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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Evaluation of natural draught wet-cooling tower performance uncertainties

Van Der Merwe, Daniel 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2007. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A natural draught wet-cooling tower (NDWCT) was modelled using the Merkel method with an improved energy equation as recommended by Kloppers and Kroger (2005a) - referred to as the Improved Merkel method. The improved energy equation is used for calculating the heat rejection rate of the tower and includes the energy associated with water evaporation. The sensitivity indexes of a NDWCT were calculated numerically with the Improved Merkel method model. It was found that the perfonnance of a NDWCT is most sensitive to the fill Merkel number. The "Natklos" fill test facility at Stellenbosch University was used to estimate typical uncertainties found in fill performance characteristics. The zeroth order uncertainty for the Merkel number and loss coefficient was calculated to be 0.2100 m-1 and 0.4248 m- 1 , respectively, while the first order uncertainty for the Merkel number and loss coefficient was calculated to be 0.1933 m- 1 and 0.2008 m-1 , respectively. ASME requires that the uncertainty in tower capability has to be less than 6 % for a NDWCT perfonnance test to be deemed ASME approved. Propagating typical measurement uncertainties found in NDWCT test standards and experimental data into the tower capability showed that the 6 % uncertainty limit imposed by ASME is unrealistic and too stringent. Performance curve generator (PCG) is a software package developed that generates NDWCT perfonnance curves. With these performance curves it is possible to easily and effectively adjust the off-design test results in order to detennine whether the NDWCT has met its guarantee or not. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die werksverrigting van 'n natuurlike trek nat koeltoring (NTNT) is gemodelleer deur gebruik te maak van die Merkel metode met 'n verbeterde energie vergelyking, soos aanbeveel deur Kloppers en Kroger (2005a) - Verbeterde Merkel metode. Die energie vergelyking word gebruik om die toring se tempo van warmteoordrag te bereken en sluit die energieverlies as gevolg van verdamping in. Die Verbeterde Merkel metode model was gebruik om die sensitiwiteits-indekse van 'n NTNT te bepaal. Die analise toon dat die toring se werksverrigting die sensitiefste is vir die pakking se Merkel getal. Die Natklos pakkingstoetsfasiliteit aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch was gebruik om tipiese onsekerheid in die pakkingsprestasiekarakteristieke te bepaal. Die zero-orde onsekerheid in die Merkel getal en verlieskoeffisient was bereken as 0.2100 m· 1 en 0.4248 m· 1 , onderskeidelik, terwyl die eerste-orde onsekerhede bereken was as 0.1933 m·1 en 0.2008 m· 1 , onderskeidelik. Die toelaatbare onsekerheid in toringvennoe vir 'n NTNT aanvaardingstoes volgens ASME is 6 %. Deur tipes meetonsekerhede, soos gegee deur NTNT aanvaardings-toesstandaarde sowel as eksperimentele data, deur te propageer, word 'n onsekerheid veel groter as die toelaatbare 6 % gegenereer. 'n Renekaarpakket, genaamd Performance Curve Generator (PCG), is ontwikkel om werksverrigtinskurwes vir 'n NTNT te genereer. PCG se werksverrigtinskurwes maak dit moonltik om maklik te bepaal of a NTNT sy ontwerpskriterea bereik het of nie.
32

Losses in the inlet section of counterflow wet-cooling towers

De Villiers, Eugene 12 1900 (has links)
One copy microfiche. / Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 1998. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The flow resistances in the inlet sections of counterflow wet-cooling towers are investigated and correlations are derived for inclusion in a one-dimensional tower performance model. The rain zone loss is modelled using analytical-numerical methods. Experimental verification of the model produces satisfactory confirmation of the method's general validity. Semi-empirical correlations are produced to predict the loss coefficient as a function of six dimensionless variables for both rectangular and circular cooling towers. In addition, a study is made of the heat and mass transfer in the rain zone and its influence on tower performance. The inlet loss coefficients for dry, isotropically packed, circular and rectangular counterflow cooling towers are determined experimentally and empirical correlations are formulated to fit this data. The inlet losses for isotropic-resistance-fill towers are found to be higher than those for orthotropic-resistance-fill towers. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the dependence of the inlet loss coefficient on the rain zone characteristics. The rain zone loss generally dampens the inlet loss, but this coupling is indirect and necessitates a large amount of dependent variables. The numerical model is validated by means of experimental data for dry towers and it is found that the degree of accuracy achieved for circular towers exceeds that for rectangular towers. Consequently, the correlation derived to predict this occurrence for circular towers, can be applied more confidently than its rectangular counterpart. An example is presented wherein the improved accuracy iQ tower performance prediction, when applying this correlation, is shown. Additional measures for tower performance enhancement are also explored. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Studie is gemaak van vloeiweerstande in die inlaat seksie van nat teenvloei koeltorings met die oog op die afleiding van korrelasies om die verskynsels, vir gebruik in puntmodel koeltoring simulasies, te voorspel. Die reensone verlies is gemodelleer met behulp van 'n analities-numeriese metode. Die model is geverifieer met behulp van eksperimentele toetse. Semi-empiriese korrelasies word afgelei wat die verlies, as 'n funksie van ses dimensielose veranderlikes, vir beide ronde en reghoekige koeltorings, voorspel. Daar word ook 'n studie gemaak van die hitte en massa oordrag in die reensone en hoe dit koeltorings se termiese oordrags vermoe be'invloed. Die inlaat verlies vir droe, isotropies gepakte, ronde en reghoekige koeltorings is eksperimenteel bepaal en empiriese korrelasies is geformuleer om die data te pas. Daar is gevind dat die inlaat verlies vir isotropies gepakte torings hoer is as die vir ortotropies gepakte torings. Numeriese vloei dinamika is gebruik om die afuanklikheid van die inlaat verlies se grootte op die reensone se eienskappe te ondersoek. Die algemene tendens is vir die reensone om die inlaat verlies te demp, maar die afuanklikheid is indirek sodat 'n groot aantal veranderlikes benodig word om die demping te karakteriseer. Die numeriese model word geverifieer deur middel van eksperimentele data vir droe koeltorings en daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat ronde torings heelwat meer akuraat gemodelleer word as reghoekige torings. Dit veroorsaak dat die korrelasie wat afgelei is om die demping te voorspel vir ronde torings, met baie meer vertroue toegepas kan word as sy reghoekige eweknie. 'n Voorbeeld word gedoen om die verbeterde akuraatheid in koeltoring modellering, wat verkry kan word met behulp van die vergelyking, te wys. Bykomende matrieels, om torings se verkoelings vermoe te verbeter, word ook ondersoek.
33

Evaluate the use of elliptical finned tubes in heat exchanger design and performance : 'the structural characteristics of finned tubes'

Sizani, Xolile L. 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This report describes the Experimental and Numerical Investigations conducted, during the determination of the structural mechanics of elliptical tubes, viz. the F- and the Atubes. This report is requested in an endeavour to assist Sasol, who is currently busy developing and updating specifications on Air Cooled Heat Exchangers. The objectives of this report therefore are to : (1) determine the strength and the effectiveness of the tube-to-tube-sheet joints. (2) determine the allowable pressure limits on the tubes and (3) investigate the effects of thermal load and vibration on the tube bundle. A series of experiments were conducted to meet these objectives. From a Shear Load experiment it was found that the maximum allowable axial load on the Fand the A-tube is 14.55 kN and 20. 86 kN respectively. Fin Plates were found to have little effect on the bending strength of the tube, w~ilst they have significant effect on the resistance to volumetric expansion of the tube. In fact the more fins per unit length the greater the resistance to volumetric expansion of the tube. These conclusions were drawn from Bending and Pressure Load experiments respectively and supported by FEM analysis of the tube using NASTRAN. When the design pressure limit given by the manufacturer (GEA Air Cooled Systems), were tested using FEM analysis, it was found that they cause no significant deformation and failure of the tubes. Thermal stresses on the tube bundle greatly affect the first tube in the first row (row closest to the flanges) of the tube bundle and it is recommended that provision for thermal expansion be made to reduce these stresses. To reduce vibrations induced by the fan, it is recommended that the natural frequency of the tube bundle must not equal the number of blades (N) times the angular frequency (co) of the fan, or multiples thereof, of each mode of vibration. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis beskrywe die Numeriese en Eksperimentele ondersoeke na die sterkte van elliptiese verkoelingsbuise, naamlik die F- en A- tipes. Hierdie werk sal Sasol, wat huidiglik besig is met die opgradering, van spesifikasies vir lugverkoelde hitteuitruilers van nut wees. Die doelwitte van hierdie tesis is om: (1) die sterkte en effektiwiteit van die buis laste was die buis and die buisplaat verdind, te ondersoek, (2) die toelaatbare druklimiete, sowel as (3) die effek wat hitte en vibrasie op 'n buisbundel het, te ondersoek. 'n Reeks eksperimente is uitgevoer om hierdie doelwitte te bevredig. 'n Skuifbelastingseksperiment het aangedui dat die toelaatbare krag wat op 'n F- en A-buis respektiewelik aangewend kan word 14.55 kN en 20.86 kN is. Die ondersoek het aangetoon dat vinne geen noemenswaardige effek op die buigsterkte van die buise gehad het nie, maar dat dit 'n aansienlike verstywingseffek teen volumetriese verandering as gevolg van interne druk, gehad het. Hierdie gevolgtrekkings is bereik deur die Druk- en Buigtoetse wat numeries bevestig is met die NASTRAN eindige element analise (EEA) pakket. EEA het aangetoon dat die druklimiete voorgeskryf deur die buisvervaardiger (GEA Air Cooled Systems) nie noemenswaardige vervorming van die buise tot gevolg gehad het nie. Termiese belastings het 'n groot invloed op die eerste buise (die rye naaste aan die flense) van 'n buisbundel. Die invoeging van uitsettingslaste word aanbeveel om die spannings hier te verminder. Om vibrasie van die buisbundel te verhoed word aanbeveel dat die resonansfrekwensie van die buisbundel nie gelyk is aan die aantal lemme (N) vermenigvuldig met die rotasie frekwensie (co)van die waaier vir elke vibrasiemode.
34

Thermal management of casting moulds using heat pipes

Groenewald, Abraham 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of cylindrical heat pipes for the thermal control and management of casting moulds have been investigated. Heat pipes are tubes that possess a high capability to transfer heat, up to a thousand times or more than an equivalent solid copper rod. The heat pipes used in this thesis are copper tubed, use water as working fluid and have (phosphor-bronze) screen mesh wicks. Experiments relating to practical casting situations in industry were designed and performed, using pure tin as the casting metal. Three cases pertaining to the requirements of an industrial casting mould were considered. The first case considered heating of a mould through heat pipes, in order to keep it at a specific temperature. The second case relates to the situation where metal is cast around a core, and the core is cooled by a heat pipe connected to a heat sink. The heat sink in this case was an air cooled fin. The third case is representative of the situation where molten metal is cast into an external mould and the mould heats up due to the energy flowing in from the casting. In order to cool the mould, heat pipes are used to transport the heat to a water cooled heat sink. These three cases were modeled theoretically, which included using a standard finite element method (FEM) computer package, NASTRAN 2.0 for Windows. For the FEM simulations, the heat pipes are modeled using an equivalent conductivity approach. Theoretical and experimental results are to within ± 30% of each other, but better results could possibly be achieved using a better finite element model for the heat pipes. A simulation case was performed to compare the use of an uncooled mould with a heat pipe cooled mould, and a two and a half time improvement of production rate was achieved. In support of the above mentioned casting related experiments, experiments have also been performed on a specially designed cylindrical heat pipe to determine the evaporator and condenser heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the heat pipe can transfer more than 500 W for vertical operation and around 160 W for horizontal operation. The heat transfer coefficients of the condenser and evaporator ends are in the order of 1800 to 2000 W/mK. Experiments were also performed on the fins used as the heat sink in the experiment where core cooling is investigated, to compare the experimentally determined fin heat transfer coefficient with the theoretically predicted coefficient. A theoretical study was also performed for an inclined ammonia thermosyphon in order to compare the theory to a set of previously determined experimental results. The theory produced accurate results for vertical operation, but it is clearly limited for inclined operation, and can lead to inaccurate results. A special correlation factor, the splashing factor, was defined to analyse the deviation between the theoretical and experimental results. The splashing factor can be used in two ways. Firstly, it can be used as a design correction factor and secondly, it can be processed to indicate which operational variables have the highest impact on the discrepancy between the theory and the experimental data. It is recommended that further research into the use of heat pipes for the thermal control of moulds be considered, based on the results achieved in this thesis. Furthermore, a finite element model for a heat pipe can also be considered. It is also recommended that the use of the splashing factor be considered for the analysis of thermosyphons. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die moontlikheid om hittepype te gebruik in die termiese beheer van gietvorms is ondersoek. Hittepype is buise wat oor 'n baie goeie warmte-oordragsvermoë beskik, 'n duisend maal of beter as 'n ekwivalente soliede koper staaf. Die hittepype wat gebruik is in die tesis is gesëelde koperbuise, wat water gebruik as werksvloeier en ook 'n (fosfor-brons) sifdraad pitmateriaal bevat. Eksperimente wat verband hou met industriële gietprosesse is ontwerp en uitgevoer. Suiwer tin is gebruik as die gietmateriaal. Drie giet gevalle is ondersoek. Die eerste geval het die verhitting van 'n gietvorm met hittepype behels. Die tweede geval hou verband met die situasie waar metaalom 'n kern gegiet word en die kern word afgekoel deur middle van 'n hittepyp wat gekoppel is aan 'n hitteput, wat in die geval 'n lugverkoelde fin is. Die derde geval hou verband met die situasie waar gesmelte metal gegiet word in 'n eksterne gietvorm en die gietvorm verhit as gevolg van die energie wat vanaf die gietstuk invloei. Hierdie drie gevalle is teoreties gemodelleer, wat die gebruik van 'n eindige element analise (EEA) rekenaarpakket insluit (NASTRAN 2.0 for Windows). Tydens die EEA simulasies is die hittepype gemodelleer met behulp van die ekwivalente geleidingskoëffisiënt metode. Teoretiese en eksperimentele resultate is binne .± 30% van mekaar. Beter resultate kan moontlik verkry word as 'n verbeterde eindige element model vir die hittepype ontwikkel kan word. 'n Simulasie geval is uitgevoer om die produksietempo van 'n onverkoelde gietvorm te vergelyk met 'n hittepyp-verkoelde gietvorm, en 'n verbetering van twee en 'n half maal is gevind vir die verkoelde gietvorm. Ter ondersteuning van die bogenoemde gietverwante eksperimente en teoretiese modelle, is eksperimente ook op 'n spesiaalontwerpte silindriese hittepyp uitgevoer om die kondeser en verdamper hitte-oordragskoëffisiënte te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die hittepyp meer as 500 W kan oordra tydens vertikale gebruik en ongeveer 160W tydens horisontale gebruik. Die hitte-oordragskoëffisiënte vir die kondenser en verdamper is in die orde van 1800 tot 2000 W/m2K. Eksperimente is ook uitgevoer op die finne wat gebruik is as die hitteput in die geval waar die kern verkoeling ondersoek is, om die eksperimenteel bepaalde fin hitteoordragskoëffisiënte te vergelyk met die teoretiese koëffisiënt. 'n Teoretiese studie is ook uitgevoer vir 'n skuins termoheuwel sodat die teorie vergelyk kan word met In stel bestaande resultate. Die teorie gee akkurate voorspellings vir vertikale gebruik, maar is duidelik beperk en kan lei tot onakkurate resultate vir skuins gebruik. 'n Spesiale faktor (splashing factor) is gedefiniëer om die verskil tussen die teoretiese en eksperimentele resultate mee te analiseer. Hierdie factor kan op twee maniere gebruik word. Eerstens kan dit gebruik word as 'n korreksiefaktor en tweedens kan dit geprosesseer word om aan te dui watter veranderlikes die hoogste impak het op die verskil in eksperimentele en teoretiese resultate. Dit word aanbeveel dat verdere navorsing gedoen word op die gebruik van hittepype vir die termiese beheer van gietvorms, gebasseer op die resultate wat verkry is uit die tesis. Verder kan 'n eindige element model vir 'n hittepyp ontwikkel word. Dit word ook aanbeveel dat die "splashing factor" oorweeg word in die analise van termohewels.
35

Helicopter tail boom vibration analysis and suppression

Funnell, M. E. (Marc Edwin) 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An experimental investigation was conducted usmg a cantilever beam to illustrate an understanding of vibration techniques and phenomena. The [Tee and forced vibration of the cantilever beam was investigated using various modelling strategies. Theoretical models such as the Lumped parameter, Myklestad, Distributed Parameter and Finite Element Methods were analysed and compared with experimental measurements. Excellent agreement of the natural frequencies, mode shapes and the harmonic transfer functions were found. To investigate tail boom vibration, a Finite Element Model of a simplified helicopter tail boom design was tested against experimentally measured data. The results correlated accurately and the model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a vibration suppression system designed for the tail boom. The vibration suppression system was designed using two, parallel dynamic absorbers to reduce tail boom vibrations at its two dominant frequencies. For the purposes of this thesis, the dynamic absorbers were tuned to reduce the resonant peaks at the dominant excitation frequencies of the excitation force in-line with the thrust of the tail rotor only. This excitation force was estimated using a simplified tail rotor dynamic model, which when compared with actual vibration data was assumed to predict the basic frequency trends of the force, reliably. Incorporating the designed components into an accurate Lumped Parameter model of a cantilever beam structure and simulating the response of the structure at the dominant excitation frequencies of the calculated excitation force, tested the vibration suppression system. The results of this investigation proved the effectiveness of the design procedure and optimisation process of the design parameters. A similarly designed suppression system was incorporated into the Finite Element tail boom model and from the analytical results obtained it was shown to cause a fair reduction in the vibration response at the two dominant frequencies of the excitation force. Finally, two possible applications were suggested from the research presented in this thesis. The first application was the simplified configuration of a vibration monitoring system for the tail boom. The second application was the possible development of a system using the response of vibration suppression absorbers to predict the magnitudes of the excitation forces on the tail boom. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Experimentele ondersoek is ondemeem deur gebruik te maak van 'n ingeklemde balk om vibrasie tegnieke te illustreer. Die vrye en geforseerde vibrasie van die ingeklemde balk is ondersoek deur verskillende model tegnieke te gebruik. Teoretiese modelle soos die Lumped parameter, Myklestad, Distributed Parameter en Eindige Element Metodes was geanaliseer en vergelyk met die eksperimentele waardes. Uitstekende ooreenstemmings was gevind tussen die natuurlike frekwensies, die eievektore en die harmoniese oordragsfunk:sie. Om stert vibrasie te ondersoek, was'n eindige element model van 'n helikopter stert getoets teenoor die eksperimentele data. Die resultate het akuraat gekorreleer en dus was die model gebruik om die effektiwiteit van 'n vibrasie supressie sisteem te evalueer. Die vibrasie supressie sisteem was ontwerp deur gebruik te maak van twee parallele dinamiese absorbeerders om die helikopter stert se eerste twee dominante vibrasie frekwensies te minimeer. Vir die doel van hierdie tesis was die dinamiese absorbeerders ingestel om net die resonante pieke van die opgewende krag wat in lyn is met die drykrag van die stert rotor te minimeer Hierdie opgewende krag was, deur gebruik te maak van 'n basiese stert rotor dinamiese model, aanvaar om die basiese frekwensie tendense van die krag te voorspel. Die supressie sisteem wat ontwerp was, was getoets op die lumped parameter balk en het veroorsaak dat die voorspelde opgewende krag by al twee van sy dominante . frekwensies baie geminirneer was. Die effektiwiteit van die sisteem was dus bewys en die sisteem was gebruik om die respons van die eindige element model van die stert te verbeter. Die resultate het 'n aanvaarbare reduksie in die respons by die twee dominante frekwensies van die opgewende krag, gewys. Laastens, deur gebruik te maak van die resultate in hierdie tesis. was twee moontlikhede voorgestel. Die eerste een was die konfigurasie van 'n vibrasie moniterings sisteem vir die helikopter stert. Die tweede mmontlikheid was die moontlike ontwikkeling van 'n sisteem wat die grootte van die opgewende krag by die stert rotor kon voorspel, deur gebruik te maak van die vibrasie suppressie absorbeerders.
36

The influence of geometry on dragline bucket filling performance

Esterhuyse, Schalk Willem Petrus January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (MEng.) -- Stellenbosch University, 1997. / One copy microfiche. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis desc1ibes the procedure followed in order to establish geometry changes to the current lig!1tweight dragline bucket lmilt by Wright Equipment Compan:Y to improve its performance. The bucket performs very well as is and big changes v , e not expected. This project was done as part of the Mechanical Engineering Masterr- Jegree requirements at the University of Stellenbosch, while being employed by Wriglh Equipment A scale model dragline was designed and built to be used in collecting the data. The most significant variables when considering dragline bucket filling were established and ranked according to their relative influence. The tests were done, using four different scale model dragline buckets and changing a 11umber of variables on each of them at different drag angles and in different digging conditions. Eventually it was found that a shorter, wider bucket with a lower hitch, resulted in improved performance as far as filling distance and filling energy requirements were concerned. The maximum required drag force was not increased, meaning stalling of the bucket would not be a problem. The changes do have some structural implications though aud should be investigated before any changes are made. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die tesis be£kryf die prosedure wat gevolg is om geometrie veranderinge aan die liggewig sleepgraatbak, wat deur die maatskappy Wright Equipment vervaardig word, te ondersoek. Die uiteindelike doel was om di~ produktiwiteit van die bak (gedefinieer as die hoeveel bogrond wat in 'n gegewe tyd geskuif word} te verbeter Die projek het deel gevorm van die vereistes vir 'n Meestersgraad in Meganiese lngenieurswese by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 'n Skaalmodel sleepgraaf is ontwerp en gebou vir gebruik in die versameling van die nodige data. Die belangrikste faktore betrokke by die vulling van sleepgraatbakke is vasgestel en in rangorde van belangrikheid gegroepeer. Vier skaalmodel sleepgraatbakke, waarop verskillende geometriese veranderinge gedoen kon word, is gebruik in toetse teen verskillendt sleephoeke en grondkondisies. Daar is gevind dat 'n korter, wyer bak met 'n laer sleeppUt"'t '1. v~rbetering in werkverrigting gee in terme van afstand om te vul en energie ve1·t.· :•.• Die maksimum sleepkrag benodig is ook nie verhoog nie, met die gevolg dat str:, l,' nie 'n probleeill sal wees me. Die voorgestelde veranderinge het egter struk.i.t..•' ic imt"i'---dsies wat eers ondersoek sal moet word voor enige veranderinge gedoen word.
37

Edge scanning and swept surface approximation in reverse engineering

Schreve, Kristiaan 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Broadly speaking Reverse Engineering is the process of digitising a physical object and creating a computer model of the object. If sharp edges formed by two surfaces can be extracted from a point cloud (which is the set of measured points) it can speed up the segmentation of the point cloud and the edges may also be used to construct swept surfaces (or various other types of surface that best captures the design intent). A strategy is presented to "scan" edges. The strategy simulates a CMM (Coordinate Measurement Machine) as it would scan a sequence of short lines straddling the edge. Rather than measuring on a physical object, the algorithm developed in this dissertation "scans" on the points in the point cloud. Each line is divided in two parts, or line sections, belonging to the surfaces fanning the edge. The points of the line sections are then approximated with polynomials. Each edge point is the intersection of two such polynomials. In many engineering components sharp edges are replaced with fillet radii or the edges become worn or damaged. This algorithm is capable of reconstructing the original sharp edge without prior segmentation. A simple analytical model was developed to determine the theoretically achievable accuracy. This Analytical accuracy was compared with the accuracy of edges extracted from point clouds. A series of experiments were done on point clouds. The input parameters of the experiments were chosen using the technique of Design of Experiments. Using the experimental results the parameters that most significantly influences the accuracy of the algorithm was determined. From the Analytical and experimental analysis guidelines were developed which will help a designer to specify sensible input parameters for the algorithm. With these guidelines it is possible to find an edge with an accuracy comparably with an edge found with the traditional method of finding the edges with NURBS surface intersections. Finally the algorithm was combined with a swept surface fitting algorithm. The scanned edges are used as rails and profile curves for the swept surfaces. The algorithms were demonstrated by reverse engineering part of another core box for an inlet manifold. If the edge detection parameters are specified according to the guidelines developed here, this algorithm can successfully detect edges. The maximum gap size in the point cloud is an important limiting factor, but its effect has also been quantified. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Truwaartse Ingenieurswese word 'n fisiese voorwerp opgemeet en 'n rekenaar model word daarvan geskep. Die segmentering van die puntewolk (dit is die versameling gemete punte) sal aansienlik vergemaklik word indien dit moontlik is om skerp rante in die puntewolk te identifiseer. Die rante sal dan gebruik kan word om veegvlakke (swept surfaces), of enige ander tipe oppervalk wat die ontwerp die beste beskryf, te konstrueer. Hierdie proefskrif beskryf 'n strategie wat die rante kan opmeet. Dit simuleer die manier waarvolgens 'n Koërdinaatmeetmasjien 'n reeks lyne, wat oor die rant lê, sou meet. In plaas van op 'n fisiese voorwerp op te meet, "meet" die algoritme op 'n puntwolk. Elke lyn word dan in twee dele verdeel (elke deel word 'n meetlynseksie genoem). Elke meetlynseksie behoort aan een van die twee oppervlaktes wat die rant vorm. Die rant punte word bereken as die interseksie van twee polinome wat deur die punte van die meetlynseksie gepas is. Dit is dikwels die geval met meganiese onderdele dat skerp rante vervang word met 'n vulstraal of dit kan ook gebeur dat die rant verweer het of beskadig is. Die algoritme, wat hier beskryf word, kan selfs die oorspronklike skerp rant in sulke gevalle herkonstrueer. 'n Eenvoudige analitiese model is ontwikkelom die teoretiese akkuraatheid van die algoritme te bepaal. Die teoretiese akkuraatheid is vergelyk met die akkuraatheid van rante wat uit puntewolke bepaal is. 'n Reeks eksperimente is op puntwolke gedoen. Die parameters vir die eksperimente is gekies deur van Eksperimentele Ontwerp gebruik te maak. Met behulp van hierdie tegniek kon bepaal word watter meetparameters die grootste invloed op die akkuraatheid van die gemete punte het. Die teoretiese en eksperimentele resultate is gebruik om riglyne daar te stel waarmee die intreeparameters van die algoritme gekies kan word. Met hierdie riglyne is dit moontlik om 'n rant te vind met 'n akkuraatheid vergelykbaar met die tradisionele metode om die rante te vind met behulp van NURBS oppervlakte interseksies. Laastens is die algoritme gekombineer met 'n algoritme wat veegvlakke deur punte kan pas. Die gemete rante word gebruik as spore en profiele vir die veegvlakke. Die tegnieke is gebruik om 'n CAD model van 'n sandkernvorm (vir die giet van 'n inlaatspruitstuk) te maak. Deur die riglyne te gebruik om die intreeparameters vir die algoritme te spesifiseer, kan rante suksesvol uit puntewolke bepaal word. Die maksimum afstand tussen naburige punte in die puntewolk beperk die gebruik van die algoritme, maar die effek hiervan is ook vasgevat in die riglyne wat ontwikkel is vir die algoritme.
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Finite element solutions of optimization problems with stability constraints involving columns and laminated composites.

Cagdas, Izzet Ufuk. January 2006 (has links)
The primary aim of this study is to assess the applicability and performance of the finite element method (FEM) in solving structural optimization problems with stability constraints. In order to reach this goal, several optimization problems are solved using FEM which are briefly described as follows: The strongest column problem is one of the oldest optimization problems for which analytical solutions exist only for some special cases. Here, both unimodal and bimodal optimization of columns under concentrated and/or distributed compressive loads with several different boundary conditions and constraints are performed using an iterative method based on finite elements. The analytical solutions available in the literature for columns under concentrated loads and an analytical solution derived for simply supported columns under distributed loads are used for verification purposes. Optimization results are presented for fibre-reinforced composite rectangular plates under inplane loads. The non-uniformity of the in-plane stresses due to stress diffusion and/or in-plane boundary conditions is taken into account, and its influence on optimal buckling load is investigated. It is shown that the exclusion of the in-plane restraints may lead to errors in stability calculations and consequently in optimal design. The influences of the panel aspect ratio, stacking sequence, panel thickness, and the rotational edge restraints on the optimal axially compressed cylindrical and non-cylindrical curved panels are investigated, where the optimal panel is the one with the highest failure load. The prebuckling and the first-ply failure loads of the panels are calculated and minimum of these two is selected as the failure load. The results show that there are distinct differences between the behaviour of cylindrical and non-cylindrical panels. The formulations of the finite elements which are used throughout the study are given and several verification problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the methodology. The computer codes written in Matlab are also given in the appendix sections accompanied with the selected codes used for optimization purposes. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2006.
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Development of high strength material for smart aircraft bolt.

Vugampore, Jean-Marie Vianney. January 2005 (has links)
Scientists are constantly seeking new and convenient non-destructive damage assessment techniques. In fact, a global market has developed for structural health monitoring products. Many of the currently available techniques are expensive and difficult to implement. An inexpensive alternative is technology based on strain memory alloys. These materials encompass a vast array of alloys, from austenitic stainless steels through to the extremely high strength TRIP steels. All, however, have in common the transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite upon application of strain. The degree of ferromagnetism can be directly correlated to the peak strain undergone by the material. Strain memory alloys are not as expensive to manufacture as some smart materials, and in addition are capable of bearing significant load, and it is therefore possible to manufacture entire components from these alloys, thereby producing what is known as a smart component, i.e. one that is capable of doing the job of an ordinary component while at the same time assessing its own peak damage levels. A possible application of this technology is that of wing bolts for the Hercules e130 aircraft. The material usually used to manufacture the aircraft wing bolts is HSLA steel (AISI 4340). A strain memory alloy was therefore developed to match the mechanical properties of 4340 steel, while also having the requisite properties to perform the self damage-assessment. Ultra high strength TRIP steels were identified as possible candidates, and four alloys selected for investigation. These alloys were melted and then thermo-mechanically processed using a rolling operation. All alloys were tensile tested and magnetic susceptibility monitored. The final material selected possesses an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of between 1270 and 1500 MPa with 10 to 12% elongation. The stress / strain induced transformation begins to occur before the yield point, which is important because bolts must be replaced before they fail. Compression tests were also performed, and yielded similar results to those of the tensile tests, with martensitic transformation again beginning before plastic yield. The strain induced phase transformation was confirmed not only by magnetic susceptibility measurements, but also by metallographic inspection before and after testing. A subscale Smart bolt was designed, manufactured and tested for magnetic sensitivity using a smart washer. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2005.
40

Contractible arms elevating search and rescue (Caesar) robot : improvements and modifications for urban search and rescue (Usar) robots.

Stopforth, Riaan. January 2010 (has links)
Rescuers have lost their lives in events requiring them to go into dangerous areas that have unstable structures and gases. Robots are necessary for search and rescue purposes, to access concealed places and environments to which fire fighters and rescue personnel cannot gain entry. Robots that were previously used encountered problems with communication, chassis design, traction and sensory systems. Improvements are required for the successful localization of victims. Research on improvements in these areas were carried out for the use in the CAESAR (Contractible Arms Elevating Search And Rescue) robot. Contributions were made in the area of Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) robots focusing on antenna design, communication protocols, chassis design, traction system and artificial intelligence on decisions relating to gas danger levels for humans and the robot. The capabilities of CAESAR is audio, video and data communication irrespective of the orientation of the robot and the antennas. Penetration of radio frequencies through building material is possible. Reliable data communication is achieved with the designed Robotics Communication Protocol (RCP). The chassis is designed to have traction on unstable terrain and autonomously transform flipper arms for the best orientation. Materials for the body were selected and constructed to be able to withstand the unstable environments and high temperatures which they will encounter. The control station display gives the rescuers immediate indication of the gas concentrations detected by the on-board gas sensors. Developed analytical models determine the danger of the gas concentrations for victims, rescuers and the robots. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2010.

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