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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Tax system reform in Rwanda

Kamasa, R. E. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The implementation of policy reforms in developing countries continues to be negatively influenced by factors such as difficulties with resource mobilization, the dominance of technocratic policy management advocated by donors, and the persistence of state centralism. Tax system reforms in Rwanda constitute institutional and policy reforms aimed at improving tax compliance and ultimately the contribution of tax revenue to the national GDP. But, because of implementation flaws, including among others the scant flow of technical and financial resources; the dominance of a narrow technocratic approach in implementation; and indeed the failure of the implementers to mobilize political resources and constituent support, the realization of the above objective became a less attainable goal. This research examines the institutional and policy reforms in the tax system and the dynamics of their implementation, through the manipulation of secondary, numerical and textual information/ data on tax system administration in Rwanda. Chapter one of the research deals with the development of the idea to research tax system reform and the formulation of the research problem, hypothesis and methodology. In addition to that, chapter one provides an overview of the tax system reform in Rwanda, a comparative insight into the implementation of reform policies in developing countries, and contemporary experiences in tax system reforms. Chapters two and three, which are formative chapters, focus respectively on the background situations that either influenced or affected tax system reform in Rwanda, and the normative requirements for tax systems. Chapter four evaluates the implementation of reform and how it concurs with problem situations and normatives. Chapter five is summative in that it provides an interpretation and recommendations, as well as a summary of the research findings. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die implementering van beleidshervorming in ontwikkelende lande word negatief beïnvloed deur faktore soos probleme met die mobilisering van hulpbronne, die oorheersing van die tipe tegnokratiese beleidsbestuur wat deur donateurs voorgestaan word, en 'n voortgesette sentralistiese staatsbestel. Belastinghervorming in Rwanda omsluit institusionele en beleidshervorming met die oog op verbeterde belastingbetaling, wat tot 'n uiteindelike verbetering in die bydrae van belastinginkomste tot die BNP moet lei. Teenspoed tydens die implementering van die hervormingspoging, onder meer as gevolg van 'n gebrek aan tegniese en finansiële hulpbronne, die bekrompenheid van die tegnokratiese benadering waardeur die implementeringspoging oorheers is, en inderdaad die feit dat die implementeerders nie die nodige politieke middele of die publiek se ondersteuning kon mobiliseer nie, het egter veroorsaak dat hierdie doelwitte moeilik bereikbaar geraak het. Hierdie navorsing stel ondersoek in na institusionele en beleidshervorming ten opsigte van die belastingstelsel, en kyk ook na die implementeringsdinamiek daarvan. Die ondersoek is gegrond op 'n ontleding van sekondêre numeriese en tekstuele inligting/data oor die administrasie van die belastingstelsel in Rwanda. Hoofstuk een dui aan hoe die gedagte ontstaan het om navorsing oor die hervorming van die belastingstelsel in Rwanda te doen, en stel die navorsingsprobleem, die -hipotese en -metodologie bekend. Hierbenewens bied hoofstuk een 'n oorsig oor die hervorming van die belastingstelsel in Rwanda, en vergelykende insigte in die implementering van hervormingsbeleid in ontwikkelende lande asook onlangse ervaring wat die hervorming van belastingstelsels betref. Hoofstuk twee en drie is formatief van aard. Hulle fokus onderskeidelik op die agtergrondomstandighede wat 'n invloed op belastinghervorming in Rwanda gehad het, en op die normatiewe vereistes wat aan belastingsisteme gestel word. Hoofstuk vier evalueer die implementering van hervorming en hoe dit met probleemsituasies en hervormingsnorme verband hou. Hoofstuk vyf is summatief van aard en bevat 'n vertolking en aanbevelings, sowel as 'n samevatting van die navorsingsbevindinge.

Human resource development strategy in the provincial government of the Western Cape

Du Toit Goussard, Carien 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (School of Public Management and Planning ))—Stellenbosch University, 2008. / This study focuses on the determinants for the development of a human resource strategy in the Provincial Government Western Cape (PGWC).The context is that a new regulatory framework for human resource development in South Africa, namely the National Human Resource Development Strategy (NHRDS) was developed by the National Ministries of Education and Labour in 2001. The purpose of the NHRDS was to provide a plan to ensure that people in South Africa are equipped to fully participate in society, to be able to find or create work, and to benefit fairly from it. At the heart of the NHRDS is the belief that enhancing the general and specific abilities of all citizens is a necessary response to the current situation in South Africa. The hypothetical point of departure of this study is formulated in such a way that acceptance of it constitutes support for the findings obtained from the literature and observations on HRD strategies as well as the implementation of the NHRDS in the PGWC. The problem for the purpose of this dissertation focuses on the research question: What is the role and context of HRD in the South African public service and does the implementation of the NHRDS justify the need and development of a HRD strategy in the PGWC? The qualitative research method that was chosen for this dissertation is the triangulation of grounded theory and a specific case study (mixed method). In this case, data used to provisionally assess the extent of implementation of the NHRDS in the PGWC, are specific key documents. To facilitate the research, to identify the core theoretical concepts and to investigate the problems identified in this study, the focus was subdivided into five research objectives which are analysed in chapters two to six of the dissertation. These are: · To provide an analysis of the nature, development, scope and concepts of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Development (HRD), training, and education, in order to examine the influence of these important external variables on the process of HRD in a public sector organisational setting and to provide context to the need for a NHRDS in South Africa. · To provide an overview of the relevant trends of transformation in South Africa with a focus on the origin, nature and implications of the transformation of South Africa after 1994 as well as the impact of the public service transformation HRD interventions in general. · To provide a systemic exploration of the scope and legislative and policy framework for HRD in the public sector in South Africa in general through an overview of the NHRDS and other HRD education and training strategies in order to provide an exposition of the rationale of the NHRDS and to get clarity on the conceptualisation of HRD in terms of skills for service delivery in the public sector. · To provide an exploration of conceptual knowledge of the variables influencing HRD through the application of a literature and documentary study of the present strategies (both internal and external) of the PGWC to develop its human resources, in order to describe and analyse the outcomes of the NHRDS process in the PGWC as well as the strategies and procedures employed to implement the NHRDS in the PGWC. · To develop a set of indicators against which the interaction of the variables influencing a successful strategy for HRD can be measured through the implementation of the NHRDS in the PGWC. The last chapter presents a synthesis of the study, taking into account the key findings. This dissertation is an attempt to make a contribution, in general, to the understanding of the role of the development of human resources through the NHRDS and is completed in the trust that the findings recorded here and the proposals made will be useful for future research. The potential benefits that can arise from the implementation of the NHRDS in the PGWC are significant. It could create a virtuous circle of increased economic growth and employment, an improved standard of living, and a more educated and trained citizenry. In conclusion, it can be stated that the hypothetical point of departure that were formulated for this study, was proven to be correct in theory and practice.

Integrated risk management : a mechanism to minimise risks for local government : a critical perspective

Geldenhuys, L. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (School of Public Management and Planning ))—University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / The absence of an integrated risk management programme in local government in South Africa creates the danger that these risks are not identified, which could be catastrophic, and opportunities to minimise losses are not utilised. A further problem is that common risk-management terminology is lacking and management are dependent on diverse legislation as a guide to developing and implementing risk management. In order to achieve the strategic and operational objectives of local government in an effective and efficient manner, a pro-active identification and evaluation of potential risks should be established to minimise their impact. Officials on every level need to be informed about processes and techniques for managing risks and recalibrating activities to enable management to operate more effectively in risk-filled environments. Problems were identified that prevent management from providing reasonable assurance to stakeholders that the most significant risks are being addressed. These problems are as follows: the lack of applying risk management in an integrated manner; the enforcement of integrated risk management due to the lack of relevant legislation; a lack of training in risk management, ethics and risk response plans; a lack of practical techniques to assist officials in taking remedial action to prevent recurrence of risks; the absence of a risksensitive organisational culture; and a lack of commitment and leadership from politicians and management. Relevant legislation on integrated risk management should assist in embedding a culture where everyone in local government is obliged to adhere thereto and to conduct their dayto- day activities accordingly. A mission and vision statement needs to be developed and implemented with the consent of all stakeholders. Integrated risk-management processes, which are generally lacking or incomplete in local government, should be aligned with generic public management functions. An integrated risk-management programme can be enhanced by establishing a risk organisational structure within local government. The establishment of a risk management department and risk committee is essential to the enhancement of corporate governance and the management of risks that might have a negative impact on local government. Internal and external controls should be evaluated regularly to facilitate the riskmanagement programme. An Integrated Risk Monitoring Technique is proposed as a technique to assist stakeholders in identifying root causes of risks and the management thereof. A model of integrated risk management was designed to assist academics and practitioners to get a holistic perspective on integrated risk management and to assist in the management of risks.

A critical assessment of institutions, roles and leverage in public policymaking : Ethiopia, 1974-2004

Abebe Wolde, Mulugeta 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (School of Public Management and Planning ))—University of Stellenbosch, 2005. / This dissertation critically assesses and analyzes the institutional and political settings of public policymaking in Ethiopia in a space of three decades, from circa 1974. Based on data and/or information generated through a range of sources and instruments, it attempts to uncover the prominent actors in public policymaking in Ethiopia far beyond the official assertions that have formally been claimed in the statutory provisions. It appraises the institutions, their roles and leverage in the policymaking process, and the extent to which the profound institutional and political changes that have transpired over the past thirty years impacted on public policymaking, and with what effect. It examines the emergence and ascendance of a couple of closely linked institutions, namely the ruling party and the top echelon of the executive leadership, and the disproportionate influence they have on government, non-government institutions and overall public policymaking. The supremacy of the executive and its claims on policymaking had been pervasive during Haileselassie’s years, with absolute executive powers vested in the monarchy and the person of the emperor. The combined forces of party and executive leadership and their overwhelming dominance in public policymaking are relatively new conventions, phenomena and constructs which featured prominently in the aftermath of 1974. Ideology (Marxism- Leninism and revolutionary democracy) has since been a critical element guiding and as well as justifying policy elites’ claims on the choice of public policies and the institutional and structural mechanisms of implementing them. Wedged between staggering financial, managerial and organizational capacity, on the one hand, and an inhospitable politicoadministrative and legal milieu on the other, the civil society, a network of civil society institutions and the public over three decades appeared to have remained at the peripheral end in the continuum of public policymaking. The most formidable challenges that the Ethiopian public policymaking process has over the past thirty years experienced can therefore be thematically crystallized into three issues. Firstly, the emergence and consolidation of party and executive leadership (policy elites) has been the dominant phenomena over the last thirty years, with the ruling party institutions invariably overlapping with the formally constituted policymaking government structures. Secondly, not only ideology played a critical role in the choice of public policies and institutional instruments for implementing them, but also provided policy elites with the latitude to justify their claims on policy actions, although ideological values served to preclude the non-state players from making legitimate claims on policymaking. Lastly, the expansion of the powers of the party and the executive seemed to have taken place without a corresponding development of extra-bureaucratic institutions (i.e. elections and functioning legislatures) and civil societal associations, and which in turn boils down to the exclusion of the bulk of the Ethiopian public from playing its legitimate role in the policymaking process. The public policymaking process in Ethiopia has, therefore, witnessed imbalances at two levels: first, between the executive and the legislature, and second, between policy elites (the party-fused-with-executive structures/institutions), on the one hand, and ordinary citizens and civil society organizations (CSOs) representing various interests, on the other. At both levels the party and the executive exact enormous power leverage. On the other hand, the ordinary citizens are highly disorganized, and tied up with attending to daily survival needs. Hence, they have little time to become fully and actively involved in holding government institutions accountable and responsive, articulating policy demands to policymaking institutions aside. The legislatures appear to have become a façade of legitimacy for party and executive decisions and are detached from the society. ` Finally, the dissertation puts forward proposals for more opportunities to give Ethiopian citizens of all walks of life a chance to influence policies and implementation outcomes. It suggests a range of options for greater and genuine public participation in the policymaking process, which would result in as much representative policy-making as enhancing the quality of services provided by policies and actual control of decisions by citizens. It also indicates Ethiopian academics’ charge in the new endeavor to launch independent think-tank and policy study institutions to foster professionalizing policymaking in Ethiopia.

Complexity and leadership : conceptual and competency implications

Ronn, Harald 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Globalisation, rapid changes in technology, and demographic trends are all important factors that contribute to conditions that require adaptive capacity in military organisations. The context of a majority of military operations is often asymmetric with blurred boundaries, and military organisations are expected to master a wide range of operations from humanitarian disaster relief to more regular warlike situations in a joint- and multinational framework. The complexity of the challenges facing military leaders in contemporary and future operations makes it relevant to develop a meta-competency model for leadership in complex military systems, which is the main purpose of this dissertation. A Complexity Approach represents a shift from a set of conservative laws to a perception of the world as an open and highly dynamic system, and some characterise complexity as a bridge between modernism on the one hand and post-modernism on the other. Complexity and complex systems have a number of characteristics, some of them being a large number of short-ranged interactions that are dynamic, non-linear and fairly rich. Another significant feature of complexity is the emphasis on emergent patterns that are codetermined through a dynamic process between the history of the system and the interaction with its local environment. Leadership in complex systems might be described by the dynamics of emergence, not merely by incremental influence, and increasingly considered to be a collective social phenomenon. A complexity-oriented leader acts as an enabler of a rich identity interacting in richly constrained play of difference, facilitating “bounded” individual and systemic adaptive capacity. The reigning paradigm in military organisations, however, are closely linked to an autocratic and bureaucratic structure and a fundamental quest for control, equilibrium and stability, all of which are deeply embedded in Newtonian Principles of linearity, reductionism and determinism. The investigation of empirical research on Norwegian Military Officers and the Norwegian Armed Forces reveal a considerable amount of homogenous force substantiating stability and control, at the same time as complexity and uncertainty are acknowledged. This dissertation argues that the definition of competencies as “an underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to effective and/or superior performance in a job or situation”, is not suitable for a complexity understanding and proposes competencies to be defined as “interconnected underlying characteristics of an individual or system, which through a dynamic and non-linear process of interaction between local agents and the environment contribute to the emergence of identifiable or unidentifiable patterns of individual or systemic behaviour”. Based on a synthesis of a non-empirical literature study, empirical research and a modelbuilding study, this dissertation suggests that heterogeneity of degree, androgynousity, cognitive flexibility, ethical reasoning, cross-cultural competence, intuition, identity and courage, are necessary meta-competencies for leadership in complex military systems. It is further argued that these meta-competencies must be interpreted as interconnected and interdependent, and the metaphor of a cloud is therefore presented as a suitable image of the intricate dynamics of complexity. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Globalisering, vinnige veranderinge in tegnologie en demografiese tendense is belangrike faktore wat bydra tot toestande wat aanpassingsvermoë in militêre organisasies vereis. Die konteks waarin ’n meerderheid militêre operasies hul bevind is dikwels asimmetries met onduidelike grense, en daar word van militêre organisasies verwag om ’n wye verskeidenheid krygsverrigtinge van humanitêre rampverligting tot meer gereelde oorlogsugtige omstandighede in ’n gesamentlike en multinasionale kader te bemeester. Die kompleksiteit van die uitdagings waarvoor militêre leiers te staan kom in huidige en toekomstige krygsverrigtinge is dit gepas om ’n meta-bevoegdheidsmodel vir leierskap in komplekse militêre stelsels te ontwikkel, wat die belangrikste doel van hierdie tesis is. ’n Kompleksiteitbenadering verteenwoordig ’n verskuiwing van ’n stel konserwatiewe wette na ’n waarneming van die wêreld as ’n oop en hoogsdinamiese stelsel, en kompleksiteit word soms gekenmerk as ’n brug tussen modernisme aan die een kant en die post-modernisme aan die ander. Kompleksiteit en komplekse stelsels het ’n aantal kenmerke, waarvan sommige van hulle ’n groot aantal kortafstandinteraksies wat dinamiese, nie-lineêre en redelik ryk is. Nog ’n belangrike kenmerk van kompleksiteit is die klem op die ontluikende patrone wat vasgestel word deur middel van beide ’n dinamiese proses tussen die geskiedenis van die stelsel en die interaksie met die plaaslike omgewing. Leierskap in komplekse stelsels kan beskryf word deur die dinamika van verskyning, nie net deur inkrementele invloed nie, en al hoe meer beskou as ’n kollektiewe sosiale verskynsel. ’n Kompleksiteitgeoriënteerde leier dien as ’n instaatsteller van ’n ryk identiteit wat wisselwerking uitoefen in streng beperkte verskilspel, wat “begrensde” individuele en sistemiese aanpassingsvermoë fasiliteer. Die huidige paradigma in die militêre organisasies word egter nou gekoppel aan ’n outokratiese en burokratiese struktuur, en ’n fundamentele soektog vir beheer, ewewig en stabiliteit, waarvan almal diep in Newtoniaanse Beginsels van lineariteit, reduksionisme en determinisme vasgelê is. Die ondersoek van empiriese navorsing oor die Noorse Militêre Offisiere en die Noorse Weermag openbaar ’n aansienlike aantal homogene mag wat stabiliteit en beheer staaf, terselfdertyd as wat kompleksiteit en onsekerheid erken word. Hierdie tesis is van mening dat die definisie van vaardighede as “’n onderliggende eienskap van ’n individu wat oorsaaklik verwant is aan doeltreffende en/of superieure prestasie in ’n beroep of situasie”, nie geskik is vir ’n kompleksiteitbegrip nie en stel voor dat vaardighede gedefinieer word as “onderling verbinde onderliggende eienskappe van ’n individu of stelsel, wat deur middel van ’n dinamiese en nie-lineêre proses van interaksie tussen plaaslike agente en die omgewing bydra tot die verskyning van identifiseerbare of nie-identifiseerbare patrone van individuele of sistemiese gedrag”. Gebaseer op ’n sintese van ’n nie-empiriese literatuurstudie, empiriese navorsing en ’n bou van modelle studie, stel hierdie tesis voor dat die heterogeniteit van graad, androgienisme, kognitiewe buigsaamheid, etiese beredenering, kruis-kulturele bevoegdheid, intuïsie, identiteit en moed, nodige meta-vaardighede vir leierskap in komplekse militêre stelsels is. Dit voer verder aan dat hierdie meta-vaardighede vertolk moet word as onderling verbinde en onderling afhanklik is, en die metafoor van ’n wolk word dus voorgestel as ’n geskikte beeld van die ingewikkelde dinamika van kompleksiteit.

Etnisiteit en groepsverteenwoordiging in die staatkunde : 'n vergelykende studie

Cloete, Gideon Stephanus 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (DPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 1981. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this dissertation is the development of an operational analytical model to illustrate the possibility of successfully resolving or managing conflict in plural societies by effectively accommodating different geographically dispersed ethnic groups as groups in democratic constitutional structures and processes in these societies. The few existing models or theories of this kind (i e pluralism, consociationalism, corporatism, personalism/integral federalism) are either too vague or too incomplete to operationalise effectively. The dynamic resurgence of ethnicity across the world stresses the need for such a workable model, especially in view of important prevailing misconceptions about the nature of the phenomenon of "ethnicity" and its implications for effective democratic conflict resolution in plural societies. / INLEIDING: Die effektiewe demokratiese akkommodasie van verskillende geografies verspreide etniese groepe in die staatkundige struktuur van 'n plurale samelewing is 'n politieke doelwit wat dusver nog selde in die wêreld verwesenlik kon word. Dit is dan ook die mees aktuele staatkundige probleem in Suid-Afrika en vorm die fokus van hierdie studie.

Closing the strategy execution gap in the public sector : a conceptual model

Olivier, Anton J. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2015. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The importance of strategy execution to achieve organisational objectives is increasingly recognised. However, successful execution seems to remain problematic, not only in government, but also in the business world today. Because of the gap between strategy planning and execution, the required benefits stated in this planning are seldom realised. The consistent and generally poor execution of strategic plans in the public sector leads to poor service delivery. The objective of the research was to develop, test and further improve a conceptual model that can specifically be applied in public sector organisations (PSOs) to help close their strategy execution gap. According to the research hypothesis, strategy execution will significantly improve by using a simplified, dynamically integrated conceptual model as guide in tailoring strategy execution in each PSO. The qualitative Participative Action Research (PAR) methodology was used based on case studies in Namibia, including ministries, state-owned enterprises and local authorities. The literature gap was found to be the limited number of resources addressing strategy execution in the public sector and the limited number of sources presenting a multi-disciplinary or integrated model involving the whole organisation. Based on previous literature reviews and experience, the researcher developed his first conceptual model in 2006. After the development of four more models, the final MERIL-DE Model was arrived at in 2014 as conceptual model to help close the strategy execution gap in the public sector. Additional literature review and analysis of the public sector context, supported by ten case studies in Namibia over the eight year period (2006–2013), led to the MERIL-DE Model containing and integrating the nine vital strategy execution components. These are as follows: 1) Leadership, 2) Strategic Planning, 3) Project Management, 4) Alignment (with organisational elements), 5) Performance Management (containing the MERIL elements Measure, Evaluate, Report, Improve and Learn), 6) Drive (mostly internal motivation), 7) Engagement (through dialogue), 8) Risk Management and 9) Stakeholder Management. The first seven components were identified through literature review and the last two from considering the unique public sector context. Features of the model include the critical role of leadership, the need to clearly link strategy and projects, the important role of project management, the shorter review periods for both strategic and project plans, the need for an institutionalised quarterly strategy execution cycle and importance of engagement and motivated workforce. The MERIL-DE Model shows the need to build adaptive and sustainable organisations in a complex and challenging public sector. The conventional plan-and-execute processes have to be complemented by sense-and-respond capabilities through a system of Measure, Evaluate, Report, Improve and Learn – linked to Drive and Engagement – in which components are dynamically integrated. Each PSO, however, needs to develop its own unique or tailor-made MERIL-DE model. This tailored model is referred to as the “Stratex Car” to be designed and built by each PSO, considering its own unique conditions. The Strategy Execution Framework (SAF) is presented as tool to assess the strength of each MERIL-DE component with the Total Strategy Execution Capacity (TSEC) to determine the total capacity of the PSO to execute its strategy. It is believed that the use and application of the MERIL-DE Model will significantly contribute to close the strategy execution gap present in the public sector, not only in Southern Africa, but worldwide – to see governments and public organisations deliver real beneficial public service. Monitored application of this model will be valuable for future research towards the ongoing closing of the strategy execution gap. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar word toenemend ag geslaan op die belangrikheid van strategie-uitoefening om organisatoriese mikpunte te bereik. Suksesvolle uitoefening blyk egter problematies te bly, nié net in die regering nie, maar ook in vandag se besigheidswêreld. Weens die gaping tussen strategie-beplanning en -uitoefening word die voordele wat in die beplanning uiteengesit word selde ’n realiteit. Die konstante en oor die algemeen swak uitoefening van strategiese beplanning in die openbare sektor lei tot swak dienslewering. Die doel met die navorsing was om ’n begripsmodel wat spesifiek in publieke sektororganisasies (PSOs) toegepas kan word, te ontwikkel, te toets en te verbeter om die gaping in strategie-uitoefening te oorbrug. Volgens die navorsingshipotese sal strategie-uitoefening kenmerkend verbeter deur ’n vereenvoudigde, dinamies-geïntegreerde begripsprosesmodel te gebruik wat die strategie-uitoefening in elke staatsonderneming aanpas. Die kwalitatiewe deelnemer-aksie-navorsingsmetodologie (Participative Action Research) is in gevallestudies in Namibië toegepas, insluitende ministeries, staatsondernemings en plaaslike owerhede. Die gaping in die literatuur het geblyk die beperkte hoeveelheid hulpbronne te wees wat strategie-uitoefening in die openbare sektor en die beperkte hoeveelheid bronne wat ’n multidissplinêre of geïntegreerde model wat die hele organisasie betrek, aanspreek. Die navorser het in 2006 sy eerste begripsmodel ontwikkel wat op vorige literatuuroorsigte en ervaring gegrond was. Na die ontwikkeling van nóg vier modelle het die finale MERIL-DE-model in 2014 as begripsprosesmodel onstaan om die gaping in strategie-uitoefening in die openbare sektor die hoof te help bied. Addisionele literatuurstudie en -analise van die openbare sektorkonteks, ondersteun deur die tien gevallestudies in Namibië oor die agtjaarperiode (2006– 2013), het gelei tot die insluiting en integrasie van die nege strategie-uitoefeningskomponente in die MERIL-DE-model. Hierdie komponente is soos volg: 1) Leierskap, 2) Strategiese Beplanning, 3) Projekbestuur, 4) Belyning (met organisatoriese elemente), 5) Prestasiebestuur, 6) Dryfkrag (meestal interne motivering), 7) Betrokkenheid (deur dialoog), 8) Risikobestuur en 9) Belanghebberbestuur. Die eerste sewe komponente is deur literatuurstudie geïdentifiseer en die laaste twee deur die unieke konteks van die openbare sektor in ag te neem. Eienskappe van die model sluit in die kritiese rol van leierskap, die behoefte om strategieë en projekte duidelik te verbind, die belangrike rol van projekbestuur, die korter oorsigperiodes vir beide strategie- en projekplanne, die behoefte aan ’n geïnstitusionaliseerde kwartaallikse strategie-uitoefeningsiklus en die belangrikheid van betrokkenheid en gemotiveerde diensnemers. Die MERIL-DE-model wys die behoefte om aanpasbare en onderhoubare organisasies in ’n komplekse en uitdagende openbare sektor uit. Die konvensionele beplan-enuitoefenprosesse moet deur waarneem-en-reageervermoëns gekomplementeer word deur ’n stelsel van Meet, Evalueer, Rapporteer, Verbeter/ ”Improve” en Leer – verbind met Dryfkrag en Betrokkenheid/ ”Engagement” (MERIL-DE) – waarin komponente dinamies geïntegreer is. Elke PSO moet egter sy eie unieke MERIL-DE-model ontwikkel. Hierdie situasie-aangepaste model staan bekend as die “Stratex Car” wat deur elke PSO ontwerp en gebou moet word deur hul eie unieke toestande in ag te neem. Die Strategie-uitoefeningsraamwerk (sg. SAF) word as hulpmiddel voorgestel om die gehalte van elke ‘MERIL-DE’-komponent na te gaan te bepaal met die Totale Strategie-uitoefeningskapasiteit (sg. TSEC) om die totale kapasiteit van die PSO te bereken vir die uitoefening van sy strategie. Dit word verwag dat die gebruik en toepassing van die MERIL-DE-model kenmerkend kan bydra om die gaping in strategie-uitoefening wat aanwesig is in die openbare sektor die hoof te bied, nié net in Suider-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd – om te verseker dat regerings en openbare organisasies ware voordelige publieke diens lewer. Gekontroleerde toepassing van hierdie model sal waardevol wees vir toekomstige navorsing vir die verdere vernouïng van die gaping in strategie-uitoefening.

Emergent good practice approaches to business support : implications for local government

Ackron, Johan 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Policy makers and development practitioners particularly in developing countries face daunting challenges in formulating strategies to achieve sustained growth and improved standards of living through productive engagement of the population in the economy rather than through welfare transfers. Business activities are self-sustaining and therefore have the potential to contribute greatly through the economic system to the creation of sustainable employment and prosperity. Yet many developing countries are faced with inadequate levels of business activity and business growth. Historical approaches to stimulating and supporting business development have proved largely cost ineffective and unequal to the challenge. The hypothesis that fundamental paradigm shifts in the approach to business support are taking place internationally is tested in this thesis. Key features of an evolving entrepreneurial approach to business support are identified and described representing the defining elements of the new business development support paradigm. Institutional implications of the approach in the context of institutional development theory and current approaches to the stimulation of local economic development at local community level are also discussed, as are key implications of the new paradigm for local government. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Beleidmakers en praktisyns in ontwikkelende lande staar uitdagings in die gesig wat betref die handhawing van volgehoue ontwikkeling en die verbetering van lewensstandaarde by wyse van werkgeleentheidskepping en produktiewe betrokkenheid van die bevolking by die ekonomie eerder as deur sosiale welvaarts oordragte. Sake bedrywe en 'n dinamiese sakesektor het die potensiaal om aansienlik by te dra tot volhoubare ontwikkeling. Maar die meeste ontwikkelende lande ondervind ontoereikende vlakke van sake aktiwiteit en van groei in die omvang van die sakesektor. Benaderings tot die stimulering van uitbreiding van die sakesektor as grondslag vir volgehoue werkskepping is in die verlede grootliks koste ondoeltreffend en die resultate was ontoereikend. Die hipotese dat daar 'n fundamentele aanpassing van die paradigma onderliggend aan benaderings tot stimulering van die sakesektor as deel van algehele ontwikkelingsstrategie plaasvind word in die tesis getoets. Kern eienskappe van 'n nuwe benadering word geidentifiseer en omskryf. Institusionele implikasies van die benadering in die samehang van ontwikkelingsteorie en huidige benaderings tot plaaslike ekonomiese ontwikkeling op plaaslike gemeenskapsvlak word ook bespreek, asook kern implikasies van die nuwe paradigma vir plaaslike regering.

An assessment of the required competencies for the senior management service in the South African public service

Rossouw, A. (Andre) 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MPA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A major challenge facing the South African government is the acceleration of service delivery improvement to ensure a better life for all South Africans. The White Paper on the Transformation of the Public Service (South Africa, 1995) has as its objective “empowering, challenging and motivating managers at all levels to be leaders, visionaries, initiators and effective communicators and decision-makers, capable of responding pro-actively to the challenges of the change process, rather than acting as the administrators of fixed rules and procedures.” The White Paper also proposes that new and more participative organisational structures, new organisational cultures, learning organisations, and techniques for managing change and diversity be developed. A new Performance Management and Development System (PMDS) for the Senior Management Service (SMS) has been created, which has as its basis performance management and development as an approach. It consists of a standardised set of competencies, to be used as basis for performance appraisal. As it is expected of SMS members to manage and lead their respective institutions to meet the stated objectives, the Core Management Criteria (CMCs) will have to assist the development of competencies in SMS members to capacitate them to meet the stated objectives and to lead their organisations to change that will assist service delivery. The question, therefore, arises whether the CMCs will develop SMS members to lead their organisations to change. The aim of this research will be to determine whether the competencies used in the PMDS are also focused on leadership and organisational development issues needed in a developmental situation to enable SMS members to lead their organisations, rather than merely acting as the administrators of fixed rules and procedures. The research is divided into distinct phases. The first entails exploring the meaning of competence and the conceptual structure of competencies to be able to analyse the CMCs. This is followed by an analysis of managerial versus leadership competencies in general to provide a theoretical context for an analysis of the CMCs in terms of management or leadership focus. In the next phase the CMCs as competencies used in the PMDS are also analysed and discussed, after which a comparative analysis is undertaken, with competencies used in notable international examples to provide context. In the final phase the CMCs as competencies are analysed in terms of management or leadership focus and focus on organisation development. The research showed that the appraisal system used for the SMS members in terms of the PMDS could lead to a manipulation of the appraisal system whereby SMS members could “influence” the system to their own benefit. The research also showed that there are definite personally oriented competencies absent from the PMDS, whereas they are present in the international examples. The research also showed that certain competencies supporting leadership roles are strengthened by the international systems, whereas these are absent from the PMDS and therefore not strengthened. The research further showed that these leadership roles that are not strengthened by the PMDS, but are included in the international systems, also coincide with the leadership roles that are not strengthened from a theoretical perspective. The research concludes that the CMCs used in the PMDS would probably not support SMS members to develop competencies that are oriented towards leadership and organisation development to enable them to really change their organisation to adapt. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die groot uitdaging wat die Suid-Afrikaanse regering tans in die gesig staar, is versnelde verbetering van dienslewering om ‘n beter lewe vir alle Suid Afrikaners te verseker. Een van die doelwitte van die Witskrif op die Transformasie van die Staatsdiens (1995), is die bemagtiging, uitdaging en motivering van bestuurders op alle vlakke om versiende leiers, inisieerders en effektiewe kommunikeerders en besluitnemers te wees, instaat om pro-aktief te reageer op die uitdagings van die proses van verandering, eerder as om bloot die administrators van reëls en voorskrifte te wees. Die Witskrif stel ook voor dat nuwe en meer deelnemende organisatoriese strukture ontwikkel word, ‘n nuwe organisasie-kultuur geskep word en dat organisasies voortdurend by verandering en diversiteit sal aanpas. ‘n Nuwe prestasiebestuur en –onwikkelingstelsel is gevolglik vir die Senior Bestuurskader ontwikkel. Die stelsel bestaan uit ‘n gestandaardiseerde stel Kern Besuurskriteria wat as basis vir prestasie-evaluering gebruik word. Aangesien dit van Bestuurders verwag word om hul onderskeie komponente te bestuur en die leiding te neem om gestelde doelwitte te bereik, moet die stelsel vaardighede in die Bestuurders ontwikkel wat hulle instaat sal stel om wel die doelwitte te bereik en om leiding te neem om hul organisasies te transformeer om verbeterde dienslewering te bewerkstellig. Die vraag ontstaan egter of die gestelde Kern Bestuurskriteria wel leierskapsvaardighede sal ontwikkel, wat Bestuurders sal benodig om die leiding te neem ten opsigte van verandering. Die doel van die navorsing is om vas te stel of die Bestuurskriteria wat in die prestasiebestuur en – onwikkelingstelsel gebruik word, ook gefokus is op leierskap- en organisasie-ontwikkelingsvaardighede, wat bestuurders sal benodig om leiding te neem, teenoor bestuurders wat slegs optree as administrateurs van reëls en voorskrifte. Die eerste gedeelte van die navorsing analiseer die betekenis van vaardigheid en die konsepsuele struktuur van vaardighede, ten einde die Kern Bestuurskriteria te ontleed. Hierna volg ‘n ontleding van bestuurs- en leierskapsvaardighede in die algemeen, om die teoretiese konteks vir die ontleding van die Kern Bestuurskriteria in terme van fokus op bestuur en leierskap te verleen. In die volgende fase, word die Kern Bestuurskriteria wat as vaardighede in die Suid-Afrikaanse bestuurstelsel gebruik word, ontleed en bespreek. Hierna word ‘n vergelykende analise gedoen met vaardighede wat in geseleketeerde internasionale stelsels gebruik word, om verdere konteks te verleen. Die Kern Bestuurskriteria word daarna ontleed in terme van fokus op bestuur of leierskap, en ook organisasie-ontwikkeling. Die navorsing het bevind dat die evalueringstelsel vir die bestuurskader moontlik deur bestuurders gemanipuleer kan word om hulself te bevoordeel. Die navorsing het verder getoon dat definitiewe vaardighede wat op die persoon self gemik is, ontbreek, terwyl dit wel in die internasionale voorbeelde teenwoordig is. Die navorsing het verder bevind dat die internasionale voorbeelde wel sekere vaardighede leierskapsrolle ontwikkel en versterk, terwyl dit afwesig is in die Suid Afrikaanse stelsel. Die navorsing het verder bevind dat die leierskapsrolle wat nie deur die Suid Afrikaanse stelsel versterk word nie, maar wel deel vorm van die internasionale voorbeelde, ooreenstem met die leierskapsrolle uit ‘n teroretiese oogpunt, wat nie deur die Suid Afrikaanse stelsel versterk word nie. Die navorsing bevind finaal dat die Kern Bestuurskriteria waarskynlik nie die nodige leierskaps- en organisasie-ontwikkelingsvaardighede in bestuurders sal ontwikkel nie, wat wel nodig sal wees om organisasies te verander.

Water scarcity and electricity generation in South Africa

Wassung, Natalie 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2010. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa has a mean annual precipitation far lower than the global average. This is a fundamental constraint to development, especially when the country has already run out of surplus water and dilution capacity. To add further pressure, Southern Africa’s water resources are expected to decrease as a result of climate change. Despite the potential devastation, the country’s response to climate change has been limited. South Africa’s energy sector is dominated by coal power stations and is the country’s primary emitter of carbon dioxide. Given the significantly higher water usage of coal-fired power plants compared to that of most renewable energy power plants, the transition to a clean energy infrastructure might be more successfully motivated by water scarcity than by the promise of reduced carbon emissions. This article analyses more critically the impact of coal-fired electricity generation on South Africa’s water resources, by estimating a water-use figure that extends backwards from the power plant to include water used during extraction of the coal. This figure can then be compared to the water usage of alternative electricity generation options. It is then possible to estimate how much water could be saved by substituting these alternatives in place of additional coal-fired plants. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika se gemiddelde jaarlikse neerslag is baie laer as die wêreldwye gemiddelde. Dit plaas ’n wesenlike beperking op ontwikkeling, veral aangesien die land se surplus water- en verdunningskapasiteit reeds uitgeput is. Om die saak verder te vererger, word verwag dat Suidelike Afrika se waterbronne gaan kleiner word as gevolg van klimaatsverandering. Ten spyte van die potensiële ramp, was die land se reaksie op klimaatsverandering tot dusver baie beperk. Steenkoolkragstasies, wat Suid-Afrika se energiesektor oorheers, is die land se primêre bron van koolstofdioksieduitlating. Gegewe die beduidend hoër waterverbruik van steenkoolkragstasies teenoor dié van die meeste kragstasies wat met hernubare energie werk, kan die verandering na ’n skoonenergie-infrastruktuur meer suksesvol gemotiveer word deur waterskaarste as deur die belofte van verminderde koolstofuitlatings. Hierdie artikel analiseer die impak van steenkoolgedrewe elektrisiteitsopwekking op Suid-Afrika se waterbronne meer krities deur te beraam hoeveel water verbruik word van die kragstasie terug tot by die ontginning van die steenkool. Hierdie syfer kan dan vergelyk word met die waterverbruik van alternatiewe kragopwekkingsopsies. Dit is dan moontlik om te beraam hoeveel water gespaar kan word deur hierdie alternatiewe op te rig in plaas van bykomende steenkoolkragstasies.

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