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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Energy inputs and resulting soil physical conditions of primary tillage implements

Ghazavi Kh, Mohammad Ali January 1997 (has links)
No description available.
2

Porovnání technologií zpracování půdy při pěstování plodin v podniku zemědělské prvovýroby / Comparison of tillage technology in growing crops in the business of agricultural production

KULÍK, Jan January 2015 (has links)
When soil tillage is possible to use several technologies . In business, ZD Trhový Stepanov a.s.. the use of technology plough (plow) and minimazation (deep loosening) . For each of these types was performed characteristics of individual elements lines and were also calculated their efficiency. In another part of both technologies have been economically evaluated and then compared the cultivation of winter rapeseed and winter wheat in 2013 and 2014.
3

The effect of long-term tillage practices on selected soil properties in the Swartland wheat production area of the Western Cape

Botha, Pieter Barend 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The effect of long-term tillage on basic soil properties with respect to sustainability was investigated in this dissertation. Over the last three decades soil conservation has become an important prerequisite for sustainable agriculture. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different tillage practices on the physical and some of the chemical properties of soil after 37 years of continuous application. This study was conducted on the Langgewens experimental farm, 18 km north of Malmesbury in the Western Cape. The experiment was initiated in 1975 on a Glenrosa (Haploxeralf) soil form with a gravelly sandy-loam texture. It was treated with four main tillage methods, namely conventional, tine, minimum and no-tillage. Important basic soil properties studied were the electrical conductivity (EC) and total carbon percentage, water stable aggregate percentage, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity. Most of the properties were analysed for the 0-100 mm and 100-200 mm depths. Seasonal bulk density variation for the 0-100 mm soil depth was determined by a Troxler surface gamma-neutron meter for in situ measurement. ANOVA’s and Tukey’s LSD posthoc tests were computed to assess whether significant statistical differences existed between tillage treatments. No-tillage proved to be beneficial in terms of salinity and had the lowest electrical conductivity, indicating that salts leeched out of the profile. Total carbon content was in general very low and in the 0-100 mm soil depth it decreased in the order of: no (0.92%), minimum (0.86%), tine (0.83%) and conventional tillage (0.51%). Aggregate stability was significantly the lowest under conventional (47.82%) and tine tillage (45.02%) compared to minimum (61.43%) and no-tillage (78.40%) at 0-100 mm depth. This can be explained by the relatively low amount of total carbon in the soil combined with the tillage intensity. The same trend was observed for the 100-200 mm depth. Significant correlation between total carbon content and aggregate stability for the 0-100 mm confirmed that an increase in total carbon in the soil would lead to an increase in aggregate stability. Significant, increased aggregate stability under the no-tillage treatment would therefore indicate that there may be some stable structure present in the soil. Seasonal bulk density variation was the lowest in no-tillage, which supports the manifestations of stable soil structure. More intensive tillage treatments such as conventional and tine tillage initially showed lower bulk densities, but only for the first month. Thereafter it increased to significantly higher values as the season progressed. This was mainly as a result of hardsetting of the soil which is driven by natural processes and rainfall. It is also due to the sandy loam texture that is particularly prone to compaction. Hydraulic conductivity studied for conventional and no-tillage showed significant differences. No-tillage (41 mm.h-1) showed a noticeably higher conductivity, which remained constant compared to conventional tillage (20 mm.h-1) that decreased over time. The main reasons for this increased hydraulic conductivity under no-tillage was higher water stable aggregates and lower bulk density. In the long term no-tillage thus stimulated structure formation of a Glenrosa soil form that significantly improved soil properties studied. These properties may influence processes such as water infiltration, water storage, run-off and drainage positively, due to soil property interaction. No-tillage, in terms of sustainability, quantified by the soil properties studied, thus proved to be superior compared to conventional and tine tillage but to a lesser extent if compared to minimum tillage. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie tesis word die effek van langtermynbewerking op basiese grondeienskappe met betrekking tot volhoubaarheid ondersoek. Oor die afgelope drie dekades het grondbewaring ‘n belangrike aspek in landbou geword, ten einde volhoubaarheid te verseker. Die primêre doel van hierdie studie was om die effek van verskillende bewerkingspraktyke op die fisiese en chemiese eienskappe van grond na 37 jaar van deurlopende bewerking te ondersoek. Die studie is uitgevoer op die Langgewens eksperimentele plaas, 18 km noord van Malmesbury in die Wes-Kaap. Die eksperiment is in 1975 geïnisieer op 'n Glenrosa (Haploxeralf) grondvorm met ʼn klipperige sandleem-tekstuur. Dit bestaan uit vier hoof-bewerkingsbehandelings, naamlik konvensionele, tand-, minimum en geenbewerking. Belangrike basiese grondeienskappe wat bestudeer is, is die elektriese geleidingsvermoë (EG) en die totale persentasie koolstof, persentasie waterstabiele aggregate, bulkdigtheid en hidrouliese geleiding. Die meeste van die eienskappe is ontleed op die 0-100 mm en 100-200 mm diepte. Seisoenale bulkdigtheidsvariasie vir die 0-100 mm gronddiepte is bepaal deur 'n Troxler oppervlak gamma-neutron meter deur middel van in situ meting. ANOVA en Tukey se LSD posthoc-toetse is bereken om te bepaal of daar statisties-beduidende verskille tussen die bewerkingsmetodes is. Geenbewerking het geblyk voordelig te wees in terme van die soutgehalte en het die laagste elektriese geleidingsvermoë gehad, wat daarop dui dat die soute uit die profiel loog. Die totale koolstofinhoud was oor die algemeen baie laag en in die 0-100 mm gronddiepte het dit afgeneem in die volgorde geen- (0.92%), minimum- (0.86%), tand- (0.83%) en konvensionele bewerking (0.51%). Aggregaatstabiliteit was betekenisvol die laagste onder konvensionele (47.82%) en tandbewerking (45.02%) in vergelyking met die minimum (61.43%) en geenbewerking (78.40%) by die 0-100 mm diepte en kan verduidelik word deur die relatief lae totale koolstofinhoud in die grond gekombineer met die bewerkings-intensiteit. Dieselfde tendens is waargeneem vir die 100-200 mm diepte. ‘n Beduidende korrelasie tussen totale koolstofinhoud en aggregaatstabiliteit is vir die 0-100 mm diepte gevind en dit bevestig dat 'n toename in totale koolstof in die grond sal lei tot 'n toename in aggregaatstabiliteit. Betekenisvolle verhoogde aggregaatstabiliteit onder die geenbewerking-behandeling sal dus aandui dat die grond 'n meer stabiele struktuur vertoon. Seisoenale bulkdigtsheidsvariasie was die laagste in geenbewerking en ondersteun die manifestasies van 'n stabiele grondstruktuur. Meer intensiewe bewerkingsbehandelings, konvensionele en tandbewerking het vir die eerste maand ‘n laer bulkdigtheid getoon, waarna dit tot aansienlik hoër waardes gestyg het soos die seisoen verloop het. Dit was hoofsaaklik as gevolg van grondkonsolidering wat gedryf word deur natuurlike prosesse soos reënval en ook as gevolg van die sandleemtekstuur wat veral geneig is tot verdigting. Hidrouliese geleiding is bestudeer vir konvensionele en geenbewerking en het beduidende verskille getoon. Geenbewerking (41 mm.h-1) het 'n merkbare hoër geleidingsvermoë gehad wat konstant gebly het, in vergelyking met konvensionele bewerking (20 mm.h-1) wat met die verloop van tyd afgeneem het. Die vernaamste redes vir hierdie verhoogde hidrouliese geleiding onder geenbewerking is hoër waterstabiele aggregate en ‘n laer bulkdigtheid. Op die langtermyn het geenbewerking dus struktuurvorming van 'n Glenrosa-grondvorm gestimuleer, wat die grondeienskappe wat bestudeer is, aansienlik verbeter het. Hierdie eienskappe kan prosesse soos waterinfiltrasie, waterretensie, -afloop en -dreinering positief beïnvloed as gevolg van grondeienskapinteraksie. Geenbewerking, in terme van volhoubaarheid, gekwantifiseer deur die grondeienskappe wat bestudeer is, is dus bewys as superieur in vergelyking met konvensionele en tandbewerking, maar tot 'n mindere mate in vergelyking met minimumbewerking. / Water Research Commission
4

Inoculação via foliar de bactérias diazotróficas em milho cultivado sob diferentes manejos de solo /

Santos, Tatiana da Silva January 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Ricardo Antonio Ferreira Rodrigues / Resumo: O manejo eficiente do solo pode provocar mudanças benéficas na qualidade física, química e microbiológica do solo refletindo em alta produtividade de grãos de milho. O nitrogênio (N) é o nutriente mais exigido pela planta de milho. A aquisição de fertilizantes nitrogenados pode ser responsável por 50% dos custos variáveis da lavoura. Dessa forma, a utilização de bactérias diazotróficas é considerado uma fonte alternativa economicamente viável e sustentável para aquisição desse nutriente por meio da fixação biológica de N por esses microrganismos. Em vista do exposto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento, componente produtivo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob diferentes manejos de solo e inoculado via foliar por Azospirillum brasilense e/ou Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 2016/17 em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico localizado na Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão (FEPE) – Setor de Produção Vegetal pertencente à Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, município de Selvíria - MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, esquema de faixas. Foram estabelecidos 12 tratamentos com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 3 tipos de sistemas de manejo do solo: Sistema convencional (SC), cultivo mínimo (CM) e sistema plantio direto (SPD). Os tratamentos de inoculação via foliar de bactérias diazotróficas consistiram em: Azospirillum brasilense (AB), Bacillus amylol... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Efficient soil management can lead to beneficial changes in the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of the soil, reflecting high yields of corn grains. Nitrogen (N) is the nutrient most required by the corn plant. The acquisition of nitrogen fertilizers can account for 50% of the variable costs of the crop. Thus, the use of diazotrophic bacteria is considered an economically viable and sustainable alternative source for the acquisition of this nutrient through the biological fixation of N by these microorganisms. In view of the above, the objective of this research was to verify the development, productive component and productivity of corn grains under different soil management and foliar inoculation by Azospirillum brasilense and / or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The experiment was conducted during the agricultural year of 2016/17 in a Distroferric Red Oxisol located at the Teaching, Research and Extension Farm (FEPE) - Vegetable Production Sector belonging to the Faculty of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, Selvíria - MS. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Twelve treatments with four replicates were established. The treatments were constituted by 3 types of soil management systems: Tillage (SC), minimum tillage (CM) and notillage (SPD). The treatments of foliar inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria consisted of: Azospirillum brasilense (AB), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA), Azospirillum brasilense + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (AB + BA) and... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Mestre
5

Soil biochemical responses to intermittant tillage on Saskatchewan low disturbance cropping systems and Ethiopian vegetative terraces used in hillslope agriculture

Jaster, Morgan William 25 January 2011
The pursuit of agricultural sustainability is necessary to ensure global food security into the future. To achieve sustainability, production systems around the world use different approaches. Utilizing several biological and physical indicators, this study investigates two agricultural production systems and assesses how management has affected the long-term health and sustainability of the soils. The first study assessed the effect of variable intensities of tillage on three Saskatchewan soils under low-disturbance (LD) management for the ten years prior to tillage. The soils represented were in the Grey, Black and Brown soils zones at sites located near Tisdale, Rosthern and Central Butte, Saskatchewan, respectively. A completely randomized block design utilized four treatments of varying tillage intensity. Samples were taken in spring before planting and after harvest at all sites. The soils were analyzed for microbial indicators of health by assessing dehydrogenase, urease, protease, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial quotient nitrogen (MQN) also were analyzed. Traditional soil nutrient and physical parameters were measured. The tillage intensities affected each parameter differently likely due to the differences in litter quality at each site. The high intensity tillage treatment decreased dehydrogenase activity at Tisdale at May, while in Rosthern dehydrogenase activity was increased in the moderate intensity tillage treatment and decreased by the high intensity tillage treatment. At Central Butte no effect was detected until October when dehydrogenase activity was increased by the low and moderate tillage intensity treatments. Protease and urease activities were affected at Rosthern only where the moderate intensity tillage treatment decreased activity relative to the control treatment. Soil physical parameters were not affected by tillage intensity; however nutrient levels were impacted by the increasing tillage intensity. Specifically, NO3- was reduced at Tisdale and was increased at Rosthern. Phosphate levels were reduced by the high tillage intensity in Rosthern whereas, with increasing tillage, the opposite occurred at Tisdale and Central Butte. The responses were strongly influenced by site characteristics, especially soil zone, organic matter content and surface litter abundance and quality. These effects were short-term, having no long-term impact on the agricultural sustainability or health of the soil, although knowledge of litter condition and quality is agronomically beneficial in order to predict soil responses to intense tillage events. iii The second part of the study was to assess the success of grass terraces on preserving the soil health of hillslope farm plots with Oxisolic soils in southern Ethiopia. Soil erosion has a devastating impact on hillslope agriculture in Ethiopia causing severe land degradation. An adjacent terraced and unterraced hillslope was chosen and sampled, along with a second unterraced slope for comparison. These soils were analyzed for dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease activities, as well as total C and total N. The plots above the terraces [terraced upper and unterraced upper] had higher urease activities than the plots below [terraced lower and unterrraced lower]. The impact of a vegetative strip that had formed a terrace 20 years ago was still evident in consistently higher alkaline phosphatase, urease, and dehydrogenase activities than the other plots. Simple methods of erosion prevention on erosion prone hill-slopes indicated that vegetative strips leading to terracing have a positive effect on soil health and functionality, promoting the long-term agricultural productivity and sustainability of these landscapes.
6

Soil biochemical responses to intermittant tillage on Saskatchewan low disturbance cropping systems and Ethiopian vegetative terraces used in hillslope agriculture

Jaster, Morgan William 25 January 2011 (has links)
The pursuit of agricultural sustainability is necessary to ensure global food security into the future. To achieve sustainability, production systems around the world use different approaches. Utilizing several biological and physical indicators, this study investigates two agricultural production systems and assesses how management has affected the long-term health and sustainability of the soils. The first study assessed the effect of variable intensities of tillage on three Saskatchewan soils under low-disturbance (LD) management for the ten years prior to tillage. The soils represented were in the Grey, Black and Brown soils zones at sites located near Tisdale, Rosthern and Central Butte, Saskatchewan, respectively. A completely randomized block design utilized four treatments of varying tillage intensity. Samples were taken in spring before planting and after harvest at all sites. The soils were analyzed for microbial indicators of health by assessing dehydrogenase, urease, protease, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial quotient nitrogen (MQN) also were analyzed. Traditional soil nutrient and physical parameters were measured. The tillage intensities affected each parameter differently likely due to the differences in litter quality at each site. The high intensity tillage treatment decreased dehydrogenase activity at Tisdale at May, while in Rosthern dehydrogenase activity was increased in the moderate intensity tillage treatment and decreased by the high intensity tillage treatment. At Central Butte no effect was detected until October when dehydrogenase activity was increased by the low and moderate tillage intensity treatments. Protease and urease activities were affected at Rosthern only where the moderate intensity tillage treatment decreased activity relative to the control treatment. Soil physical parameters were not affected by tillage intensity; however nutrient levels were impacted by the increasing tillage intensity. Specifically, NO3- was reduced at Tisdale and was increased at Rosthern. Phosphate levels were reduced by the high tillage intensity in Rosthern whereas, with increasing tillage, the opposite occurred at Tisdale and Central Butte. The responses were strongly influenced by site characteristics, especially soil zone, organic matter content and surface litter abundance and quality. These effects were short-term, having no long-term impact on the agricultural sustainability or health of the soil, although knowledge of litter condition and quality is agronomically beneficial in order to predict soil responses to intense tillage events. iii The second part of the study was to assess the success of grass terraces on preserving the soil health of hillslope farm plots with Oxisolic soils in southern Ethiopia. Soil erosion has a devastating impact on hillslope agriculture in Ethiopia causing severe land degradation. An adjacent terraced and unterraced hillslope was chosen and sampled, along with a second unterraced slope for comparison. These soils were analyzed for dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease activities, as well as total C and total N. The plots above the terraces [terraced upper and unterraced upper] had higher urease activities than the plots below [terraced lower and unterrraced lower]. The impact of a vegetative strip that had formed a terrace 20 years ago was still evident in consistently higher alkaline phosphatase, urease, and dehydrogenase activities than the other plots. Simple methods of erosion prevention on erosion prone hill-slopes indicated that vegetative strips leading to terracing have a positive effect on soil health and functionality, promoting the long-term agricultural productivity and sustainability of these landscapes.
7

Indicadores de qualidade de argissolo submetido à escarificação em área mecanizada de cana-de-açúcar /

Pinheiro, Daniel Pereira January 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Carolina Fernandes / Resumo: A escarificação somente na linha de plantio é um tipo de preparo mínimo do solo que vem sendo utilizado na reforma de canaviais, e o seu impacto sobre a qualidade física do solo necessita ser avaliado. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade física de Argissolo, submetido à escarificação para o plantio de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: escarificação do solo somente na linha de plantio (ELP) e escarificação em área total (EAT). O experimento foi realizado no município de Monte Alto, SP, próximos as coordenadas 21º 15’ S e 48º 25’ W, altitude média 735 m. Foram avaliadas quatro épocas de amostragem: após o preparo do solo com escarificação, após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar, seis meses após o plantio e após a colheita mecanizada da cana-de-açúcar. Amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas de 0,00-0,10 m, 0,10-0,20 m, 0,20-0,40 m e 0,40-0,60 m de profundidade em dois locais de amostragem (linha e entrelinha de plantio). Determinaram-se os teores de areia, silte e argila, e os atributos físicos: densidade do solo (Ds), resistência mecânica à penetração (RP), macroporosidade (MaP), microporosidade (MiP). A partir do conjunto de dados obtidos, realizou-se uma análise fatorial multivariada com extração dos fatores pelo método da análise de componentes principais. Dois fatores foram extraídos e explicaram 76% da variação total. O primeiro fator, responsável por 44 % da variância total pôde ser interpretado como a resposta da formação de microporosidade do... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Soil chiseling conducted only in the planting row is a type of minimal-disturbance soil management practice to prepare fields for planting of sugarcane plantations, and its impact on soil physical quality needs to be evaluated through agricultural experimentation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Ultisol that was submitted to chiseling as part of sugarcane plantation management. The treatments consisted of soil chiseling only in the planting row (CPR), and chiseling in the total area of the soil of the plantation (CTA). The experiment was carried in Monte Alto, SP, near the coordinates 21º 15 'S and 48º 25' W, average altitude 735 m. Four sampling periods were evaluated. Four periods were evaluated: after soil chiseling, after sugarcane planting, six months after planting, and after mechanized sugarcane harvest. Soil samples were collected within and between planting rows in depths 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m. Soil texture was determined along with the following soil physical indicators: bulk density (BD), mechanical penetration resistance (PR), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MaP), microporosity (MiP). A multivariate factorial analysis was conducted with factor extraction done by the method of principal components analysis. Two extracted factors explained 76% of the total variation. The first factor responsible for 44% of the total variance could be interpreted as the response of soil microporosity formation infl... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
8

Indicadores de qualidade de argissolo submetido à escarificação em área mecanizada de cana-de-açúcar / Soil quality indicators in an ultisol subjected to chiseling in a sugarcane crop under mechanized management

Pinheiro, Daniel Pereira 11 July 2018 (has links)
Submitted by DANIEL PEREIRA PINHEIRO (daniel_pinh@hotmail.com) on 2018-10-05T16:59:04Z No. of bitstreams: 1 TESE DEFINITIVO_04-10-2018 PRONTA IMPRIMIR.pdf: 1108350 bytes, checksum: 6cd437d78b4e85fca11fc1396fd5f9c0 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Neli Silvia Pereira null (nelisps@fcav.unesp.br) on 2018-10-08T17:55:49Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 pinheiro_dp_dr_jabo.pdf: 1108350 bytes, checksum: 6cd437d78b4e85fca11fc1396fd5f9c0 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-10-08T17:55:49Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 pinheiro_dp_dr_jabo.pdf: 1108350 bytes, checksum: 6cd437d78b4e85fca11fc1396fd5f9c0 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-07-11 / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / A escarificação somente na linha de plantio é um tipo de preparo mínimo do solo que vem sendo utilizado na reforma de canaviais, e o seu impacto sobre a qualidade física do solo necessita ser avaliado. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade física de Argissolo, submetido à escarificação para o plantio de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: escarificação do solo somente na linha de plantio (ELP) e escarificação em área total (EAT). O experimento foi realizado no município de Monte Alto, SP, próximos as coordenadas 21º 15’ S e 48º 25’ W, altitude média 735 m. Foram avaliadas quatro épocas de amostragem: após o preparo do solo com escarificação, após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar, seis meses após o plantio e após a colheita mecanizada da cana-de-açúcar. Amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas de 0,00-0,10 m, 0,10-0,20 m, 0,20-0,40 m e 0,40-0,60 m de profundidade em dois locais de amostragem (linha e entrelinha de plantio). Determinaram-se os teores de areia, silte e argila, e os atributos físicos: densidade do solo (Ds), resistência mecânica à penetração (RP), macroporosidade (MaP), microporosidade (MiP). A partir do conjunto de dados obtidos, realizou-se uma análise fatorial multivariada com extração dos fatores pelo método da análise de componentes principais. Dois fatores foram extraídos e explicaram 76% da variação total. O primeiro fator, responsável por 44 % da variância total pôde ser interpretado como a resposta da formação de microporosidade do solo influenciada pela natureza textural, uma vez que, as variáveis relevantes neste fator foram MiP, areia e argila. Esse fator representou o indicador intrínseco do solo. O segundo fator, responsável por 32 % da variância remanescente pôde ser interpretado como a resposta do processo de alteração na relação massa-volume do solo, uma vez que, as variáveis relevantes nesse fator foram MaP, Ds e RP. Esse fator remanescente, representou o indicador do manejo do solo. Após a extração dos fatores, com base nos valores de escores fatoriais obtidos, determinou-se um índice de qualidade física do solo (IQFS) que, conjuntamente com os dois fatores extraídos, auxiliaram na avaliação da qualidade física do solo. Após o preparo da área, as linhas de plantio submetidas à escarificação apresentaram qualidade física melhor que as entrelinhas de cultivo, em função do maior volume de poros e menor RP e Ds. Porém, o efeito benéfico da escarificação do solo não foi persistente em função do fenômeno da reconsolidação do solo, desaparecendo logo após o plantio e estendendo-se após a colheita da cana-de-açúcar, cujas linhas e entrelinhas de cultivo apresentaram qualidade física do solo semelhante para as duas áreas avaliadas. / Soil chiseling conducted only in the planting row is a type of minimal-disturbance soil management practice to prepare fields for planting of sugarcane plantations, and its impact on soil physical quality needs to be evaluated through agricultural experimentation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Ultisol that was submitted to chiseling as part of sugarcane plantation management. The treatments consisted of soil chiseling only in the planting row (CPR), and chiseling in the total area of the soil of the plantation (CTA). The experiment was carried in Monte Alto, SP, near the coordinates 21º 15 'S and 48º 25' W, average altitude 735 m. Four sampling periods were evaluated. Four periods were evaluated: after soil chiseling, after sugarcane planting, six months after planting, and after mechanized sugarcane harvest. Soil samples were collected within and between planting rows in depths 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m. Soil texture was determined along with the following soil physical indicators: bulk density (BD), mechanical penetration resistance (PR), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MaP), microporosity (MiP). A multivariate factorial analysis was conducted with factor extraction done by the method of principal components analysis. Two extracted factors explained 76% of the total variation. The first factor responsible for 44% of the total variance could be interpreted as the response of soil microporosity formation influenced by the textural nature, since the relevant variables in this factor were MiP, sand and clay. This factor represented the soil intrinsic indicator. The second factor, responsible for 32% of the remaining variance, could be interpreted as the response of the alteration process in the soil mass-volume relationship, since the relevant variables in this factor were MaP, Ds and RP. This remaining factor represented the indicator of soil management.. After factor extraction and using the factorial scores, the index of soil physical quality was determined (SQI), which, together with two factor, aided in the evaluation of soil physical quality. After soil preparation, the planting rows that were submitted to chiseling had better soil physical quality than did the area between the rows that did not receive chiseling in site preparation due to greater pore volume and lower PR and BD. However, the beneficial effect of chiseling did not persist due to subsequent soil reconsolidation, and disappeared soon after the planting of sugarcane, and remained this way up to the post-harvest period wherein the areas within (CPR) and between (CTA) the planting rows had equal soil physical quality. / 2014/14490-2
9

Atributos físicos de solos submetidos à escarificação na linha de plantio e em área total para cultivo da cana-de-açúcar / Attributes physical soil submitted chiselling in planting line and total area for crop of cane sugar

Souza, Francisco Carlos Almeida de [UNESP] 02 September 2016 (has links)
Submitted by FRANCISCO CARLOS ALMEIDA DE SOUZA null (carlos.agrofertil@outlook.com) on 2016-09-13T20:42:47Z No. of bitstreams: 1 DISSERTACAO_SOUZA, FCA.pdf: 1449852 bytes, checksum: 9dc68e25d19db297a9c6472c3c73506f (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Juliano Benedito Ferreira (julianoferreira@reitoria.unesp.br) on 2016-09-16T21:08:04Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 souza_fca_me_jabo.pdf: 1449852 bytes, checksum: 9dc68e25d19db297a9c6472c3c73506f (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-09-16T21:08:04Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 souza_fca_me_jabo.pdf: 1449852 bytes, checksum: 9dc68e25d19db297a9c6472c3c73506f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-09-02 / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / O preparo do solo é uma operação de alto custo na reforma do canavial, portanto medidas para a redução desse custo são desejáveis, desde que propiciem boas condições físicas para o desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os atributos físicos de Latossolo Vermelho e de Argissolo Amarelo após o preparo do solo e após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas grandes e uniformes com dois tratamentos e dez repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram no preparo do solo para plantio da cana-de-açúcar: escarificação na linha de plantio e escarificação em área total. Após o preparo do solo e após o plantio, foram coletadas amostras indeformadas de solo em cada parcela experimental, em quatro camadas: 0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m em dois locais de amostragem, na linha e na entrelinha de plantio. Foi avaliada a resistência à penetração, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a macroporosidade e a microporosidade. Os resultados indicaram que o Latossolo Vermelho foi mais susceptível que o Argissolo Amarelo às alterações nos atributos físicos do solo após as operações de plantio da cana-deaçúcar até a camada de 0,40 m. Para o Latossolo Vermelho, após as operações de plantio da cana-de-açúcar foi verificado redução nos valores dos atributos físicos do solo na camada superficial. Para o Argissolo Amarelo, as operações de plantio da cana-de-açúcar não influenciaram nos valores dos atributos físicos. A escarificação do solo, realizada apenas na linha de plantio, é mais indicada que a escarificação em área total para plantio da cana-de-açúcar em ambos os solos. / The soil tillage demands a high cost operation to repair the canebrake. So, it is necessary some activities to reduce these costs to get good physical conditions for plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of Oxisol and Ultisol, after the soil have been prepared and after sugar cane plantation. The experimental approach was in big and uniforms parcels with two treatments and ten repetitions. The treatment was made in the prepare of soil and in the cane plantation: chiselling in the planting line and in total area. After the soil has been prepared, also after planting sugar cane, some undeformed samples of soil was collected in each experimental parcel, in four layers: 0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 and 0,40-0,60 m in two different place, in the line and between line of planting area. It was also evaluated the resistance and penetration, soil density, total porosity, macro and micro porosity. The results indicates that Oxisol was more susceptible than Ultisol to alterations in the soil physical attributes after operations in cane plantation until the layer 0,40 m. For the Oxisol, after the plantation of sugar cane, was verified some reduction of values in soil physical attributes in the superficial layer. For Ultisol, the operations in the planted area of sugar cane did not influence in these attributes values. The chiselling of soil was done just in the planting line of sugar cane, it indicates that the chiselling is more recommended in total area for both soils and in plantation of sugar cane. / FAPESP: 2014/14490-2
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SUPAPRASTINTO ŽEMĖS DIRBIMO ĮTAKA DIRVOŽEMIUI IR SĖJOMAINOS PRODUKTYVUMUI / THE INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY

Masilionytė, Laura 05 June 2006 (has links)
During the period 1996–2005, experiments were carried out at the Joniškėlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol. The experiment was set up in 1956 in the ten - field crop rotation: 1) mixture of vetch and oat, 2) winter wheat, 3) spring barley, 4) fodder beet, 5)spring barley with under sowing, 6) 1-st year perennial grasses (red clover and timothy), 7) 2-nd year perennial grasses, 8) winter wheat, 9) fodder beet, 10) spring barley. Scheme of the soil tillage: 1) Conventional soil tillage with ploughing 22-25 cm, 2) permanent shallow ploughing 12-15 cm, 3) soil tillage with an inconstant ploughing depth: 25 cm in fallow, 20 cm after perennial grasses, 15 cm after spring barley, 10 cm after fodder beet, 20-25 cm after winter wheat, 4) soil ploughing depth according to necessity, 5) deep loosening with chisel cultivator PČ-2,5 25 cm. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of conventional and permanent shallow soil tillage, its alternation, and no-shell board deep loosening on humous, soil physical properties, the productivity of crop rotation and energy efficiency. During the fifth crop rotation, conventional soil tillage alternated with permanent shallow soil tillage or with deep loosening with an inconstant ploughing depth according to necessity had no significantly influence on soil humous. The most increase (0,19 percentage units) of soil humous was determined in soil tillage with an... [to full text]

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