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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

A GIS Study of Australia's Marine Benthic Habitats

Beaman, R Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Continental shelf waters are subject to the greatest impact by humans. If marine ecosystems are to be efficiently managed and protected from the adverse effects of human activities, then identification of the types of marine habitats and the communities they contain is required. Research cruise data and existing data were collected at three diverse study sites on polar, temperate and tropical continental shelves within Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). This project conducted a multi-disciplinary analysis of satellite imagery, multibeam sonar, seismic profiles, oceanographic data, underwater video, and the results of sediment sampling. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilised to model the spatial boundaries of the physical and biological datasets. Spatial and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted on the GIS models and datasets to explore the relationships between abiotic and biotic patterns. GIS was used to map the spatial distribution of benthic habitats at each study site within a hierarchical context. The East Antarctic continental shelf has had few studies examining the macrobenthos structure or relating biological communities to the abiotic environment. On the George V Shelf, GIS was used to map the geomorphology, surficial sediment and near-seabed water mass boundaries. A study of underwater photographs and the results of biological sampling provided information to infer the dominant trophic structure of benthic communities within geomorphic features. A hierarchical method of benthic habitat mapping was applied to the Geomorphic Unit and Biotope levels at the local (10s of km) scale. The study revealed that mud content, iceberg scour, and oceanic currents are the likely dominant abiotic factors in the broad-scale distribution of macrofauna on the George V Shelf. To better understand the relationships between the geology of the seabed and associated biological communities, a multibeam sonar survey was conducted over New Zealand Star Bank, eastern Bass Strait, Australia. Through spatial and multivariate analyses of surficial sediment composition and underwater video, the biological assemblage patterns were related to the variation in geomorphology and substrate. A hierarchical method of benthic habitat mapping was applied to the Secondary Biotope and Biological Facies levels at the site (<10 km) scale. The major differences which control the distribution of biological communities in the New Zealand Star Bank area appear to be related to variations in substrate. To help answer the question whether geophysical data from habitats can be used to predict the occurrence of benthic biodiversity, a multibeam sonar survey was conducted in the northern Great Barrier Reef - Gulf of Papua region. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to the biological and physical datasets to determine patterns in the distribution of megabenthos, and the relationship with abiotic variables. A hierarchical method of benthic habitat mapping was applied to the Secondary Biotope and Biological Facies levels at the site (<10 km) scale. The combination of substrate type, sedimentary dynamics and physical processes related to nearseabed currents appear to be a dominant control on the benthic communities in the northern Great Barrier Reef - Gulf of Papua region. Benthic habitat mapping plays a vital part in understanding marine ecosystems and the processes which influence the spatial distribution of benthos. The results of this research have made significant in-roads in the development of a framework for ecosystem-based management of the study areas, the contribution to the ongoing bioregionalisation of Australia, and through an examination of the use of geophysical proxies for the occurrence of biological assemblages, which are fundamental to the establishment of Marine Protected Areas.

Marine geoarchaeological investigation of Damariscotta River, Maine, USA /

Leach, Peter A. January 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.S.) in Quaternary and Climate Studies--University of Maine, 2007. / Includes vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 115-123).

Minimum paths to interception of a moving target when constrained by turning radius

Looker, Jason R. January 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Mode of access: Internet via World Wide Web. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/1947/9741. / "December 2008" "AR No. AR 014-359" "DSTO-TR-2227" Includes bibliographical references.

Criteria for river crossing locations: a case study approach

Harkness, Gary Cameron January 1964 (has links)
A comprehensive examination of the process of determining locations for river crossings constitutes the basic subject of this thesis. This process is highly complex and involves a variety of interrelated governmental and technical problems. The various financial and administrative responsibilities of the three levels of Canadian government provide a complicated operational framework within which river crossings and other transportation facilities are located and constructed. Similarly, inter-related locational criteria, such as land use and transportation needs and engineering requirements, pose formidable problems for the design and location of transportation facilities. In order that these inter-related problems are coped with effectively, it is proposed: That in Canada, the Provincial Government should use a comprehensive planning approach, within a framework of intergovernmental participation, to determine the location of river crossings within the Provincial highway system. The investigation is limited in scope to an analysis of river crossings that are the constitutional responsibility of the Provincial Governments in Canada. Reference is made to the financing and administration of transportation facilities in British Columbia for purposes of illustration. The administration and financing of highways is discussed in some detail since highways form the physical and functional framework for the planning of river crossings. The term "river crossing" is defined as a bridge or tunnel structure crossing any water barrier. An examination is made of the three levels of governmental responsibilities respecting transportation planning and of the need for inter-governmental participation during the process of determining river crossing locations. The examination includes a discussion of the relationship between the role of "executive authority" and the various financial and administrative responsibilities of the Federal, Provincial and Municipal Governments. It is concluded that because of its constitutional responsibilities respecting land use planning and highways, and its dominant financial role in the provision of highway facilities, the Provincial Government should act as the executive authority in the process of determining locations for Provincial river crossings. Regardless, however, of the financial arrangements between levels of government, there should be inter-governmental administrative participation during the process of locating river crossings. In particular, Municipalities having been delegated the responsibility for community planning should be given the opportunity to integrate proposed highway and river crossing facilities with local land use and transportation plans. It is suggested that a comprehensive planning approach provides for the consideration of all major governmental and technical factors pertinent to the location selection process. It is assumed that the transportation planning process for determining the design and location of overall transportation systems is basic to the comprehensive planning approach. An examination of the locational criteria related to river crossings confirms the need to consider all significant factors when determining locations for river crossings. A framework for location selection is developed in order to implement the comprehensive planning approach and to apply effectively the locational criteria to location selection problems. A case study investigation tests the validity of the hypothesis and the effectiveness of the framework for location selection. The case study concerns the process of determining a location for a Fraser River crossing in the Metropolitan Vancouver, B.C. area nine years ago. The decision to locate a tunnel crossing at Deas Island is evaluated in retrospect through the application of the location selection framework to the overall Fraser River crossing problem. From the case study analysis, it is concluded that the hypothesis proposed in this thesis is basically valid. The Provincial Government, because of its constitutional and financial responsibilities, should act as the executive authority in determining river crossing locations within the Provincial highway system. Inter-governmental participation, especially administrative, is essential to the integration of Federal, Provincial and Municipal transportation and land use functions. The use of the comprehensive planning approach and its related framework for location selection facilitates the consideration of all significant factors pertinent to the determination of river crossing locations. However, the comprehensive planning approach should be so defined as to include broad transportation and land use policies which would serve as basic guidelines in the process of determining river crossing locations. / Applied Science, Faculty of / Community and Regional Planning (SCARP), School of / Graduate

Relative orientation with limited control in close range Photogrammetry

Rüther, Heinz January 1982 (has links)
In close-range photogrammetry, situations can arise in which it is difficult or impossible to establish a network of control points as required for a conventional absolute orientation procedure. The thesis investigates the replacement of the traditional control network by a few control distances measured between well-defined artificial markers or natural feature points. The measured distances must then serve to reduce deformations suffered by the photogrammetric model in the orientation procedures. All investigations are based on analytical rather than analogue photogrammetry. After a review of the concepts of rotation matrices, least squares adjustment and the generation of synthetic image co-ordinate observations, the study is executed in three major steps. A test field of high precision is established by means of space intersection and a camera calibration method for close-range cameras is developed which combines perspective projection with geodetic observations of the lens system parameters. Thus a problem inherent in many camera calibration methods, namely the exact determination of the perspective centre, is largely overcome. Deformation characteristics related to error in elements of interior and relative orientation are determined by the controlled introduction of errors into these elements. The deformations are presented in tabular and diagrammatical form. An analysis of the deformation leads to the conclusions of theoretical and practical relevance for close-range photogrammetry. As a result of the deformation analysis mathematical models are introduced which utilise the measured distances for the reduction of model deformations. The efficiency of homogeneous scaling, affine scaling and convergency correction, as applied individually and in various combinations, is tested. A mathematical formulation of the converging correction as a restraining condition in a least squares adjustment is developed for this purpose. It is shown that a convergency error is less relevant to close-range photogrammetry than generally assumed and that characteristic model deformations in close-range photogrammetry have the character of affine scale errors. Throughout the thesis algorithms are developed which make it possible to execute all computations on computers with limited memory capacity. A program sample for the relative orientation adjustment is given in Appendix IV to demonstrate the memory saving techniques. Finally the results of the investigation are applied to the survey of shoulder height of African elephants in their natural habitat. Equipment and field work are described and results reported.

Description of the surveys of portions of the south and east boundaries of the Yellowstone National Park

Bartlett, Albert B. January 1910 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Professional Degree)--University of Missouri, School of Mines and Metallurgy, 1910. / The entire thesis text is included in file. Typescript. Title from title screen of thesis/dissertation PDF file (viewed February 19, 2009)

Aerodist controlled photography for topographic mapping /

Stewart, Rae Alden January 1973 (has links)
No description available.

Development of self instructional material for part time quantity surveying students in the Hong Kong Polytechnic

Ridal, John. January 1979 (has links)
Thesis (M.Ed.)--University of Hong Kong, 1980. / Also available in print.

Techniques of three-dimensional optical surveying

Brod, Langford Garrett, 1927- January 1976 (has links)
No description available.

The groma and the gladius : Roman surveyors in the later Republic : a thesis submitted to the Victoria University of Wellington in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Classics /

Morris, Jason C. January 2010 (has links)
Thesis (M.A.)--Victoria University of Wellington, 2010. / Includes bibliographical references.

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