Martins, J. Felix
No description available.
Maier, Florentine, Meyer, Michael
15 July 2017
(has links) (PDF)
Social impact bonds (SIBs) have been welcomed enthusiastically as a new funding tool for social innovation, yet also condemned as an instrument that neglects beneficiaries' and taxpayers' interests, opening profit opportunities in the field of social politics for smart private investors. We will shed a more analytical light on SIBs, assuming that, like any contract, SIBs try to align interests between partners with partly converging, partly diverging goals. Thus, it remains mainly a matter of negation, and non-profit social service providers as well as public agencies should avoid particular perils and pitfalls.
Stoffle, Richard W., Traugott, Michael W., Jensen, Florence V., Copeland, Robert
This is a scoping report that presents conclusions and recommendations regarding the potential relationship between the people of Monroe and Lenawee Counties, Michigan and proposal to consider locating the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in these counties. The study area is located within the two counties but includes only the extreme eastern portion of Lenawee County. This report discusses the social and cultural impacts that could derive from siting the SSC in these counties, the possible local resident responses to these potential SSC impacts, and potential statewide responses to the project. This scoping research was founded through a contract between the Michigan Energy and Resource Research Associations (MERRA) and the Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Scoping g research was conducted between April 15, 1986 and August 31, 1986.
The Superconducting Super Collider at the Stockbridge, Michigan Site: Community Support and Land Acquisition.Stoffle, Richard W., Traugott, M., Harshbarger, C., Jensen, F., Evans, M., Drury, P. January 1988 (has links)
At the request of the Governor of Michigan, researchers from the Institute for Social Research (ISR) at The University of Michigan conducted studies of the social effects of and community support for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project in Michigan. Their initial work in 1986 focused on Dundee, in southeastern Michigan, the first site considered by Michigan as a location for the SSC. The State eventually presented proposals for two Michigan sites: the Dundee location and a location near Stockbridge, which is situated in south central Michigan. Research was conducted at both sites.
Acting Your Age: A Study of the Relationship between Online Social Interaction and Identity in Older AdultsP.T.Dell@curtin.edu.au, Peter Thorlai Dell January 2008 (has links)
This study combined quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the relationship between Internet use and identity, particularly age-identity, in older Internet users. It has a theoretical basis in symbolic interactionism particularly the theories of Erving Goffman and conceptualizes identities as roles that are negotiated during social interaction. The focus on older users was motivated by the strong focus of prior Internet research on younger users. Few studies have examined older users specifically, and fewer still have examined age-identity. Thus, the focus in this study is on how changes in social interaction that occur due to Internet use affect the identity negotiation process. The research is focused around two key areas: whether older users experience the same kinds of online identity processes as younger users, and the impact exposure to novel audiences has on identity negotiation. The study consists of two phases. In the first, a quantitative survey was administered in which a measure of age-identity was assessed and compared with measures of audience novelty. Results showed that a significant increase in variance of ageidentity is associated with communication with people from other countries. This finding supports the theory that identity is formed in negotiation with the audience with whom one communicates, and that expanding this audience may lead to identity effects. To investigate this issue more deeply, a qualitative phase was conducted in which participants were interviewed using rapid ethnography techniques, and at the conclusion of which a model of the interaction between age-identity and Internet communication was developed. This model was then verified with follow-up interviews with key informants and with field observations from sites of online social interaction among seniors. The model developed during the qualitative stage identifies three ways in which ageidentity is influenced by social interaction on the Internet. First, the Internet is used in response to emotional or practical consequences of ageing. Second, older Internet users could take advantage of the ability to manage their personal front online to achieve agelessness, and third, the Internet is used as a backstage area to discuss ageidentity issues. The context of these claims is all-important; each individuals unique circumstances, emotions and motivations influence the way in which they will use the Internet and respond to others encountered through it. The extension of Goffmans dramaturgical metaphor to age- identity on the Internet and to include the concept of character development, in which identity evolves over time in response to inner tensions and external events, is a tentative but powerful finding. It poses a challenge for future research into the nature of identity change, both online and offline.
Watts, Natasha Alice
African agriculture has attracted increased global policy attention over the last 10 years due to concerns over both food security and economic growth. In this context, social impact investing (SII)—where investors use financial models to achieve positive social impacts as well as financial returns—is presented as a viable means of financing agricultural development in the context of reduced public funding This thesis is concerned with how SII (and its understandings, assumptions, and models of agricultural development) interact with smallholder farming in Tanzania. I unpack how the concept of SII takes shape, how it is translated into the Tanzanian context, and how it interacts with farmer livelihoods through a case study of Cheetah Development in Lower Kilolo District. I take a political ecology approach drawing mainly on qualitative methods. The concept of assemblages is employed to investigate how diverse actors enter into relationships, how those relationships hold together, and how they fall apart. I focus on three key analytical themes: power (discursive, disciplinary, and institutional), moral economies, and the role of socio-material entities. My findings show that SII is being driven by the pursuit for new profit frontiers and concerns over business risks, and also by a belief that a more ethical capitalist economy can be built. This has resulted in a narrative of ‘Africa rising’. How exactly ‘social impact’ is being defined and the motivations for pursuing it, however, differ widely within SII. To investigate how agricultural SII is translated in Tanzania I focus on Cheetah Development, an American social impact investor that provides agricultural inputs on credit to smallholder farmers and attempts to involve them in new maize value chains. Cheetah’s model identifies existing maize value chains centred around middlemen as features of an immoral capitalism. It also views smallholders as not only lacking market access and inputs, but also lacking in business-orientated mindsets. The Cheetah model builds various mechanisms to discipline farmers and render them bankable. Through examining farmer livelihoods, I find that farmers conduct diverse livelihood activities, and maize plays a variety of roles in village life. Farmer livelihoods are underpinned by a moral economy involving flexible relations of borrowing and lending. I conclude that assumptions of ethical capitalism embedded in the Cheetah model clash with farmer livelihoods and their conceptions of just socio-economic relationships.
Achieving sustainability while delivering on the social impact : challenges facing microfinance institutionsKasenge, Eric 14 July 2012 (has links)
The aim of this study was to investigate how Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in South Africa balance sustainability with developmental objectives. Twelve semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with microfinance subject matter and microfinance institutions. The research found that commercialisation is not compatible with social impact as it leads to mission drift, which can be managed by an inclusive stakeholder governance structure. The trade-off between sustainability and social impact (outreach) was evident for commercial MFIs; while sustainability can be achieved through scale and cost management. In addition, MFIs achieve lower delinquency rate by implementing non-financial interventions such as client training and using group lending methodology that fosters social capital in the client base. The lack of a visible collaboration between MFIs has deprived the industry of a strong voice that can mobilise society to leverage the benefits of microfinance to help South Africa reduce inequalities. Despite the fact that regulatory restrictions concerning savings mobilisation for micro enterprise lenders are inhibiting product innovation and curtailing outreach, microfinance has proved to be a valuable tool that South Africa has not leveraged to alleviate poverty and reduce income inequalities. / Dissertation (MBA)--University of Pretoria, 2012. / Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) / unrestricted
Correcting Societal Issues Through Business : A Multiple Case Study of Inhibiting Factors for Scaling Social Impact in SwedenAndersdotter, Matilda, Rosenlöf, Evelina January 2018 (has links)
Background: Considering increased global challenges and societal issues, more and more people are directing skepticism towards governments' and established businesses' abilities to fully address urgent social problems. Social entrepreneurship constitutes a new entrepreneurial movement where societal issues are addressed by a combination of market-based methods and social value creation. Social entrepreneurship generates social and sustainable benefits to society and has thus received growing attention from both researchers and policy makers around the world. Social enterprises may take on varies forms, ranging from non-profit organizations to commercially driven enterprises. To focus on sustainable business models, this thesis has delimited the study to solely focus on for-profit or hybrid organizations. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe what inhibiting factors Swedish social enterprises face in scaling processes. Scaling refers to the magnitude a social business maximizes its social impact, primarily, but not limited to, through organizational growth. Furthermore, the thesis aims at explaining how social forces co-shape preconditions and actor decisions connected to scaling. Method: To fulfil the purpose of the study, a qualitative research methodology was used. The empirical data was primarily collected through semi-structured interviews held with founders, COO’s and CEO’s from seven social enterprises in Sweden. To fully explain inhibiting factors of scaling, an abductive research approach was used with a combination of open and encouraging questions to promote discussion and develop theory. Conclusion: The empirical findings of the study revealed a total of 14 inhibiting factors for scaling social impact in Sweden. From the findings, a development of existent theory resulted in a model illustrating the relationship between inhibiting factors, social forces and scaling social impact.
Privata pengar till sociala investeringar - En deskriptiv fallstudie av det sociala utfallskontraktet i Norrköpings kommunTuvhag, Tom, Wadström, Christoffer January 2016 (has links)
I april år 2016 upprättades den första svenska versionen av en Social Impact Bond, då ett avtal ingicks mellan Norrköpings kommun och den privata investeraren Leksell Social Ventures AB. Avtalet är ett utfallskontrakt och är en ny form av investeringsinstrument med ursprung i impact investments. Målet med utfallskontraktet är att förbättra situationen för barn och ungdomar som placerats i vårdboenden i Norrköpings kommun. Uppsatsens syfte är att öka förståelsen för utfallskontraktet som instrument genom att undersöka förutsättningarna, samt vilka eventuella målkonflikter som kan föreligga mellan parterna. Analysen skall behandla parternas inbördes ställning och hur parternas intressen tillvaratas och regleras i kontraktet. Slutligen ämnar uppsatsen att utvärdera huruvida utfallskontraktet är ett effektivt instrument för att genomföra sociala investeringar. Uppsatsens tillvägagångssätt är en deskriptiv fallstudie av det sociala utfallskontraktet. Vi har genomfört semistrukturella djupintervjuer som kompletterar vårt empiriska material som huvudsak består av utfallskontraktet. Analysen är uppdelad i kontraktets förutsättningar, den sociala insatsen, kontraktet och ingående aktörer. Varje del av kontraktet analyseras utifrån en analysmodell som innehåller principal agent-teorin och transaktionskostnads-teori. Förutsättningarna som föreligger i realiteten gör att utfallskontraktet kan anses vara ett bra finansieringsverktyg, som kontrollerar parternas beteende och samtidigt tillåter flexibilitet. De målkonflikter som eventuellt kan uppstå kan minskas genom att utfallskontraktet har en anpassad styrningsstruktur och tydligt preciserade mål för utfallet. Ersättningsmodellen för utfallskontraktet är baserat på ekonomiska incitament, som står i proportion till insatsens måluppfyllelse. Kontraktets villkor beskriver och reglerar hur insatsens utförare skall rekryteras och indirekt hur dessa aktörer skall styras av reglering, information och ekonomiska incitament. För att utfallskontraktet skall vara effektivt krävs tydliga mål med mätbara kriterier för insatsen. Med kontraktet i Norrköping som utgångspunkt kan man generellt säga att fördelarna med ett utfallskontrakt ökar i takt med insatsens specialiseringsgrad. Men för enklare åtgärder eller insatser så är utfallskontraktet en kostsam lösning.
Stevenson, Phillip Douglas
01 August 2018
More than ever before, engineers are creating products for developing countries. One of the purposes of these products is to improve the consumer's quality of life. Currently, there is no established method of measuring the social impact of these types of products. As a result, engineers have used their own metrics to assess their product's impact, if at all. Some of the common metrics used include products sold and revenue, which measure the financial success of a product without recognizing the social successes or failures it might have. In this thesis I introduce a potential metric, the Product Impact Metric (PIM), which quantifies the impact a product has on impoverished individuals -- especially those living in developing countries. It measures social impact broadly in five dimensions: health, education, standard of living, employment quality, and security. By measuring impact multidimensionally it captures both direct (having to do with the products main functions) and indirect impacts (not related to the products main functions), thereby revealing more about the products total impact than with other metrics. These indirect impacts can have a larger influence on the consumer than the direct impacts and are often left unmeasured. It is calculated based on 18 simple field measurements of the consumer. The Product Impact Metric can be used to predict social impact (using personas that represent real individuals) or measure social impact (using specific data from products introduced into the market). Despite its challenges, the measurement of a program or policies social impact is a common practice in the field of social sciences. This measurement is made through social impact indicators which are used to measure, predict, and improve potential social impacts. While there are clear benefits to predicting the social impact of a product, it is unclear how engineers are to select social impact indicators and build predictive models. This thesis introduces a method of selecting social impact indicators and creating predictive social impact models that can help engineers predict and improve the social impact of their product. First, an engineer identifies the product's users, objectives, and requirements. Then, the social impact categories that are related to the product are determined. From each of these categories, the engineer selects several social impact indicators. Finally, models are created for each indicator to predict how a product will change these indicators. The impact categories and indicators can be translated into product requirements and performance measures that can be used in product development processes. This method of predicting social impact is used on the proposed, expanded U.S. Mexico border wall.
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