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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Analýza vlivu rotace kola na aerodynamické vlastnosti vozidla / Analysis of the effect of rotation of the wheels on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle

Škrášek, Roman January 2016 (has links)
This diploma thesis deals with modeling and CFD calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of vehicle, influenced by loaded or unloaded tires and boundary conditions applied on this tires. These calculations are combined with three types of variable rear body shape of DrivAer vehicle. There is a complete analysis and evaluation of the effects of these factors.
32

Neuartige Warmmahltechnologie zum Recycling von Elastomeren und Analyse prozessbedingter Eigenschaften

Hoyer, Stefan 04 December 2014 (has links)
Die Arbeit widmet sich der Problemstellung der Substitution des Primärrohstoffes Kautschuk durch Rezyklate in Form von Gummimehl. Die für das innerbetriebliche Recycling von Kleinchargen technischer Elastomere hier eigens konzipierte und umgesetzte Warmmahltechnologie dient zur Herstellung von Gummimehlrezyklat hoher Qualität aus Lkw-Altreifen. Hinsichtlich ausgewählter Verarbeitungs- und Materialkennwerte von Mischung und Vulkanisat werden die Auswirkungen der Zugabe von Rezyklaten und die wesentlichen Einflussgrößen des den Rezyklaten zugrunde liegenden Aufbereitungsprozesses – das Kryogenmahlverfahren bzw. die neu entwickelte Warmmahltechnologie – herausgearbeitet. Abschließend erfolgt die Formulierung materialspezifischer Versagensmechanismen, die das entsprechende Aufbereitungsverfahren der Rezyklate berücksichtigen.:1 Einleitung 1 2 Stand der Technik 3 2.1 Elastomerrecycling 3 2.2 Warm- und Kaltmahlverfahren 5 2.3 Warmmahlextrusion 8 3 Zielstellung 13 4 Werkstoffmechanische Charakterisierung von Elastomeren 15 4.1 Eigenschaften von Kautschuk und Gummi 15 4.2 Mechanisches Ersatzmodell 16 4.3 Vulkanisation 20 4.3.1 Grundlagen 20 4.3.2 Vernetzungsreaktion 22 4.3.3 Konstitution der Vernetzungsstellen 23 4.3.4 Reversion und „marching modulus“ 25 4.4 Verformungsverhalten 26 4.4.1 Hyperelastizität 26 4.4.2 Hysterese 27 4.4.3 Mullins-Effekt 28 4.4.4 Payne-Effekt 29 4.4.5 Spannungsrelaxation und Spannungsretardation 30 4.5 Zustands- und Übergangsbereiche 31 4.5.1 Temperaturabhängige Zustands- und Übergangsbereiche 31 4.5.2 Zeitabhängige Zustandsbereiche 32 4.5.3 Zeit-Temperatur-Superposition 33 4.6 Gummireibung 35 4.7 Bruchmechanische Ansätze 38 4.7.1 Begriffsdefinitionen 38 4.7.2 Rissinitiierung und Rissausbreitung 39 4.7.3 Rissabstumpfung (Blunting) 41 4.7.4 Einfluss der Verschlaufung der Makromoleküle und der Vernetzungsdichte 46 5 Eigenschaften und Versagensverhalten von Rezyklatcompounds 49 6 Warmmahltechnologie zur Verarbeitung sortenreiner Kleinchargen 53 6.1 Neuer Warmmahlprozess 53 6.2 Verfahrensoptimierung 55 6.3 Technische Elastomere 61 6.4 Ergebnisse der Verfahrensoptimierung 63 7 Untersuchung des Werkstoffverhaltens von Rezyklatcompounds 65 7.1 Charakterisierung der Ausgangsmaterialien 65 7.2 Mischungseigenschaften und Vulkanisationsverhalten 66 7.2.1 Mischungsrezeptur und Mischungsrheologie 66 7.2.2 Flüssig-Fest-Extraktion zur Ermittlung des Sol-Anteils 68 7.2.3 Vulkanisationsverhalten 71 7.3 Vulkanisateigenschaften 72 7.4 Spannungs-Dehnungs-Verhalten 75 7.4.1 Zugversuch nach DIN 53504 75 7.4.2 Zugversuche bei verschiedenen Dehnraten 79 7.5 Bruchflächenmorphologie 87 8 Auswertung der Untersuchungen von Rezyklatcompounds 93 8.1 Auswirkungen der Zugabe von Gummimehlrezyklat in die Kautschukmischung 93 8.2 Versagensmechanismen von Rezyklatcompounds 94 8.3 Vergleich von Rezyklatcompounds mit warm oder kryogen vermahlenem Feinmehl 97 8.4 Rückschlüsse aus der Materialcharakterisierung 99 9 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick 101 10 Literaturverzeichnis 103 11 Anhang 107 / The work is devoted to the problem of the substitution of the primary raw material rubber by recycled materials in the form of rubber powders. For the in-plant recycling of small batches of technical elastomers an ambient grind technology was specifically designed and implemented for making rubber powders of high quality out of used truck tires. In terms of selected processing and material characteristics of the mixture and the vulcanizate the influences of the addition of recycled material and the significant factors affecting the regeneration process underlying these recyclates – the cryogenic grinding versus the new developed ambient grinding technology – were worked out. Finally, the material-specific failure mechanisms were formulated, incorporating the regeneration process of such regenerated materials.:1 Einleitung 1 2 Stand der Technik 3 2.1 Elastomerrecycling 3 2.2 Warm- und Kaltmahlverfahren 5 2.3 Warmmahlextrusion 8 3 Zielstellung 13 4 Werkstoffmechanische Charakterisierung von Elastomeren 15 4.1 Eigenschaften von Kautschuk und Gummi 15 4.2 Mechanisches Ersatzmodell 16 4.3 Vulkanisation 20 4.3.1 Grundlagen 20 4.3.2 Vernetzungsreaktion 22 4.3.3 Konstitution der Vernetzungsstellen 23 4.3.4 Reversion und „marching modulus“ 25 4.4 Verformungsverhalten 26 4.4.1 Hyperelastizität 26 4.4.2 Hysterese 27 4.4.3 Mullins-Effekt 28 4.4.4 Payne-Effekt 29 4.4.5 Spannungsrelaxation und Spannungsretardation 30 4.5 Zustands- und Übergangsbereiche 31 4.5.1 Temperaturabhängige Zustands- und Übergangsbereiche 31 4.5.2 Zeitabhängige Zustandsbereiche 32 4.5.3 Zeit-Temperatur-Superposition 33 4.6 Gummireibung 35 4.7 Bruchmechanische Ansätze 38 4.7.1 Begriffsdefinitionen 38 4.7.2 Rissinitiierung und Rissausbreitung 39 4.7.3 Rissabstumpfung (Blunting) 41 4.7.4 Einfluss der Verschlaufung der Makromoleküle und der Vernetzungsdichte 46 5 Eigenschaften und Versagensverhalten von Rezyklatcompounds 49 6 Warmmahltechnologie zur Verarbeitung sortenreiner Kleinchargen 53 6.1 Neuer Warmmahlprozess 53 6.2 Verfahrensoptimierung 55 6.3 Technische Elastomere 61 6.4 Ergebnisse der Verfahrensoptimierung 63 7 Untersuchung des Werkstoffverhaltens von Rezyklatcompounds 65 7.1 Charakterisierung der Ausgangsmaterialien 65 7.2 Mischungseigenschaften und Vulkanisationsverhalten 66 7.2.1 Mischungsrezeptur und Mischungsrheologie 66 7.2.2 Flüssig-Fest-Extraktion zur Ermittlung des Sol-Anteils 68 7.2.3 Vulkanisationsverhalten 71 7.3 Vulkanisateigenschaften 72 7.4 Spannungs-Dehnungs-Verhalten 75 7.4.1 Zugversuch nach DIN 53504 75 7.4.2 Zugversuche bei verschiedenen Dehnraten 79 7.5 Bruchflächenmorphologie 87 8 Auswertung der Untersuchungen von Rezyklatcompounds 93 8.1 Auswirkungen der Zugabe von Gummimehlrezyklat in die Kautschukmischung 93 8.2 Versagensmechanismen von Rezyklatcompounds 94 8.3 Vergleich von Rezyklatcompounds mit warm oder kryogen vermahlenem Feinmehl 97 8.4 Rückschlüsse aus der Materialcharakterisierung 99 9 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick 101 10 Literaturverzeichnis 103 11 Anhang 107
33

Waste tyre management problems in South Africa and the possible opportunities that can be created through the recycling thereof

Mahlangu, Mpanyana Lucas 04 1900 (has links)
The research work critically analyzed the factors responsible for imprudent waste tyre management in South Africa. As an approach to determine the complexity of the problem, questionnaires were sent to one hundred and sixty (160) respondents in conjunction with interviews. Perusal of literature and interaction with industry involved in waste tyre processing to further gain knowledge of the problem and possible solutions that can be solicited to address the problem. Findings revealed that, lack of clear, focused legislation that guide the handling, disposal and processing of waste tyres remain the challenge. It is also deduced that recycling of waste tyres can provide economic benefits and opportunities. It is recommended that South Africa develop appropriate legislation that deals with handling, treatment and disposal of waste tyres, develop an incentive programme to set up initiatives as well as developing skilled and capacitated enforcement agency. / Environmental Sciences / M.A. (Environmental Management)
34

Waste tyre management problems in South Africa and the possible opportunities that can be created through the recycling thereof

Mahlangu, Mpanyana Lucas 04 1900 (has links)
The research work critically analyzed the factors responsible for imprudent waste tyre management in South Africa. As an approach to determine the complexity of the problem, questionnaires were sent to one hundred and sixty (160) respondents in conjunction with interviews. Perusal of literature and interaction with industry involved in waste tyre processing to further gain knowledge of the problem and possible solutions that can be solicited to address the problem. Findings revealed that, lack of clear, focused legislation that guide the handling, disposal and processing of waste tyres remain the challenge. It is also deduced that recycling of waste tyres can provide economic benefits and opportunities. It is recommended that South Africa develop appropriate legislation that deals with handling, treatment and disposal of waste tyres, develop an incentive programme to set up initiatives as well as developing skilled and capacitated enforcement agency. / Environmental Sciences / M.A. (Environmental Management)
35

Charaterization of Sand-Rubber Mixture and Numerical Analysis for Vibration Isolation

Manohar, D R January 2016 (has links) (PDF)
Scrap tyres provide numerous advantages from the viewpoint of civil engineering practices. Scrap tyres are light weight, have high vibration absorption, high elastic compressibility, high hydraulic conductivity, and temperature isolation potential. Scrap tyres have a thermal resistivity that is about seven times higher than soil; they produce low earth pressure and absorb vibrations. Many new techniques have emerged with time to utilize these advantageous characteristics for practical purposes in civil engineering. Though current reuse and recovery of scrap tyres has reduced the amount of landfills, but still there is a need for developing additional practices for the reuse of scrap tyres. Moreover, most of present practices do not use its vibration absorption capacity efficiently. To use the scrap tyres as individual material or mixed with soil in civil engineering applications, the systematic understanding of static and dynamic properties of sand-rubber mixtures (SRM) are of prime importance. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the SRM to use them as low-cost isolation material for low-to-medium rise buildings. Proposal of this isolation system using SRM is addressed in this study in four parts; in the first part, the estimation of shear strength and volumetric characteristics of the SRM were carried out. A total of seven different rubber sizes (six sizes of granulated rubber; 2 - 1 mm; 4.75 - 2 mm; 5.6 - 4.75 mm; 8 - 5.6 mm; 8 - 9.5 mm; 12.5 - 9.5 mm and one size of tyre chips; 20 - 12.5 mm) were considered for characterizing the SRM, and the rubber size which has higher shear strength characteristics is identified as optimum size for further studies. Second part deals with the effect of reinforcement on SRM with higher rubber content (50% and 75% rubber by volume). In the third part, dynamic properties of selected SRM combination with and without reinforcement were generated from experimental studies. In the last part, the numerical analysis was carried out using finite element program Strand7 to find out optimum dimension of proposed isolation scheme and reduction of spectral accelerations. In addition, the laboratory model tests were also carried out on square footing supported on unreinforced and reinforced SRM. The relative performances of reinforcement on settlement characteristics of SRM for 50% and 75% SRM have been compared with unreinforced SRM. Engineering behaviour of SRM has been studied by considering different rubber sizes and compositions by carrying out large scale direct shear test and Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) triaxial test. The shear strength characteristics such as peak shear stress, cohesion, friction angle, secant/elastic modulus, volumetric strain, failure and ultimate strength, ductility/brittleness index, and energy absorption capacity of sand and SRM were determined. The optimum percentage rubber content based on maximum shear strength and energy absorption capacity has been arrived. The granulated rubber size (12.5 - 9.5 mm) and percentage ratio, 30% by volume is found to be optimum size and content, which gives the maximum energy absorption capacity and lower brittleness index values compared to other rubber sizes. This chapter also describes the applicability of concept of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to identify an approximate response surface model from experimental investigations on the engineering properties of sand and SRM. The experimental data were quantitatively analyzed by multiple regression models by correlating response variables with input variables in this study. To consume more tyres in SRM, rubber mix of 50 % and 75 % mixes are studied and these SRM results in lower shear strength and higher volume change when compared to 30 % SRM. To improve shear strength and reduce compressibility, geosynthetic reinforcement study has been carried out for 50% and 75% rubber by volume. Here geotextile, geogrid and geonets were used as reinforcement and number of layers and spacing between layers were varied. Finally type of reinforcement, number of layers and optimum spacing are arrived for the optimum rubber size of 12.5 - 9.5 mm for reinforced SRM. This study found that 4 layers with equal spacing of geotextile for 50 % SRM and geonet for 75 % SRM shows better strength when compared to other combinations. Further dynamic properties such as shear modulus and damping values at different strain level are estimated for red soil, sand, 30 % SRM and unreinforced and reinforced 50 % and 75 % SRM by carrying out resonant column tests and cyclic triaxial tests. The normalized shear modulus and damping ratio curves have been developed for these materials. The experimental results indicate that, shear modulus increases for 30% rubber by volume when compared to sand, thereafter the shear modulus values decreased with a further increase in rubber content in SRM. Whereas the damping ratio increases with increasing rubber content in SRM. For sand and SRM, with an increase in confining pressure shear modulus increases and damping ratio decreases. Based on the comprehensive set of experimental results, a modified hyperbolic model has been proposed. These properties are further used in the numerical analysis to find out the effectiveness of SRM as isolation material. Numerical dynamic analysis has been carried out on a 2-D finite element model of the soil-foundation-structure system. The building model has been generated considering the typical G+2 building resting on 20 m thick soil followed by rock depth and foundation is placed at 2.0 m below ground level. The beams and columns in the superstructure are modeled using 2-D frame elements. The soil column has been modeled using 4-noded 2-D plane strain plate elements. Considering the transmitting boundary condition, viscous dampers are implemented at the base of the computational soil domain in order to mitigate the reflective effects of waves. The Newmark family method (average acceleration method) has been used to calculate the displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out on the soil-foundation-structure system by varying rubber content in SRM (30%, 50% and 75% granulated rubber by volume), depth and thickness of SRM around footing and considering two input earthquake acceleration time history. It was found that earthquake vibrations are considerably reduced for SRM with higher rubber content. The optimum dimension of SRM giving maximum reduction in shaking level is found to be 3B below the footing and 0.75B (where B is the width of footing) on the side of the footing. Generally, the shaking levels at different floor can be reduced by 30-50%, with the use of 75% SRM. The results also indicated that the effectiveness of proposed system would depend on the characteristics of ground motion. To study the bearing capacity of square footing on SRM, laboratory model tests were carried out on square footing supported on unreinforced and reinforced SRM. The SRM combination which have been used for numerical studies are used in this model studies to know the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics. The optimum dimension of SRM around footing has been constructed. Model tests results show that, the bearing capacity decreases and settlement increases steadily with the increase in rubber content in SRM. Addition of reinforcement to SRM significantly improved the bearing capacity and reduced settlement characteristics. Reinforced SRM may be used as an effective low cost isolation scheme to reduce earthquake vibrations.

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