVB-erythema in the skin, the diameter of which is related to the administered dose and thus the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED). In a test group of healthy subjects, naked eye reading by a trained observer resulted in a more exact, estimation of UVB-sensitivity, compared to traditional phototesting. Since the diffuse border of the provoked erythema was challenging for the untrained observer to read, the need for an objective, bio-engineering technique for test reading was clear. In this thesis, Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) has been used. This data also enabled an objective description of doseresponse for the reaction, an outcome not possible in traditional testing. The divergent beam method was also shown to be useful as a model for evaluation of the effect of topically applied substances. In order to broaden the utilisation of phototests in general, a test procedure built on patient performed self-reading of skin tests (a traditional phototest and an irritant patch test) was evaluated. The reliability of these self-readings was shown to be substantial when compared to the control readings of a trained observer. Using the self-reporting procedure, phototesting was evaluated as a tool in primary prevention of skin cancer. The study focussed on sun habits and sun protection behaviour, and also on investigating the impact of different forms of presentation of the preventive information. Results showed significantly higher impact for a personally mediated preventive message than by letterform. For individuals with heightened UV-sensitivity the performance of a phototest led to a greater tendency to adopt sun protection behaviour than for subjects with a lower UV-sensitivity, suggesting that phototesting is a useful way to improve the outcome in terms of preventive behaviours for this group of susceptible, at-risk individuals. Divergent beam phototesting, patient-performed self-reading, and the application of phototesting in skin cancer prevention emerge as three novel, previously little investigated, aspects of phototesting, for which promising results could be demonstrated. / Under de senaste årtiondena har insjuknandet i hudcancer ökat dramatiskt i västvärlden, detta till stor del beroende på förändrade solvanor. Exponering för solens ultravioletta strålning (UVstrålning) samt den individuella ljuskänsligheten i huden utgör två viktiga faktorer av betydelse för uppkomsten av hudcancer. Individer med ökad benägenhet att bli rödbrända i solen löper också ökad risk för hudcancer av solexponering, och behöver således vara extra noga med att skydda sig mot solen. Hur känslig man är mot solljuset kan bedömas antingen genom självskattning (klassificering enligt Fitzpatrick), eller genom att använda ett ljustest. Det sistnämnda är en betydligt mer objektiv metod, men används ändå relativt sparsamt, sannolikt ofta beroende på brist på resurser, tid eller klinisk rutin. Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen var att utveckla och förbättra aspekter på ljustestningsförfarandet med inriktning på att kunna bredda användningen av ljustest inom forskning, klinisk verksamhet och hudcancerprevention. Som ett första steg undersöktes och utvärderades en ny ljustestteknik, baserad på en divergent (spridd) UV-stråle. Genom att belysa huden med ett cirkulärt UV-ljusfält framkallas en cirkulär rodnad (erytem), där diametern på rodnaden står i relation till den individuella ljuskänsligheten i huden. I jämförelse med traditionell ljustestningsmetodik visade sig metoden resultera i en noggrannare uppskattning av ljuskänslighet, samt möjligheten att beskriva ett dos-responsförhållande inom det rodnade hudområdet. Eftersom kanten på den framkallade rodnaden tenderade att bli ganska diffust avgränsad framkom dock, med undantag för speciellt tränade avläsare, svårigheter att läsa av testet med enbart ögats hjälp. Av den anledningen krävdes mer objektiv, hudfysiologisk mätmetodik. I de genomförda studierna användes så kallad Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) för detta. Förutom uppskattning av ljuskänsligheten testades den divergenta UV-strålen också som modell för skattning av anti-inflammatorisk effekt av ämnen som appliceras på huden, exempelvis cortison, och visade sig användbar för detta. I syfte att öka förutsättningarna för bredare användning av ljustest, genomfördes en studie där försökspersonerna själva fick avläsa ett traditionellt ljustest och rapportera in testresultatet. Resultaten jämfördes med avläsningar utförda av en kunnig avläsare, och visade på god tillförlitlighet. Slutligen, med hjälp av den beskrivna självavläsningsproceduren, undersöktes i en primärvårdspopulation, om ljustestning kan vara användbart för att förebygga hudcancer, med inriktning på att påverka individers solvanor, solskyddsbeteende och attityder gentemot solning. I studien jämfördes även olika modeller för att presentera ett preventionsbudskap, och där ett muntligt sådant, förmedlat vid ett läkarbesök, hade ett betydligt bättre genomslag än motsvarande, enbart skriftlig, information. För individer med hög ljuskänslighet bidrog ljustestet till ökat solskyddsbeteende, vilket indikerar att ljustest skulle kunna vara ett användbart verktyg i eftersträvan att förebygga hudcancer speciellt i denna grupp av individer med förhöjd hudcancerrisk. Sammanfattningsvis utgör ljustestning med divergent UV-stråle, självavläsning av ljustest samt användning av ljustest vid hudcancerprevention tre nya, tidigare sparsamt undersökta aspekter på ljustestning, för vilka den här avhandlingen visar lovande resultat.
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